Exam 4

50 Questions  I  By Itsaliciayall8
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  • 1. 
    The neurohormones antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin) and oxytocin are produced by the
    • A. 

      Anterior pituitary and released by the posterior pituitary

    • B. 

      Hypothalamus u s and released by the posterior pituitary

    • C. 

      Pituitary and signal to the hypothalamus

    • D. 

      Hypothalamus and signal to the brain

    • E. 

      Pituitary and signal to the reproductive organs


  • 2. 
    Columnar cells are a type of epithelial tissue often found in the ________ and their function is_______
    • A. 

      Kidneys, absorption

    • B. 

      Lungs, diffusion

    • C. 

      Skin, protection

    • D. 

      Intestines, absorption


  • 3. 
    Which of the following is not one of the distinct chemical groups to which hormones belong?
    • A. 

      Steroids

    • B. 

      Proteins

    • C. 

      Peptides

    • D. 

      Carbonhydrates

    • E. 

      Amines


  • 4. 
    The specialized structures of complex animals have evolved because
    • A. 

      The environment imposes identical problems regardless of where the animals are found.

    • B. 

      The development of the specialized structures in an animal is influenced by the animal’s ability to learn.

    • C. 

      The simplest animals are those with the most recent appearance among the biota.

    • D. 

      They permit adjustments to a wide range of environmental changes.

    • E. 

      The most complex animals are the ones with the most ancient evolutionary origin.


  • 5. 
    As body size increases in animals,
    • A. 

      There is a decrease in the surface-to-volume ratio.

    • B. 

      Reproduction becomes limited to terrestrial environments.

    • C. 

      There is greater variability in metabolic rate.

    • D. 

      Migration to tropical areas becomes necessary for thermoregulation.

    • E. 

      It becomes more difficult to conserve body warmth in cold environments.


  • 6. 
    Receptors for many steroid hormones are located:
    • A. 

      Within the nucleus

    • B. 

      In the cytoplasm of non-target cells

    • C. 

      In the bloodstream

    • D. 

      On the cell’s plasma membrane


  • 7. 
    Which of the following is an effect of increased levels of antidiuretic hormone in the blood?
    • A. 

      Let down of milk from mammary tissues

    • B. 

      Uterine contractions during birth

    • C. 

      Water conservation by the kidney

    • D. 

      Production of somatomedins by the liver

    • E. 

      Production of enkephalins by the hypothalamus


  • 8. 
    Interstitial fluid is
    • A. 

      The fluid inside the gastrovascular cavity of Hydra

    • B. 

      The internal environment inside animal cells

    • C. 

      Identical to the composition of blood.

    • D. 

      The route for the exchange of materials between blood and body cells

    • E. 

      Found only in the lumen of the small intestine


  • 9. 
    In addition to producing thyroxine, the mammalian thyroid gland produces
    • A. 

      Adrenaline

    • B. 

      Prolactin

    • C. 

      Iodine

    • D. 

      Calcitonin

    • E. 

      Thyrotropin


  • 10. 
    .Which of the following is an example of a positive feedback control system?
    • A. 

      During birth, the baby’s head presses against the cervix and stretches it; stretch of the cervix stimulates the release of oxytocin; oxytocin causes contractions of muscles in the uterus; this pushes the baby against the cervix harder, increasing the stretch of the cervix.

    • B. 

      Loss of water through perspiration while hiking in the desert decreases the amount of water in the blood decreased levels of water in the blood stimulate the release of ADH from the posterior pituitary; ADH causes the kidneys to reabsorb water from the urine; blood levels of blood increase; levels of ADH decrease.

    • C. 

      Four hours after lunch blood glucose levels start falling; low blood glucose levels stimulate the release of glucagon, glucagon causes the liver to break down glycogen into glucose and release it into the blood;blood glucose levels rise; no more glucagon is released.

    • D. 

      None of the above is an example of a positive feedback system.


  • 11. 
    Hormones are secreted by
    • A. 

      Endocrine glands, such as the thyroid gland

    • B. 

      Individual cells, such as those lining portions of the digestive tract.

    • C. 

      Exocrine glands, such as the pancreas.

    • D. 

      Both a and b

    • E. 

      All of the above


  • 12. 
    Tissues are composed of cells, and tissues functioning together make up
    • A. 

      Organs

    • B. 

      Membranes

    • C. 

      Organ systems

    • D. 

      Organelles

    • E. 

      Organisms


  • 13. 
    The hormones antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin) and oxytocin are produced by the
    • A. 

      Anterior pituitary and released by the posterior pituitary.

    • B. 

      Hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary.

    • C. 

      Pituitary and signal to the hypothalamus.

    • D. 

      Hypothalamus and signal to the brain.


  • 14. 
    Of the following choices, the epithelium with the shortest diffusion distance is
    • A. 

      Simp1e squamous epithelium.

    • B. 

      Simple cuboidal epithelium.

    • C. 

      Simple columnar epithelium.

    • D. 

      Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium.

    • E. 

      Stratified squamous epithelium.


  • 15. 
    The type of muscle tissue surrounding internal organs, other than the heart, is
    • A. 

      Skeletal muscle.

    • B. 

      Cardiac muscle.

    • C. 

      Striated muscle.

    • D. 

      Intercalated cells.

    • E. 

      Smooth muscle


  • 16. 
    The nourishment, insulation, and support for neurons is the result of activity by the
    • A. 

      Smooth muscles

    • B. 

      Adipose tissue

    • C. 

      Endocrine system

    • D. 

      Intercalated disks

    • E. 

      Glial cells


  • 17. 
    For hormones that homeostatically reu1ate cellular functions
    • A. 

      Negative feedback typically regulates hormone secretion

    • B. 

      The circulating level of a hormone is held constant through a series of positive feedback loops

    • C. 

      Both lipid-soluble hormones and water-soluble hormones bind to intracellular protein receptors

    • D. 

      Endocrine organs release their contents into the bloodstream via specialized ducts

    • E. 

      It is impossible to also have neural regulation of that system


  • 18. 
    Muscles are joined to bones by
    • A. 

      Ligaments

    • B. 

      Tendons

    • C. 

      Loose connective tissue

    • D. 

      Haversian systems

    • E. 

      Spindle fibers


  • 19. 
    The integrator for human temperature regulation is located in the
    • A. 

      Spinal cord

    • B. 

      Heart and lungs

    • C. 

      Hypothalamus

    • D. 

      Autonomic nervous system

    • E. 

      Thyroid


  • 20. 
    Feedback regulation is an important feature of endocrine communication. Which type of feedback predominates?
    • A. 

      Negative

    • B. 

      Positive

    • C. 

      Ergometric

    • D. 

      Neutral

    • E. 

      Homeometric


  • 21. 
    Which of the following is not one of the distinct chemical groups to which hormones belong?
    • A. 

      Steroids

    • B. 

      Proteins

    • C. 

      Carbohydrates

    • D. 

      Amines


  • 22. 
    The time of action for peptide hormones is typically:
    • A. 

      Slower than steroid hormones

    • B. 

      Related to the molecular size of the hormone

    • C. 

      About the same as steroid hormones

    • D. 

      More rapid than steroid hormones


  • 23. 
    Insulin secretion from the pancreas increases in response to:
    • A. 

      Ingestion of a high fat meal

    • B. 

      Increased blood glucose concentration

    • C. 

      Activation of the sympathetic nervous system

    • D. 

      Decreased blood glucose concentration

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 24. 
    Most types of communication between cells use
    • A. 

      The exchange of cytosol between the cells.

    • B. 

      A direct electrical connection between the cells.

    • C. 

      The release of chemical signals by the cell sending the message.

    • D. 

      The exchange of DNA between the cells.

    • E. 

      The movement of the cells.


  • 25. 
    Humans are called homeotherms because we maintain constant
    • A. 

      Rates of heat loss to the environment

    • B. 

      Skin temperature

    • C. 

      Core temperature

    • D. 

      Rates of heat production in any environment

    • E. 

      Skeletal muscle tension


  • 26. 
    Hormones are involved in regulating processes related to:
    • A. 

      Production, use and storage of metabolic energy

    • B. 

      Reproductive functions

    • C. 

      Growth and development

    • D. 

      Salt and water balance

    • E. 

      All of the above


  • 27. 
    Conduction removes heat from the body whenever the body is:
    • A. 

      In contact with an object that is cooler than core temperature

    • B. 

      Placed away from bright light

    • C. 

      Sweating

    • D. 

      ìn contact with an object that is cooler than skin temperature

    • E. 

      In contact with an object that is warmer than skin temperature


  • 28. 
    Which of the following statements about hormones, hormone-producing cells, and target cells is false?
    • A. 

      Target cells have the appropriate receptors for binding a particular hormone.

    • B. 

      Some endocrine cells exist as single cells within a tissue.

    • C. 

      Endocrine glands do not have ducts that lead to the outside of the body.

    • D. 

      All hormones travel in the blood to target cells.


  • 29. 
    In a typical nerve cell, the nucleus is found in the
    • A. 

      Cell body

    • B. 

      Synaptic terminals

    • C. 

      Axonal region

    • D. 

      Dendritic region

    • E. 

      Synapse


  • 30. 
    Steroid hormones
    • A. 

      Bind to receptor proteins in the cytoplasm or nucleus.

    • B. 

      Bind with receptor proteins in the plasma membrane

    • C. 

      Are synthesized from epinephrine in the adrenal gland.

    • D. 

      Are released from the cells that make them by exocytosis.

    • E. 

      Are mostly derivatives of the amino acid tyrosine.


  • 31. 
    All skeletal muscle fibers are both
    • A. 

      Smooth and under involuntary control

    • B. 

      Smooth and operate independently of other skeletal muscle fibers

    • C. 

      Striated and under voluntary control

    • D. 

      Smooth and under voluntary control

    • E. 

      Striated and electrically coupled to neighboring fibers


  • 32. 
    Most cellular functions are limited to a temperature ranging (in °C) from to
    • A. 

      20; 100

    • B. 

      20; 40

    • C. 

      0; 40

    • D. 

      0; 100


  • 33. 
    The hypothalamus
    • A. 

      Functions only as an endocrine target, by having lots of receptors on its cells.

    • B. 

      Functions only in neuronal transmission.

    • C. 

      Does not have any hormone receptors on its cells.

    • D. 

      Secretes tropic hormones that act directly on the gonads.

    • E. 

      Inc1udes neurosecretory cells that terminate in the posterior pituitary.


  • 34. 
    Bone is a type of tissue.
    • A. 

      Connective

    • B. 

      Epithelial

    • C. 

      Matrix

    • D. 

      Muscle

    • E. 

      Nervous


  • 35. 
    Endothermy
    • A. 

      Is a characteristic of most animals found in tropical zones

    • B. 

      Is a characteristic of animals that have a fairly constant body temperature

    • C. 

      Is a term equivalent to cold-blooded

    • D. 

      Is a characteristic of mammals but not of birds

    • E. 

      Is seen only in insects and in certain predatory fishes


  • 36. 
    The reason that the steroid hormone aldosterone affects only a small number of cells in the body is that
    • A. 

      Only its target cells get exposed to aldosterone

    • B. 

      Only its target cells contain aldosterone receptors

    • C. 

      It is unable to enter nontarget cells

    • D. 

      Nontarget cells destroy aldosterone before it can produce any effect

    • E. 

      Nontarget cells convert aldosterone to a hormone to which they do respond


  • 37. 
    Under which of the following conditions would a mammal tend to increase thyroxine levels?
    • A. 

      Following childbirth in a female

    • B. 

      During illness and fever

    • C. 

      When blood glucose levels are high

    • D. 

      During sleep and rest

    • E. 

      When exposed to cold


  • 38. 
    A cell with membrane-bound proteins that selectively bind a specific hormone is called that hormones
    • A. 

      Secretory cell.

    • B. 

      Plasma cell.

    • C. 

      Endocrine cell.

    • D. 

      Target cell.

    • E. 

      Regulatory cell.


  • 39. 
    Oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone are synthesized in the
    • A. 

      Hypothalamus

    • B. 

      Adenohypophysis

    • C. 

      Anterior pituitary

    • D. 

      Adrenal cortex


  • 40. 
    In regulatory systems, the phenomenon of negative feedback
    • A. 

      Is the least common type of feedback mechanism

    • B. 

      Stimulates a return to set point

    • C. 

      Amplifies a response

    • D. 

      Disrupts homeostasis

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 41. 
    Iodine is added to table salt to help prevent deficiencies of an essential mineral needed for the proper function of the
    • A. 

      Parathyroid glands.

    • B. 

      Adrenal glands.

    • C. 

      Thyroid glands.

    • D. 

      The endocrine pancreas.

    • E. 

      The exocrine pancreas.


  • 42. 
    The endocrine glands include the
    • A. 

      Parathyroid glands

    • B. 

      Salivary glands

    • C. 

      Sweat glands

    • D. 

      Sebaceous glands

    • E. 

      Gallbladder


  • 43. 
    Which of the following statements about muscle tissue is false?
    • A. 

      It consists of cells that can contract.

    • B. 

      It is the most abundant tissue in the body.

    • C. 

      It is a form of connective tissue.

    • D. 

      It uses a lot of energy when animals are active.

    • E. 

      It includes skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle.


  • 44. 
    Humans can lose, but cannot gain, heat through the process of
    • A. 

      Conduction.

    • B. 

      Convection.

    • C. 

      Radiation.

    • D. 

      Evaporation.

    • E. 

      Metabolism.


  • 45. 
    Which of the following has both endocrine and exocrine activity?
    • A. 

      The pituitary gland

    • B. 

      Parathyroid glands

    • C. 

      Salivary glands

    • D. 

      The pancreas

    • E. 

      Adrenal glands


  • 46. 
    When blood glucose levels increase, which of the following increases?
    • A. 

      Glucagon

    • B. 

      Insulin

    • C. 

      Cortisol

    • D. 

      Epinephrine

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 47. 
    Analysis of a blood sample from a fasting individual who had not eaten for 24 hours would be expected to reveal high levels of
    • A. 

      Insulin.

    • B. 

      Glucagon

    • C. 

      Secretin.

    • D. 

      Gastrin.

    • E. 

      Glucose.


  • 48. 
    Cardiac muscle cells are both
    • A. 

      Striated and interconnected by intercalated disks

    • B. 

      Striated and operate independently of other cardiac cells

    • C. 

      Smooth and under voluntary control

    • D. 

      Striated and under voluntary control

    • E. 

      Smooth and under involuntary control


  • 49. 
    Melatonin is secreted by
    • A. 

      The hypothalamus during the day

    • B. 

      The pineal gland during the night

    • C. 

      The autonomic nervous system during the winter.

    • D. 

      The posterior pituitary gland during the day

    • E. 

      The thyroid gland during cold seasons


  • 50. 
    An example of effectors’ roles in homeostatic responses is observable when
    • A. 

      An increase in body temperature results from involuntary shivering

    • B. 

      An increase in body temperature results from exercise

    • C. 

      The rising sun causes an increase in body temperature in a stationary animal

    • D. 

      An increase in body temperature results from fever

    • E. 

      A decrease in body temperature results from shock


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