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The Heart And Its Function

83 Questions
Heart Quizzes & Trivia

CHAPTER 17

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Increase in the strength of myocardial contraction that occurs without stretching the heart
    • A. 

      Positive inotropic effect.

    • B. 

      Cardiac reserve

    • C. 

      Stroke volume

  • 2. 
    Increase in the strength of myocardial contraction that occurs when the heart is· stretched
    • A. 

      Heart rate

    • B. 

      Cardiac cycle

    • C. 

      Starling's law of the heart

  • 3. 
    Phase of the cardiac cycle that refers to contraction of the heart muscle
    • A. 

      Diastole

    • B. 

      Systole

    • C. 

      Heart rate

  • 4. 
    Sequence of events that occurs in the heart in one beat
    • A. 

      Cardiac reserve

    • B. 

      Cardiac cycle

    • C. 

      Cardiac output

  • 5. 
    Beats/min
    • A. 

      Cardiac cycle

    • B. 

      Cardiac output

    • C. 

      Heart rate

  • 6. 
    Coronary blood flow is greatest during this phase of the cardiac cycle
    • A. 

      Systole

    • B. 

      Heart rate

    • C. 

      Diastole

  • 7. 
    Determined by heart rate x stroke volume
    • A. 

      Cardiac output

    • B. 

      Cardiac reserve

    • C. 

      Cardiac cycle

  • 8. 
    Amount of blood pumped by the heart in 1 minute
    • A. 

      Cardiac output

    • B. 

      Cardiac cycle

    • C. 

      Cardiac reserve

  • 9. 
    70mL/bea
    • A. 

      Cardiac reserve

    • B. 

      Stroke volume

    • C. 

      Cardiac output

  • 10. 
    The capacity to increase cardiac output above the resting cardiac output
    • A. 

      Cardiac reserve

    • B. 

      Cardiac output

    • C. 

      Cardiac cycle

  • 11. 
    What the ventricles are" doing" when the atrioventricular (AV) valves are closed and the semilunar valves are open
    • A. 

      Diastole

    • B. 

      Heart rate

    • C. 

      Systole

  • 12. 
    Amount of blood pumped by the ventricle per beat
    • A. 

      Cardiac output

    • B. 

      Cardiac reserve

    • C. 

      Stroke volume

  • 13. 
    Its duration is 0.8 second with a normal resting heart rate.
    • A. 

      Cardiac reserve

    • B. 

      Cardiac cycle

    • C. 

      Cardiac output

  • 14. 
    The phase of the cardiac cycle that refers to relaxation of the ventricles
    • A. 

      Stroke volume

    • B. 

      Systole

    • C. 

      Diastole

  • 15. 
    Ability of the myocardium to match venous return and cardiac output on a beat-to-beat basis
    • A. 

      Positive inotropic effect.

    • B. 

      Starling's law of the heart

    • C. 

      Cardiac output

  • 16. 
    Phase of the cardiac cycle that shortens most in response to tachycardia
    • A. 

      Diastole

    • B. 

      Systole

    • C. 

      Heart rate

  • 17. 
    What the ventricles are "doing" when the AV valves are open and the semilunar valves are closed
    • A. 

      Diastole

    • B. 

      Cardiac output

    • C. 

      Systole

  • 18. 
    5000mL/min
    • A. 

      Cardiac cycle

    • B. 

      Cardiac reserve

    • C. 

      Cardiac output

  • 19. 
    Forms the basis of Starling's law of the heart
    • A. 

      Ejection fraction

    • B. 

      Afterload

    • C. 

      End diastolic volume

  • 20. 
    The percentage of the end-diastolic volume (EOV) that is pumped
    • A. 

      Ejection fraction

    • B. 

      Inotropic effect

    • C. 

      Chronotropic effect

  • 21. 
    The resistance or opposition to the flow of blood
    • A. 

      Ejection fraction

    • B. 

      Inotropic effect

    • C. 

      Afterload

  • 22. 
    The amount of blood in the ventricles at the end of its resting phase
    • A. 

      Dromotropic effect

    • B. 

      End diastolic volume

    • C. 

      Afterload

  • 23. 
    Change in the rate or speed of the cardiac impulse that travels through the conduction system of the heart
    • A. 

      Chronotropic effect

    • B. 

      Dromotropic effect

    • C. 

      Inotropic effect

  • 24. 
    Example hypertension
    • A. 

      End diastolic volume

    • B. 

      Ejection fraction

    • C. 

      Afterload

  • 25. 
    Venous return
    • A. 

      End diastolic volume

    • B. 

      Afterload

    • C. 

      Ejection fraction

  • 26. 
    Also called preload
    • A. 

      Dromotropic effect

    • B. 

      End diastolic volume

    • C. 

      Inotropic effect

  • 27. 
    Change in myocardial contractile force that is not caused by stretch
    • A. 

      Chronotropic effect

    • B. 

      Dromotropic effect

    • C. 

      Inotropic effect

  • 28. 
    Change in heart rate
    • A. 

      Chronotropic effect

    • B. 

      Afterload

    • C. 

      Inotropic effect

  • 29. 
    Three-pillow dyspnea
    • A. 

      Left-sided heart failure

    • B. 

      Right-sided heart failure

    • C. 

      None

  • 30. 
    Hepatomegaly (enlarged liver), distended jugular veins aVOs), pedal edema
    • A. 

      Left-sided heart failure

    • B. 

      Right-sided heart failure

    • C. 

      None

  • 31. 
    Pulmonary edema
    • A. 

      Left-sided heart failure

    • B. 

      Right-sided heart failure

    • C. 

      None

  • 32. 
    Consequence of chronic lung disease such as emphysema and asthma
    • A. 

      Left-sided heart failure

    • B. 

      Right-sided heart failure

    • C. 

      None

  • 33. 
    Backup within the pulmonary capillaries causing water to accumulate in the lungs
    • A. 

      Left-sided heart failure

    • B. 

      Right-sided heart failure

    • C. 

      None

  • 34. 
    Cyanosis, dyspnea, orthopnea
    • A. 

      Left-sided heart failure

    • B. 

      Right-sided heart failure

    • C. 

      None

  • 35. 
    Most likely to say "1 can't breathe
    • A. 

      Left-sided heart failure

    • B. 

      Right-sided heart failure

    • C. 

      None

  • 36. 
    Most likely to develop in response to chronic systemic hypertension
    • A. 

      Left-sided heart failure

    • B. 

      Right-sided heart failure

    • C. 

      None

  • 37. 
    Cor pulmonale
    • A. 

      Left-sided heart failure

    • B. 

      Right-sided heart failure

    • C. 

      None

  • 38. 
    Actin and myosin, striated and involuntary are descriptive terms for the
    • A. 

      Valves.

    • B. 

      Myocardium

    • C. 

      Great vessels

  • 39. 
    Seventy (70) mL/beat x 72 beats/min is the amount of blood that determines the
    • A. 

      Ejection fraction

    • B. 

      Stroke volume

    • C. 

      Cardiac output

  • 40. 
    Which of the following terms describes myocardial contraction and relaxation?
    • A. 

      Tachycardia and bradycardia

    • B. 

      Systole and diastole

    • C. 

      Depolarization and repolarization

  • 41. 
    Which of the following occurs during ventricular systole?
    • A. 

      Blood is pumped out of the ventricles

    • B. 

      The AV valves open

    • C. 

      The semilunar valves close

  • 42. 
    The heart drug digitalis stimulates the parasympathetic nerve that supplies the heart. What cardiac effect is expected?
    • A. 

      The valves open faster

    • B. 

      The heart rate slows

    • C. 

      The heart rate increases

  • 43. 
    Which of the following increases stroke volume?
    • A. 

      (+) chronotropic effect

    • B. 

      Decreased EDV

    • C. 

      (+) inotropic effect

  • 44. 
    Stretching the heart causes the force of myocardial contraction to increase. This stretch effect is called
    • A. 

      (+) ihotropie effect

    • B. 

      Cor pulmonale

    • C. 

      Stading's Law of the Heart

  • 45. 
    A chronic elevation in afterload, as in systemic hypertension, is most likely to cause
    • A. 

      A left-to-right shunt

    • B. 

      Left ventricular hypertrophy

    • C. 

      Cor pulmonale

  • 46. 
    If heart rate increases to 170 beats/min
    • A. 

      The length of diastole decreases

    • B. 

      Preload increases.

    • C. 

      Coronary blood flow increases.

  • 47. 
    An increase venous return of blood to the heart
    • A. 

      Decreases EDV.

    • B. 

      Increases preload.

    • C. 

      Decreases cardiac output

  • 48. 
    Preload is most related to
    • A. 

      Heart rate.

    • B. 

      Starling's Law of the Heart

    • C. 

      SA node activity

  • 49. 
    A drug, such as atropine, that blocks the muscarinic receptors is most likely to
    • A. 

      Induce a severe bradycardia

    • B. 

      Increase heart rate

    • C. 

      Decreases cardiac output

  • 50. 
    A beta,-adrenergic agonist
    • A. 

      Causes bradycardia

    • B. 

      Increases cardiac output

    • C. 

      Decreases ejection fraction

  • 51. 
    Norepinephrine (NE)
    • A. 

      Activates muscarinic receptors

    • B. 

      Is antagonized by muscarinic blockade

    • C. 

      Is a beta,-adrenergic agonist

  • 52. 
    Blockade of the effects of acetylcholine ACh on the heart
    • A. 

      decreases cardiac output

    • B. 

      Increases heart rate

    • C. 

      Causes bradydysrhythmias

  • 53. 
    'What happens when the actin and myosin in the ventricles form cross-bridges
    • A. 

      The valves open

    • B. 

      The heart enters the period of diastole

    • C. 

      The myocardium contracts

  • 54. 
    For the ventricles to fill, the
    • A. 

      Ventricles must be in diastole

    • B. 

      Semilunar valves must be open

    • C. 

      AV valves must be closed

  • 55. 
    If the QRS complex does not develop, the
    • A. 

      Heart develops a sustained muscle contraction (tetanizes

    • B. 

      Ventricular myocardium does not contract

    • C. 

      Ventricular myocardium remains in systole and can't relax

  • 56. 
    Which of the following is most likely to increase the ejection fraction?
    • A. 

      Stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system

    • B. 

      Activation of the muscarinic receptors

    • C. 

      Vagal discharge

  • 57. 
    Which of the following is an age-related cardiac change
    • A. 

      Starling's law of the heart is lost

    • B. 

      The heart muscle cannot respond as vigorously to the demands of exercise

    • C. 

      The resting heart rate increases to 90 beats/min.

  • 58. 
    The amount of blood in the ventricle at the end of its resting phase is the
    • A. 

      End-systolic volume

    • B. 

      stroke volume

    • C. 

      Preload.

  • 59. 
    Under what condition is end-diastolic volume (EDV) most likely to increase while ejection fraction decreases?
    • A. 

      Heart failure

    • B. 

      Exercise

    • C. 

      Sympathetic nerve stimulation

  • 60. 
    A change in preload causes a change in myocardial contractile force. This response is known as a
    • A. 

      Starling's law of the heart

    • B. 

      (+) dromotropic effect

    • C. 

      (+) inotropic effect

  • 61. 
    A patient in heart failure is given a drug that is classified as a beta1 adrenergic agonist. The drug
    • A. 

      Blocks the beta1 adrenergic receptors and causes a (?) chronotropic and (?) inotropic effect

    • B. 

      Activates the beta1 adrenergic receptors and causes bronchoconstriction

    • C. 

      Activates the beta1 adrenergic receptors and causes a (+) inotropic effect

  • 62. 
    Which of the following statements is correct about cardiac output?
    • A. 

      Vagal discharge increases cardiac output

    • B. 

      Cardiac output is determined by heart rate and stroke volume

    • C. 

      Stimulation of the sympathetic nerves decreases cardiac output

  • 63. 
    During ventricular diastole
    • A. 

      Blood fills the ventricles

    • B. 

      . the semilunar valves are open

    • C. 

      Blood is ejected from the ventricles

  • 64. 
    Increased return of blood to the heart stretches the heart muscle, thereby
    • A. 

      Stimulating the vagus nerve.

    • B. 

      Increasing stroke volume.

    • C. 

      Closing the atrioventricular valves

  • 65. 
    Ventricular systole refers to
    • A. 

      Contraction of the ventricular myocardium.

    • B. 

      Ventricular depolarization

    • C. 

      The opening of the valves of the ventricles

  • 66. 
    Which of the following is least related to the vagus nerve
    • A. 

      Parasympathetic

    • B. 

      Slows heart rate

    • C. 

      (+) inotropic effect

  • 67. 
    Which of the following is least characteristic of sympathetic nerve stimulation
    • A. 

      (?) inotropic effect

    • B. 

      Increased heart rate

    • C. 

      Increased cardiac output

  • 68. 
    Which of the following is descriptive of stroke volume?
    • A. 

      Ml/min

    • B. 

      Ml/beat

    • C. 

      Mm Hg

  • 69. 
    Milliliters per minute describes
    • A. 

      Cardiac output

    • B. 

      Stroke volume.

    • C. 

      Heart rate.

  • 70. 
    Which of the following is least related to a bradycardia
    • A. 

      Less than 60 beats/min

    • B. 

      Sympathetic nerve stimulation

    • C. 

      Vagal discharge

  • 71. 
    Which of the following is least likely to increase cardiac output?
    • A. 

      Increased heart rate

    • B. 

      Vagal discharge

    • C. 

      Increased stroke volume

  • 72. 
    Which of the following is least related to tachydysrhythmias
    • A. 

      Vagal discharge

    • B. 

      Beta1 adrenergic receptor activation

    • C. 

      (+) dromotropic effect

  • 73. 
    Bradycardia is most likely to be caused by
    • A. 

      Vagal discharge

    • B. 

      Parasympatholytic effect

    • C. 

      Beta1 adrenergic receptor activation.

  • 74. 
    Atropine, a muscarinic blocker
    • A. 

      Causes bradycardia.

    • B. 

      Increases heart rate.

    • C. 

      Is vagomimetic

  • 75. 
    Starling's law relates force of myocardial contraction with
    • A. 

      Heart rate.

    • B. 

      Preload.

    • C. 

      End systolic volume

  • 76. 
    Venodilation
    • A. 

      Increases afterload

    • B. 

      Decreases preload

    • C. 

      Increases end diastolic volume

  • 77. 
    Digoxin is a (+) inotropic agent and therefore
    • A. 

      Increases cardiac output

    • B. 

      Increases heart rate

    • C. 

      Is sympatholytic

  • 78. 
    An elevation in pulmonary artery pressure is most likely to cause
    • A. 

      Pulmonary edema.

    • B. 

      Right ventricular hypertrophy

    • C. 

      Left ventricular failure and pulmonary edema

  • 79. 
    Which of the following is most likely to elicit a (+) inotropic effect, a (+) dromotropic effect and a (+) chronotropic effect?
    • A. 

      Vagolytic activity

    • B. 

      Parasympathomimetic activity

    • C. 

      Sympathomimetic activity

  • 80. 
    Which of the following is a consequence of backward failure associated with left-sided heart failure?
    • A. 

      Pericardial effusion

    • B. 

      Pulmonary edema

    • C. 

      Jugular vein distension (JVD)

  • 81. 
    Which of the following is most likely to cause an elevation of pulmonary capillary hydrostatic pressure?
    • A. 

      Pulmonary artery hypertension

    • B. 

      Venodilation and decreased preload

    • C. 

      Left ventricular failure

  • 82. 
    Which of the following is least likely to be used in the treatment of left ventricular failure and pulmonary edema?
    • A. 

      (+) inotropic agent such as digoxin or dopamine

    • B. 

      Diuretic such as furosemide (Lasix)

    • C. 

      Peripheral vasoconstrictor such as norepinephrine (Levophed

  • 83. 
    Jugular vein distension is most associated with
    • A. 

      Right-sided heart failure

    • B. 

      Left wall infarct and left ventricular failure.

    • C. 

      Low volume shock.

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