Earth Science Exam #2 The Ocean

55 Questions  I  By Hcarmikel
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Test on Ocean Sediments, Ocean Floor, El Nino and La Nina

  
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  • 1. 
    The element found in some sediments which suggest that a meteorite or asteroid impact occurred nearby is:
    • A. 

      A) uranium.

    • B. 

      B) iridium.

    • C. 

      C) manganese.

    • D. 

      D) strontium. D) strontium.


  • 2. 
    "Black smokers" are associated with ________.
    • A. 

      A) oceanic ridges

    • B. 

      B) hot water

    • C. 

      C) mineral-rich waters

    • D. 

      D) all of these


  • 3. 
    The oceans cover approximately ________ percent of Earth's surface.  
    • A. 

      A) 70

    • B. 

      B) 60

    • C. 

      C) 50

    • D. 

      D) 40


  • 4. 
    Which one of the following concerning mid-ocean ridges is false?
    • A. 

      A) are sites for submarine eruptions of basaltic lava A) are sites for submarine eruptions of basaltic lava

    • B. 

      B) are where young lithosphere is added to the edges of spreading, oceanic plates

    • C. 

      C) terrigenous sediment coverings are very thin or absent

    • D. 

      D) sediments include thick siliceous ooze deposits and sandy turbidite beds


  • 5. 
    Which of the following contains calcium carbonate (CaCO3)?
    • A. 

      A) phosphorites

    • B. 

      B) diatoms

    • C. 

      C) radiolarians

    • D. 

      D) glauconite

    • E. 

      E) foraminiferans


  • 6. 
    The most likely place to find abundant manganese nodules is on the:
    • A. 

      A) abyssal plain far from a continent.

    • B. 

      B) continental rise.

    • C. 

      C) crest of a mid-ocean ridge.

    • D. 

      D) continental shelf.

    • E. 

      E) All of the above locations contain manganese nodules.


  • 7. 
    Minerals that crystallize directly from seawater are examples of ________.
    • A. 

      A) hydrogenous sediment

    • B. 

      B) biogenous sediment

    • C. 

      C) terrigenous sediment

    • D. 

      D) both terrigenous and biogenous sediment


  • 8. 
    Submarine canyons form the deepest parts of the ocean basins.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 9. 
    Manganese nodules do not accumulate below 4500 meters depth because the manganese minerals are highly soluble in seawater below that depth.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 10. 
    Compared to the Southern Hemisphere, a higher percentage of the Northern Hemisphere is water covered.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 11. 
    The continental rise lies at the bottom of the continental slope.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 12. 
    Sand, silt, and clays deposited on the ocean floor are described as terrigenous sediments
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 13. 
    A pelagic clay contains lots of material that settles to the seafloor through the water column and are:
    • A. 

      A) more than 30% biogenous material.

    • B. 

      B) more than 30% hydrogenous material

    • C. 

      C) more than 30% neritic material

    • D. 

      D) less than 30% biogenous material.

    • E. 

      E) less than 30% neritic material.


  • 14. 
    The crests of mid-oceanic ridges ________.
    • A. 

      A) lie at depths exceeding 6 kilometers

    • B. 

      B) are geologically old features

    • C. 

      C) are heavily mantled with sediment

    • D. 

      D) contain active rift zones


  • 15. 
    Which of the following is associated with ocean ridges?
    • A. 

      A) rift zones

    • B. 

      B) mountainous topography

    • C. 

      C) volcanic structures

    • D. 

      D) all of these


  • 16. 
    Which of the following is not an important control on oceanic sediment accumulation?
    • A. 

      A) degree of preservation

    • B. 

      B) rate of deposition

    • C. 

      C) input from other sediment types

    • D. 

      D) dilution

    • E. 

      E) All of the above factors are important.


  • 17. 
    Concerning the distribution of land and water, which of the following statements is true?
    • A. 

      A) the Southern Hemisphere has much more water surface than the Northern Hemisphere

    • B. 

      B) the Northern Hemisphere has much more water surface than the Southern Hemisphere

    • C. 

      C) the percentage of land and water is about the same in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres

    • D. 

      D) none of the above are true


  • 18. 
    Which one of the following salts is most abundant in seawater?
    • A. 

      A) sodium chloride

    • B. 

      B) sodium bicarbonate

    • C. 

      C) potassium bromide

    • D. 

      D) magnesium chloride


  • 19. 
    Submarine canyons found on the continental slope and are believed to have been created ________.
    • A. 

      A) by rivers during the ice age

    • B. 

      B) because of a plate plunging into the mantle

    • C. 

      C) by faulting

    • D. 

      D) none of these


  • 20. 
    Submerged, flat-topped seamounts are known as guyots.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 21. 
    Seafloor hot springs occur mainly in oceanic, abyssal plains.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 22. 
    The Atlantic and Pacific basins have oceanic ridges; the Indian Ocean has no oceanic ridge
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 23. 
    Turbidites and siliceous oozes are both biogenous sediments.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 24. 
    The surface waters in regions where evaporation rates are high, such as the Red Sea, have higher than average salinities
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 25. 
    The BEST definition of the outer edge of the continental shelf is that point where ________.
    • A. 

      A) a rapid steepening of the gradient occurs

    • B. 

      B) the water depth reaches 100 fathoms

    • C. 

      C) it meets an oceanic ridge

    • D. 

      D) the gradient becomes very gentle


  • 26. 
    Which one of the following would you NOT associate with turbidity currents?
    • A. 

      A) excavation of submarine canyons

    • B. 

      B) density current

    • C. 

      C) formation of seamounts

    • D. 

      D) deposits of graded beds


  • 27. 
    ________ diatom ooze
    • A. 

      A. biogenous

    • B. 

      B. terrigenous

    • C. 

      C. hydrogenous


  • 28. 
    ________ quartz sand
    • A. 

      A. biogenous

    • B. 

      B. terrigenous

    • C. 

      c. hydrogenous


  • 29. 
    ________ calcareous ooze
    • A. 

      A. biogenous

    • B. 

      b. terrigenous

    • C. 

      c. hydrogenous


  • 30. 
    ________ abyssal plain clay
    • A. 

      A. biogenous

    • B. 

      b. terrigenous

    • C. 

      C. hydrogenous


  • 31. 
    ________ turbidite deposits
    • A. 

      A. biogenous

    • B. 

      B. terrigenous

    • C. 

      C. hydrogenous


  • 32. 
    ________ manganese nodule
    • A. 

      a. biogenous

    • B. 

      b. terrigenous

    • C. 

      c. hydrogenous


  • 33. 
    Calcium carbonate is most likely to dissolve in water with which characteristics?
    • A. 

      A) low carbon dioxide and warm temperatures

    • B. 

      B) low pressure and cold temperatures

    • C. 

      C) lots of carbon dioxide and cold temperatures

    • D. 

      D) lots of carbon dioxide and warm temperatures

    • E. 

      E) low pressure and warm temperatures


  • 34. 
    High energy environments are most likely to contain which one of the following?
    • A. 

      A) silt-sized particles

    • B. 

      B) large particles such as gravel

    • C. 

      C) cosmogenous sediments

    • D. 

      D) clay-sized particles

    • E. 

      E) manganese nodules


  • 35. 
    A very important way to increase the settling rate of fine particles in the open ocean is via: .
    • A. 

      A) carbonate dissolution.

    • B. 

      B) fecal pellets

    • C. 

      C) deposit feeders.

    • D. 

      D) wind.

    • E. 

      E) precipitation


  • 36. 
    The ________ Ocean is largest
    • A. 

      A) Indian

    • B. 

      B) Arctic

    • C. 

      C) Atlantic

    • D. 

      D) Pacific


  • 37. 
    The ________ marks the transition between the warm surface layer and the deep zone of cold water in the oceans.
    • A. 

      A) pycnocline

    • B. 

      B) halocline

    • C. 

      C) thermocline

    • D. 

      D) salinocline


  • 38. 
    The gently sloping submerged surface extending from the shoreline toward the deep ocean is termed the ________.
    • A. 

      A) continental slope

    • B. 

      B) submarine canyon

    • C. 

      C) continental shelf

    • D. 

      D) continental rise


  • 39. 
    The continental rise is located ________.
    • A. 

      A) at the top of the continental slope

    • B. 

      B) at the top of a mid-ocean ridge

    • C. 

      C) at the seaward edge of a deep ocean trench

    • D. 

      D) between an abyssal plain and continental slope


  • 40. 
    The ________ Ocean has more extensive abyssal plains than the Pacific Ocean because it has fewer trenches to trap sediments moving down the continental slope.
    • A. 

      A) Arctic

    • B. 

      B) Atlantic

    • C. 

      C) Indian

    • D. 

      D) none of these


  • 41. 
    An echo sounder operates by measuring the time required for a ________.
    • A. 

      A) sound pulse travels from a ship to the seafloor and back

    • B. 

      B) radar beam to travel from a harbor patrol boat to a fuzz-buster on a speeding yacht

    • C. 

      C) light beam to travel from a satellite at a known altitude to the sea bottom and back

    • D. 

      D) radar beam to travel from a ship to the seafloor and back


  • 42. 
    Which of the following contains silica (SiO2)?
    • A. 

      A) foraminiferans

    • B. 

      B) corals

    • C. 

      C) coccolithophores

    • D. 

      D) phosphorites

    • E. 

      E) radiolarians


  • 43. 
    The major force bringing continental sediments to the open ocean is (are): .
    • A. 

      A) neritic currents.

    • B. 

      B) rivers.

    • C. 

      C) turbidity currents.

    • D. 

      D) glaciers.

    • E. 

      E) wind


  • 44. 
    Which one of the following is NOT part of the continental margin?
    • A. 

      A) continental slope

    • B. 

      B) continental rise

    • C. 

      C) continental trench

    • D. 

      D) continental shelf


  • 45. 
    Sediments which are poorly sorted and made of a variety of minerals could have been deposited by: . .
    • A. 

      A) a volcanic eruption

    • B. 

      . B) a river delta.

    • C. 

      C) a glacier.

    • D. 

      D) turbidity currents

    • E. 

      E) the wind


  • 46. 
    Which of the following is NOT true of deep ocean trenches?
    • A. 

      A) they are long and narrow depressions

    • B. 

      B) they are sites where plates plunge back into the mantle

    • C. 

      C) they may act as sediment traps

    • D. 

      D) they are geologically very stable


  • 47. 
    Seamounts ________.
    • A. 

      A) are submarine canyons found near Australia

    • B. 

      B) are volcanoes that form on the ocean floor

    • C. 

      C) are a special type of oceanic trench

    • D. 

      D) form only in the Pacific Ocean basin


  • 48. 
    How do calcareous oozes form?
    • A. 

      A) the particles are precipitated in the water column below the and then sink to the bottom depth of sunlight penetration

    • B. 

      B) the particles are precipitated in warm, surface waters and sink to the bottom

    • C. 

      C) the particles are precipitated by bottom-dwelling organisms

    • D. 

      D) the particles settle out from calcite-rich turbidity currents at depths greater than 15,000 feet


  • 49. 
    ________ develop where oceanic lithosphere bends downward and sinks into the mantle.
    • A. 

      A) Submarine canyons

    • B. 

      B) Deep ocean trenches

    • C. 

      C) Abyssal seamounts

    • D. 

      D) Rift valleys on mid-ocean ridges


  • 50. 
    Which ocean has the greatest average depth?
    • A. 

      A) Indian

    • B. 

      B) Atlantic

    • C. 

      C) Pacific

    • D. 

      D) Arctic


  • 51. 
    It is thought that submarine canyons on the continental slope have been generated by ________
    • A. 

      A) streams when sea-level was much lower than it is today

    • B. 

      B) streams when sea-level was much higher than it is today

    • C. 

      C) turbidity currents

    • D. 

      D) a submarine glaciation


  • 52. 
    Sediments that are derived primarily from the weathering on continental material are indicated by the number(s):
    • A. 

      A) 2 & 3

    • B. 

      B) 2

    • C. 

      C) 1& 5

    • D. 

      D) 3 &4


  • 53. 
    Biogenous sediments are indicated by the number(s):
    • A. 

      A) 2, 3, 4, & 5

    • B. 

      B) 2, 3, & 4

    • C. 

      C) 2 & 3

    • D. 

      D) 2 & 4


  • 54. 
    Calcareous oozes are represented by the number(s);
    • A. 

      1

    • B. 

      3 & 4

    • C. 

      2& 3

    • D. 

      4


  • 55. 
    The sediments that are produced in areas of high primary productivity are indicated by the number(s):
    • A. 

      A) 2 & 3

    • B. 

      B) 3 & 4

    • C. 

      C) 3

    • D. 

      D) 2


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