Fundamentals Of Nursing

100 Questions  I  By Abangjoseph
The basic principles and practices of nursing as taught in educational programs for nurses. In a course on the fundamentals of nursing, traditionally required in the first semester of the program, the student attends classes and gives care to selected patients. A fundamentals of nursing course emphasizes the importance of the fundamental needs of humans as well as competence in basic skills as prerequisites to providing comprehensive nursing care.
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1.  When a nurse enters the client's room, the client complains that she's spitting up blood when she coughs. The nurse takes a quick health history that includes:
A.
B.
C.
D.
2.  The nurse is auscultating a client's chest. How can the nurse differentiate a pleural friction rub from other abnormal breath sounds?
A.
B.
C.
D.
3.  The nurse prepares to perform an otoscopic examination on an adult. For proper visualization, the nurse should position the client's ear by pulling the:
A.
B.
C.
D.
4.  All of the following components may be part of a client's medical record. Which one is the major source of subjective data about the client's health status?
A.
B.
C.
D.
5.  Which of the following sentences correctly describes the anatomic position?
A.
B.
C.
D.
6.  The nurse is assessing a client's abdomen. Which finding should the nurse report as abnormal?
A.
B.
C.
D.
7.  The nurse is obtaining the health history of a client whose background differs from the nurse's. To develop culturally acceptable strategies for nursing care, the nurse should assess which client factor?
A.
B.
C.
D.
8.  At 8 a.m., the nurse assesses a client who's scheduled for surgery at 10 a.m. During the assessment, the nurse detects dyspnea, a nonproductive cough, and back pain. What should the nurse do next?
A.
B.
C.
D.
9.  The nurse plans to obtain client information from a primary source. Which is a primary information source?
A.
B.
C.
D.
10.  Which of the following is the most common source of airway obstruction in an unconscious victim?
A.
B.
C.
D.
11.  A client, age 75, is admitted to the facility. Because of the client's age, the nurse should modify the assessment by:
A.
B.
C.
D.
12.  A pediatric nurse is asked to work temporarily (float) in the intensive care unit (ICU) because there are few clients in the pediatric unit. The nurse has never worked in ICU and has no critical care experience. Which action is most appropriate for this nurse?
A.
B.
C.
D.
13.  The nurse is assessing a postoperative client. Which of the following should the nurse document as subjective data?
A.
B.
C.
D.
14.  During the physical examination, the nurse uses various techniques to assess structures, organs, and body systems. Which technique allows the nurse to feel for vibration and locate body structures?
A.
B.
C.
D.
15.  The nurse is assessing a client's pulse. Which pulse feature should the nurse document?
A.
B.
C.
D.
16.  The nurse is examining a client with suspected peritonitis. How does the nurse elicit rebound tenderness?
A.
B.
C.
D.
17.  To evaluate a client's cerebellar function, the nurse should ask:
A.
B.
C.
D.
18.  The ear canal of an infant or young child:
A.
B.
C.
D.
19.  The nurse is helping a client ambulate for the first time after 3 days of bed rest. Which observation by the nurse suggests that the client tolerated the activity without distress?
A.
B.
C.
D.
20.  The nurse measures a client's temperature at 102° F. What is the equivalent Centigrade temperature?
A.
B.
C.
D.
21.  When performing an abdominal assessment, the nurse should follow which examination sequence?
A.
B.
C.
D.
22.  Tachycardia can result from:
A.
B.
C.
D.
23.  The nurse prepares to palpate a client's maxillary sinuses. For this procedure, where should the nurse place the hands?
A.
B.
C.
D.
24.  The nurse uses a stethoscope to auscultate a client's chest. Which statement about a stethoscope with a bell and diaphragm is true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
25.  A 60-year old client reports to the nurse that he has a rash on his back and right flank. The nurse observes elevated, round, blisterlike lesions that are filled with clear fluid. When documenting the findings, what medical term should the nurse use to describe these lesions?
A.
B.
C.
D.
26.  To help assess a client's cerebral function, the nurse should ask:
A.
B.
C.
D.
27.  To evaluate a client's posterior tibial pulse, where should the nurse palpate?
A.
B.
C.
D.
28.  During a physical examination, the nurse asks a client to hold the breath briefly, and then uses a stethoscope to auscultate over the carotid arteries. Which finding is normal when auscultating over these arteries?
A.
B.
C.
D.
29.  The nurse is evaluating a client's auditory function. To compare air conduction to bone conduction, the nurse should conduct which test?
A.
B.
C.
D.
30.  When percussing a client's chest, the nurse should identify which sound as a normal finding?
A.
B.
C.
D.
31.  When assessing the facial lacerations of a middle-aged client admitted to the facility 1 week ago, the nurse observes scabs around the lacerations. Scabs indicate which phase of wound healing?
A.
B.
C.
D.
32.  The nurse correctly identifies which items as belonging to the dorsal cavity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
33.  The nurse prepares to perform light palpation. How is light palpation performed?
A.
B.
C.
D.
34.  When examining a client with abdominal pain, the nurse should assess:
A.
B.
C.
D.
35.  The nurse determines that a client has 20/40 vision. Which statement about this client's vision is true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
36.  When palpating the bladder of an adult client, the nurse should identify which finding as normal?
A.
B.
C.
D.
37.  During assessment, the nurse auscultates for a client's breath sounds. Auscultation produces which type of data?
A.
B.
C.
D.
38.  A client comes to the clinic for diagnostic allergy testing. Why is intradermal injection used for such testing?
A.
B.
C.
D.
39.  A client comes to the clinic for a routine checkup. To assess the client's gag reflex, the nurse should use which method?
A.
B.
C.
D.
40.  Vasodilation or vasoconstriction produced by an external cause will interfere with an accurate assessment of a client with peripheral vascular disease (PVD). Therefore, the nurse should:
A.
B.
C.
D.
41.  Why should an infant be quiet and seated upright when the nurse assesses his fontanels?
A.
B.
C.
D.
42.  The nurse is assessing a client's abdomen. Which examination technique should the nurse use first?
A.
B.
C.
D.
43.  The nurse is helping to plan a teaching session for a client who will be discharged with a colostomy. When describing a healthy stoma, which statement should the nurse be sure to include?
A.
B.
C.
D.
44.  After suctioning a tracheostomy tube, the nurse assesses the client to determine the effectiveness of the suctioning. Which findings indicate that the airway is now patent?
A.
B.
C.
D.
45.  When inspecting a client's skin, the nurse finds a vesicle on the client's arm. Which description applies to a vesicle?
A.
B.
C.
D.
46.  The nurse is assessing a 47-year-old client who has come to the physician's office for his annual physical. One of the first physical signs of aging is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
47.  The nurse must assess a client's splinted extremity for neurovascular damage. What should she do?
A.
B.
C.
D.
48.  A mother comes to the clinic with her 5-year-old son who's complaining of a fever and sore throat. The nurse documents the client's tonsils as 3+. This means they're:
A.
B.
C.
D.
49.  The nurse prepares to auscultate a client's carotid arteries for bruits. For this procedure, the nurse should:
A.
B.
C.
D.
50.  A client who recently immigrated to the United States from Korea is hospitalized with second- and third-degree burns. He speaks little English and has been lying quietly in bed. Ten hours after his admission, the nurse conducts a serial assessment and asks him whether he's in pain. He smiles and shakes his head vigorously back and forth. Which nursing action would be most appropriate at this time?
A.
B.
C.
D.
51.  A client has lymphedema in both arms and the nurse must measure blood pressure using a thigh cuff. In reference to the client's baseline arm blood pressure, the nurse should expect the thigh to have a:
A.
B.
C.
D.
52.  The nurse is assessing a client who has a rash on his chest and upper arms. Which questions should the nurse ask in order to gain further information about the client's rash?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
53.  The nurse reviews the arterial blood gas (ABG) values of a client admitted with pneumonia: pH, 7.51; PaCO2, 28 mm Hg; PaO2, 70 mm Hg; and HCO3–, 24 mEq/L. What do these values indicate?
A.
B.
C.
D.
54.  The nurse measures a client's apical pulse rate and compares it with the radial pulse rate. The differential between these two pulses is called:
A.
B.
C.
D.
55.  Hyperactive bowel sounds can result from all of the following except:
A.
B.
C.
D.
56.  Two days after undergoing a total abdominal hysterectomy, a client complains of left calf pain, and venography reveals deep vein thrombosis (DVT). When assessing this client, the nurse is most likely to detect:
A.
B.
C.
D.
57.  Which of the following factors are major components of a client's general background drug history?
A.
B.
C.
D.
58.  Before a transesophageal echocardiogram, a client is given an oral topical anesthetic spray. Upon return from the procedure, the nurse observes that the client has no active gag reflex. In response, the nurse should
A.
B.
C.
D.
59.  Why should the nurse inspect first and then auscultate when performing an assessment of a pediatric client?
A.
B.
C.
D.
60.  The nurse is teaching the parents of a child with cystic fibrosis about proper nutrition. Which instruction should the nurse include?
A.
B.
C.
D.
61.  A client undergoes a total abdominal hysterectomy. When assessing the client 10 hours later, the nurse identifies which finding as an early sign of shock?
A.
B.
C.
D.
62.  Which descriptions are true about crackles?
A.
B.
C.
D.
63.  When testing a client's pupils for accommodation, the nurse should interpret which findings as normal?
A.
B.
C.
D.
64.  The nurse is assessing tactile fremitus in a client with pneumonia. For this examination, the nurse should use the:
A.
B.
C.
D.
65.  To avoid recording an erroneously low systolic blood pressure because of failure to recognize an auscultatory gap, the nurse should:
A.
B.
C.
D.
66.  A client has just undergone bronchoscopy. Which nursing assessment is most important at this time?
A.
B.
C.
D.
67.  The nurse prepares to measure a client's blood pressure. What is the correct procedure for measuring blood pressure?
A.
B.
C.
D.
68.  The nurse conducts a test for the Romberg's sign. What is the correct procedure for this test?
A.
B.
C.
D.
69.  Which plane divides the body longitudinally into anterior and posterior regions?
A.
B.
C.
D.
70.  A client with fever, weight loss, and watery diarrhea is being admitted to the facility. While assessing the client, a nurse inspects the client's abdomen and notices that it's slightly concave. Additional assessment should proceed in which order?
A.
B.
C.
D.
71.  The nurse prepares to assess a client who has just been admitted to the health care facility. During assessment, the nurse performs which activity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
72.  The nurse is teaching a client who will be discharged soon how to change a sterile dressing on the right leg. During the teaching session, the nurse notices redness, swelling, and induration at the wound site. What do these signs suggest?
A.
B.
C.
D.
73.  The nurse is monitoring a client for adverse reactions during barbiturate therapy. What is the major disadvantage of barbiturate use?
A.
B.
C.
D.
74.  A 76-year-old client with no debilitating conditions belongs to which geriatric population?
A.
B.
C.
D.
75.  Why shouldn't the nurse palpate both carotid arteries at one time?
A.
B.
C.
D.
76.  When obtaining a client's history, the nurse develops a genogram. What is the purpose of developing a genogram?
A.
B.
C.
D.
77.  When assessing a client with cellulitis of the right leg, which of the following would the nurse expect to find?
A.
B.
C.
D.
78.  A client complains of abdominal pain. To elicit as much information about the pain as possible, the nurse should ask:
A.
B.
C.
D.
79.  When determining appropriate nursing interventions for a client with a medical diagnosis, the nurse is using which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
80.  When should the nurse check a client for rebound tenderness?
A.
B.
C.
D.
81.  The nurse must assess skin turgor of an elderly client. When evaluating skin turgor, the nurse should remember that:
A.
B.
C.
D.
82.  The nurse is performing a preoperative assessment. Which statement by the client would alert the nurse to the presence of risk factors for postoperative complications?
A.
B.
C.
D.
83.  When auscultating a client's abdomen, the nurse detects high-pitched gurgles over the lower right quadrant. Based on this finding, the nurse suspects:
A.
B.
C.
D.
84.  When auscultating a client's chest, the nurse assesses a second heart sound (S2). This sound results from:
A.
B.
C.
D.
85.  The nurse is assessing a client who has a rash on his chest and upper arms. Which questions should the nurse ask in order to gain further information about the client's rash?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
86.  When routinely evaluating a geriatric client for any atypical signs or symptoms, the nurse should remember that:
A.
B.
C.
D.
87.  The nurse can auscultate for heart sounds more easily if the client is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
88.  To assess the effectiveness of cardiac compressions during adult cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), the nurse should palpate which pulse site?
A.
B.
C.
D.
89.  When assessing a geriatric client, the nurse expects to find various aging-related physiologic changes. These changes include:
A.
B.
C.
D.