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Child Development 2

100 Questions
Child Quizzes & Trivia
Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Which of the following statements is true about the newbord baby's appearance
    • A. 

      Proportionally, if an adult head were as large as that of a newborn infant, it would be the size of an orange.

    • B. 

      Their round faces, chubby cheeks, large foreheads, and big eyes make adults feel like picking them up and cuddling them.

    • C. 

      They may not match their parents' idealized image because they have a combination of small head and long torso.

    • D. 

      Their legs are long and bowed, and their heads are small compared to the rest of their body.

  • 2. 
    Devin is given a combinated apgar score of 7. The medical professionals should
    • A. 

      Immediately provide medical attention because he is in serious danger

    • B. 

      Tell Devin's parents that he is in good physical condition

    • C. 

      Provide assistance in establishing breathing and other vital signs.

    • D. 

      Immediately put him on a ventilator and monitor his situation closely

  • 3. 
    Dorita is given an Apgar appearance rating of 1. This means her
    • A. 

      Body is pink with blue arms and legs

    • B. 

      Body, arms and legs are all blue

    • C. 

      Body, arms, and legs are all pink

    • D. 

      Body is blue with pink arms and legs

  • 4. 
    In South America, the Jarara mother
    • A. 

      Leans against the body of the "head helper" to give birth

    • B. 

      Gives birth in full view of the entire community

    • C. 

      Gives birth in a hammock with a crowd of women close by

    • D. 

      Gives birth in a freestanding birth center

  • 5. 
    Which mother is a good candidate for a home delivery?
    • A. 

      Heather, a healthy 43 year old who previously had a cesarean delivery

    • B. 

      Helena a first time mom who wants to deliver her own baby unassisted

    • C. 

      Prudence a 30 year old second time mom assisted by a certified nurse-midwife

    • D. 

      Donna, a fifth time mom whose baby is in a breech position

  • 6. 
    Henrietta is concerned about using epidural analgesia during labor. You can tell her that newborns exposed to epidural analgesia tend to
    • A. 

      Have trouble falling asleep

    • B. 

      Be hyperactive and animated

    • C. 

      Have lower Apgar scores

    • D. 

      Suck more agressively while feeding

  • 7. 
    Tonya is pregnant for a second time. She hopes to have a vaginal devliery, although her first delivery was cesarean. You should advice Tonya that
    • A. 

      She will be required to have a second cesarean delivery

    • B. 

      A natural labor after a cesarean is associated with slightly increased rates of maternal death

    • C. 

      A natural labor after a cesarean is just as safe as a repeated cesarean delivery

    • D. 

      A natural labor after a cesarean is associated with slightly increased rates of rupture of the uterus

  • 8. 
    Abbie was born seven weeks premature. Her tiny lungs were so poorly developed that the air sacs collapse. A mechanical respirator is being used to keep Abbie breathing. Abbie suffers from
    • A. 

      Ceebral palsy

    • B. 

      Toxemia

    • C. 

      Hyaline membrane disease

    • D. 

      Acidosis

  • 9. 
    • A. 

      Preterm

    • B. 

      Small for date

    • C. 

      Average weight

    • D. 

      Anoxic

  • 10. 
    Dawn and Richard have the economic and personal resources to care for Amelia, their preterm infant. Research shows that
    • A. 

      Interventions are not usually needed for economically advantaged parents like dawn and richard to promote healthy development.

    • B. 

      Dawn and richard will need extensive coaching in recognizing and responding to amelia's needs

    • C. 

      Just a few sessions of coaching in recognizing and responding to Amelia's needs could reduce Amelia's crying and improve her sleep

    • D. 

      Dawn and Richard will need comprehensive long term intensive intervention to meet Amelia's needs

  • 11. 
    Carol lives in Wyoming and works for a small company with 12 employees. Carol hopes to take 12 weeks of maternity leave. What advice can you give Carol?
    • A. 

      The US mandates 12 weeks of paid maternity leave for all new mothers

    • B. 

      Federal law mandating unpaid maternity leave does not apply to her employer

    • C. 

      The US mandates six weeks of paid maternity leave for all new mothers

    • D. 

      The US mandates 12 weeks of unpaid maternity leave for all new mothers.

  • 12. 
    Unlike her two sisters, when Tersea gives birth, she does not choose rooming in. Teresa should know that
    • A. 

      Her ability to bond with the body will be compromised as a result of this decision

    • B. 

      Her baby will suffer emotionally as a result of this decision

    • C. 

      Her competence as a caregiver will be compromised as a result of this decision

    • D. 

      There is no evidence that her parenting ability or her baby's emotional well being will be affected

  • 13. 
    Baby Sunni quickly closes her eyelids when her father claps his hands near her head. The function of this relex is to
    • A. 

      Stimulate the eye muscle

    • B. 

      Protect the infant from a blow to the head

    • C. 

      Protect the infant from strong stimulation

    • D. 

      Communicate irritation toward a caregiver

  • 14. 
    Although baby Irina's eyelids are closed., ocassional rapid eye movements can been seen beneath them. Her breathing is irregular. She stirs occasionally and grimaces while she sleeps. Irina is MOST likely in which of the following states of arousal?
    • A. 

      Regular sleep

    • B. 

      Drowsiness

    • C. 

      Quiet alertness

    • D. 

      REM sleep

  • 15. 
    Which of the following individual's is the most likely to spend the greatest amount of time in REM sleep?
    • A. 

      Trevor a preterm baby

    • B. 

      Alice a five year old

    • C. 

      Henry a full term infant

    • D. 

      Erica a 13 year old

  • 16. 
    Arthur wakes frequently to check to see if his sleeping infant, Sam, is breathing. Arthur can reduce the risk of SIDS by
    • A. 

      Wrapping Sam in a very warm clothing and blankets

    • B. 

      Placing Sam to sleep on his stomach

    • C. 

      Placing Sam to sleep on his back

    • D. 

      Providing Sam with soft bedding and taking away his pacifier.

  • 17. 
    Maddy is babysitting an infant for the first time. What can you tell her is the most effective way to soothe the baby if she cries?
    • A. 

      Sing to her softly

    • B. 

      Lift her to the shoulder and rock or walk with her

    • C. 

      Swaddle her

    • D. 

      Take her for a ride in her stroller

  • 18. 
    Wanda is concerned that her son Max will be in pain during his circumcision. You can tell Wanda that
    • A. 

      Newborn males do not experience much pain during circumcision

    • B. 

      Offering a nipple that delivers sugar solution reduces the discomfort during circumcision

    • C. 

      Local anesthetics cannot be used during newborn circumcisions because they elevate the heart rate

    • D. 

      Local anesthetics can actually cause increased pain during minor procedures like circumcision

  • 19. 
    Dagwood and Marcia postponed parenthood until Dagwood as 31 and Marcia was 31. They have a happy marriage and both have fulfilling careers. Compared to younger parents, which of the following statements is most likely to be true?
    • A. 

      Dagwood will be less enthusiastic about being a father

    • B. 

      Marcia is less likely to encourage Dagwood to share child care

    • C. 

      Dagwood will be more willing to participate in parenting

    • D. 

      Marcia will be less likely to encourage Dagwood to share housework.

  • 20. 
    Laura is the nany of Jackson, a six month old infant whose single mother is depressed. You can tell Laura that
    • A. 

      Therapy is unlikely to alleviate parental depression

    • B. 

      Antidepressant medication is unlikely going to help Jackson's mother

    • C. 

      Jackson's mother will probably need long term treatment

    • D. 

      A warm relationship with her can safeguard Jackson's development

  • 21. 
    Damon is injected with a radioactive substance and then lies on an apparatus with a scanner that emits fine streams of xrays which detect increased blood flow and oxygen metabolism in areas of the brain as Damon processes particular stimuli Damon's brain functioning is being measured using
    • A. 

      An electroencenphalogram

    • B. 

      Event-related potentials

    • C. 

      Functional magnetic resonance imaging

    • D. 

      Position emission tomography

  • 22. 
    Alexia was born with cataracts in both eyes. What can you tell her parents about when she should have corrective surgery?
    • A. 

      Alexia should wait to have corrective surgery until adulthood when her eyes are fully mature

    • B. 

      Alexia should not have corrective surgery during the first six months of life because his vision would be severely and permanently impaired

    • C. 

      The longer cataract surgery is postponed beyond infancy, the less complete Alexia's recovery in visual skills

    • D. 

      Alexia should wait until later in childhood to have corrective surgery because there is no sensitive periods in visual development

  • 23. 
    Nicole is considering sending her 8 month old son Austin to a new academic leaning center where infants are trained with letter and number flash cards. You can advise Nicole that
    • A. 

      Austin will likely score 10-15 points higher in IQ then agemates who attend traditional early child-care programs

    • B. 

      Although this programs will not likely raise Austin's IQ it will probably help him learn to read more quickly

    • C. 

      This program is probably as effective as a traditional early childhood development program in promoting cognitive development

    • D. 

      This program could overwhelm Austin and cause him to withdraw, thereby threatening his interest in learning

  • 24. 
    Which of the following is an activity associated with experience-expectant brain growth?
    • A. 

      Coloring a picture

    • B. 

      Playing peekaboo

    • C. 

      Learning to ride a bike

    • D. 

      Playing the piano

  • 25. 
    Garrett, 2 months is an enthusiastic eater who nurses vigorously and gains weight quickly. Garrett's mom Christine is concerned that Garrett might be at risk being permantently overweight. You can advise Christine that
    • A. 

      Most chubby babies will continue to gain weight during toddlerhood and the preschool years

    • B. 

      There is no evidence that rapid weight gain in infancy is related to later obesity

    • C. 

      She should stat supplementing Garret's diet with cereal

    • D. 

      Breastfeeding for the first six months is associated with a leaner body build through early childhood

  • 26. 
    Zahara age 3 months is painfully thin. Her mother is too malnourished to produce enough breast milk and the supply of formula is inadequate for bottle-feeding. Zahara is probably in danger of dying from
    • A. 

      Marasmus

    • B. 

      Growth faltering

    • C. 

      Kwashiorkor

    • D. 

      Nonorganic failure to thrive

  • 27. 
    Osita is a four year old Ethiopian boy. He survivied kwashiorkor and was recently adopted by a Canadian couple. Osita will probably
    • A. 

      Continue to undereat even when food is plentiful

    • B. 

      Gain very little weight as his diet improves

    • C. 

      Have an average to high basal metabolism rate

    • D. 

      Suffer from lasting damage to the brain, heart, and other organs

  • 28. 
    Six month olds Luka's weight, height, and head circumference are substantially below age related growth norms. LUka is withdrawn and apathetic. A distrubed parent-infant relationship contributed to Luka's failture to grow normally. Luka most likely suffers from
    • A. 

      Growth faltering

    • B. 

      Malnutrition

    • C. 

      Marasmus

    • D. 

      Food insecurity

  • 29. 
    Baby Paul's mother strokes his hair just before he eats. Now when Paul's mother strokes his hair, Paul begins to suck. Paul's response to the stroking illustrates
    • A. 

      Habituation

    • B. 

      Recovery

    • C. 

      Operant conditioning

    • D. 

      Classical conditioning

  • 30. 
    Prim has classically conditioned young Rue to suck when Prim touches Rue's stomach during feeding. If Prim repeatedly touches Rue's stomach without feeding her. Rue will
    • A. 

      Gradually stop sucking in response to having her stomach touched

    • B. 

      Learn to suck without having her stomach touched

    • C. 

      Stop eating until Prim touches her stomach and feeds her again

    • D. 

      Increase her level of sucking in response to having her stomach touched.

  • 31. 
    Which of the following motor skils typically develops the latest?
    • A. 

      Building a tower of two cubes

    • B. 

      Scribbing vigorously

    • C. 

      Walking on tiptoe

    • D. 

      Jumping in place

  • 32. 
    Baby Issac learned to combine control of his head and upper chest into sitting with support. This is an example of
    • A. 

      Coordinated trends

    • B. 

      Fine motor coordination

    • C. 

      Gross motor coordination

    • D. 

      Dynamic systems of action

  • 33. 
    In a dimly lit room, Baby Ursula actively works to bring her hands into her field of vision. She makes poorly coordinated swipes toward objects in front of her. Ursula is demonstrating
    • A. 

      The ulnar grasp

    • B. 

      Voluntary reaching

    • C. 

      The pincer grasp

    • D. 

      Prereaching

  • 34. 
    Children whose parents postpone intensive toliet training until the beginning or middle of the third year are generally trained
    • A. 

      Within 2 to 3 weeks

    • B. 

      Within 4 months

    • C. 

      Within 6 months

    • D. 

      By age 4

  • 35. 
    Which of the following infants is most likely to refuse to cross the deep side of the visual cliff?
    • A. 

      Abbie, who has 3 days of crawling experience

    • B. 

      Bart, who has 4 weeks of crawling experience

    • C. 

      Crystal, who has 2 months of crawling experience

    • D. 

      Din, who has 4 months of crawling experience

  • 36. 
    As infants become familiar with many types of objects, they rely more on __________ and less on ___________.
    • A. 

      Motion; size

    • B. 

      Motion; shape

    • C. 

      Motion; surface pattern

    • D. 

      Object features; motion

  • 37. 
    Baby Wanda uses ________ to learn that dropping her heavy plastic dish on the hardwood flood will cause a loud, banging sound.
    • A. 

      Depth perception

    • B. 

      Intermodal perception

    • C. 

      Differentiation theory

    • D. 

      Affordances

  • 38. 
    Eleanor and James Gibson describe their theory as _______ because over time a baby detects finer and finer invarieant features among stimuli
    • A. 

      Differentiation

    • B. 

      Discontinuous

    • C. 

      Dynamic

    • D. 

      Bidirectional

  • 39. 
    According to the Gibsons, perception is guided by the discovery of
    • A. 

      Failure

    • B. 

      Success

    • C. 

      Dynamic relationships

    • D. 

      Affordances

  • 40. 
    Between 3 and 4 months, babies can
    • A. 

      Discriminate positive from negative emotions in voices

    • B. 

      Match faces with voices on basis of lip- voice synchrony

    • C. 

      Discriminate positive from negative emotion in faces

    • D. 

      Remember the unique face- voice pairings of unfamiliar adults

  • 41. 
    At 6 months, Annabelle dropped her rattle in a fairly right way, by 12 months she tossed objects down the basebment stairs, bounced them off walls and threw them in the air. Annabelle's modifications of her dropping scheme are an example of
    • A. 

      Accommodation

    • B. 

      Equilibrium

    • C. 

      Organization

    • D. 

      Assimilation

  • 42. 
    Baby Franklin practiced his dropping and throwing schemes, and eventually developed an understanding of height. The achievement is an example of
    • A. 

      Organization

    • B. 

      Accommodation

    • C. 

      Equilibrium

    • D. 

      Assimilation

  • 43. 
    Baby Faith sucks, grasps, and looks in much the same way, no matter what experiences she encounters. Faith is probably in Substage ____ of Piaget's sensorimotor period
    • A. 

      1

    • B. 

      2

    • C. 

      3

    • D. 

      4

  • 44. 
    Baby Sabrina opens her mouth differently for a nipple than for a spoon. In piaget's theory this is an example of a _________ circular reaction
    • A. 

      Reflexive

    • B. 

      Primary

    • C. 

      Secondary

    • D. 

      Tertiary

  • 45. 
    When 12 month old Barrett's mom asks him "where is your teddy bear?" Barrett responds by pointing to the place on his bed where the teddy bear usuaslly rests. Barrett is displaying
    • A. 

      Habituation and recovery

    • B. 

      Inferred imitation

    • C. 

      Displaced reference

    • D. 

      Means-end problem solving

  • 46. 
    The core knowledge perspective emphasizes
    • A. 

      Experimentation

    • B. 

      Native endowment

    • C. 

      Assimilation

    • D. 

      Accommodation

  • 47. 
    According to the information-processing framework, ________ make(s) more complex forms of thinking possible with age
    • A. 

      Increases in the size of short-term memory

    • B. 

      Changes in the structure of the mental system

    • C. 

      Increases in the capactiy of the mental system

    • D. 

      The emergence of goal directed behavior

  • 48. 
    After 2 to 6 month olds forget an operant response
    • A. 

      It takes months for them to reinstate the memory

    • B. 

      They need only a brief prompt to reinstate the memory

    • C. 

      They reinstate the memory after a few days

    • D. 

      They are unable to remember it without extensive training

  • 49. 
    Korean toddlers develop object-sorting skills later than their English speaking counterparts because
    • A. 

      They are less likely to be given opportunities to physically manipulate objects

    • B. 

      English speaking children develop language skills sooner than Korean speaking children

    • C. 

      The English language is less complex than the Korean language

    • D. 

      The Korean language often omits object names from sentences

  • 50. 
    Which of the following tasks would be within Lucy's zone of proximal development?
    • A. 

      A task that Lucy cannot accomplish alone or with the help of an adult

    • B. 

      A task that Lucy has recently mastered independently following the assistance of an adult

    • C. 

      A task that Lucy cannot yet handle on her own but can do with the help of an adult

    • D. 

      A task that Lucy accomplishes through her independent activity

  • 51. 
    18 month old Liam is putting together a puzzle. Liam's father begins to pointing to where each piece needs to go and then straightening out each piece as Liam places them on the puzzle board. As Liam's competence with the task increases, his father gradually withdraws support. This is an example of
    • A. 

      Scaffolding

    • B. 

      Cooperative learning

    • C. 

      Reciprocal learning

    • D. 

      Transitive inference

  • 52. 
    Kegan was given a test that indicates the extent to which his raw score deviates from the typical performance of same age individuals. Kegan's score is known as a(n)
    • A. 

      Normal distribution

    • B. 

      Intelligence quotient

    • C. 

      Screening quotient

    • D. 

      Standardization sample

  • 53. 
    Molly has an IQ of 130. Molly performed better than ______ percent of her agemates
    • A. 

      16

    • B. 

      50

    • C. 

      85

    • D. 

      98

  • 54. 
    Research shows the young children exposed to long hours of mediocre to poor-quality child care
    • A. 

      Score lower on cognitive measures only if they also come from low ses homes

    • B. 

      Score lower on language measure but high on social skills during the preschool years

    • C. 

      Still show gains in cognitive, emotional, and social competence in the elementary school years

    • D. 

      Score lower on measures of cognitive and language skills during the preschool and elementary school years

  • 55. 
    Which of the following statements is true about child care in the United States?
    • A. 

      More child care centers require that caregivers have speical training in child development

    • B. 

      Child care centers are nationally regulated and funded to ensure their quality

    • C. 

      In studies of quality, about 20 to 25 percent of child care centers offer substandard care

    • D. 

      Child care standards are set by the individual states and vary widely

  • 56. 
    Damange to the frontal lobes area of the adult left hemisphere usually yields _________ problems
    • A. 

      Language comprehension

    • B. 

      Language production

    • C. 

      No language

    • D. 

      Short term mild language

  • 57. 
    Which of the following statements is supported by research on babbling and deaf infants?
    • A. 

      Deaf infants not exposed to sign language will stop babbling entirely

    • B. 

      Deaf infants do not babble or coo unless they are exposed to sign language

    • C. 

      Deaf infants start babbling much earlier than hearing infants

    • D. 

      Deaf infants start babbling much later than hearing infants

  • 58. 
    10 month old Thad and his 12 year old brother watch their cat play with a ball. Thad looks at the cat hen looks at his brother to ensure that he is also watching the cat. Thad's brother labels the cat and the ball. Thad and his brother are engaged in
    • A. 

      Sustained attention

    • B. 

      Telegraphic speech

    • C. 

      Child-directed speech

    • D. 

      Joint attention

  • 59. 
    Sally and her granddaughter play peekaboo regularly. At first Sally starts the game and her granddaughter is an amused observer. by 12 months he granddaughter actively participates, trading roles with Sally. Sally is helping her granddaughter.
    • A. 

      Learn how to overextend and underextend.

    • B. 

      Understand the turn taking pattern of human conversation

    • C. 

      Develop a referential style of communication

    • D. 

      Understand telegraphic speech

  • 60. 
    Which of the following is most likely to be one of Baby Raj's first words?
    • A. 

      Table

    • B. 

      Box

    • C. 

      Red

    • D. 

      Kitty

  • 61. 
    In Erikson's theory the conflict of toddlerhood is resolved favorably when parents
    • A. 

      Provide suitable guidance and reasonable choices

    • B. 

      Use appropriate and warm toilet-training techniques

    • C. 

      Employ an authoritarian child-rearing style

    • D. 

      Employ a permissive child-rearing style

  • 62. 
    Sheldon, age 1 will most likely display a ______ smile for a friendly stranger
    • A. 

      Brief, fleeting

    • B. 

      Broad, "cheek-raised"

    • C. 

      Reserved, muted

    • D. 

      "mouth-open"

  • 63. 
    When an unfamiliar adult picks up Louisa, age 9 months the baby begins to cry and struggles to get down Lousia is exhibiting
    • A. 

      Stranger anxiety

    • B. 

      Avoidant attachment

    • C. 

      Insecure attachment

    • D. 

      Separation anxiety

  • 64. 
    Baby Emma is learning to stand. Each time she falls she looks at her caregiver. If the caregiver looks concerned Emma cries. If her caregiver smiles, Emma tries again. Emma is using
    • A. 

      A secure base

    • B. 

      Emotional self regulation

    • C. 

      Social referencing

    • D. 

      Effortful control

  • 65. 
    Self-concious emotions
    • A. 

      Are present at birth

    • B. 

      Are universal and basic

    • C. 

      Include happiness, fear, anger and sadness

    • D. 

      Involve injury to or enhancement of our sense of self

  • 66. 
    Evan covered his eyes when the witch appeared on the screen while he was watching The Wizard of Oz. Evan was using
    • A. 

      A secure base

    • B. 

      Emotional self regulation

    • C. 

      Social referencing

    • D. 

      Self-soothing

  • 67. 
    Gil describes his son as calm and cautious. He describes his daughter as cheerful and energetic. Gil's descriptions refer to the children's
    • A. 

      Ability to use effortful control

    • B. 

      Ability to use self-soothing

    • C. 

      Temperaments

    • D. 

      Level of reactivity

  • 68. 
    Baby Dak quickly establishes regular routines, is generally cheerful and adapts easily to new experiences. Dak would be classified by Thomas and Chess as
    • A. 

      Slow to warm up

    • B. 

      Uninhibited

    • C. 

      Difficult

    • D. 

      Easy

  • 69. 
    Brendon reacts negatively to and withdraws from novel stimuli. He could be classified as a  _______ _child
    • A. 

      Sociable

    • B. 

      Shy

    • C. 

      Easy

    • D. 

      Uninhibited

  • 70. 
    Baby Jane has begun to develop a sense of trust. She expects that her mother will respond when signaled. But Jane does not protest when separated from her mother. IN which of Bowlby's phases does Jane best fit?
    • A. 

      Preattachment

    • B. 

      "attachment in the making"

    • C. 

      "clear cut" attachment

    • D. 

      Formation of a reciprocal relationship

  • 71. 
    Baby matthew recognizes his own mother's smell, voice, and face. But matthew does not mind being left with an unfamiliar adult. In which of Bowlby' phrases does Matthew best fit?
    • A. 

      Preattachment

    • B. 

      Attachment in the making

    • C. 

      Clear out attachment

    • D. 

      Formation of a reciprocal relationship

  • 72. 
    Troy, age 3 understands that his father goes to work in the morning and picks Troy up from his babysitter's house after naptime. Troy seeks his father's comfort during time of stress. These examples show that Troy has developed
    • A. 

      Effortful control

    • B. 

      An internal working model

    • C. 

      Interactional synchrony

    • D. 

      A categorical self

  • 73. 
    In the Strange Situation, Juan uses his mother as a secure baese. When she leaves the room, Juan cries for a few minutes. When she returns, Juan seeks contact with her and then begins to explore toys once again. Juan is displaing characteristics of __________ attachment
    • A. 

      Avoidant

    • B. 

      Secure

    • C. 

      Disorganized/disoriented

    • D. 

      Resistant

  • 74. 
    Studies of adopted chidlren who spent their first year or more in deprived Eastern Europe orphanges indicate that
    • A. 

      Late adoptees are not able to bond with their adoptive parents

    • B. 

      Adoptees do not typically show social or emotional problems if adopted before the age of 6

    • C. 

      Fully normal emotional development depends on establishing a close tie with a caregiver early in life

    • D. 

      Adoptees delays and impariments tend to disappear in middle childhood

  • 75. 
    Baby Ashley picks up her ball and says "Ball!" ashley's father responds with a big smile and an enthusiatic "thats right ball!" In return, Ashley laughs. When Ashley is tired and crying, her father picks her up, rubs her back and sings softly to her. Ashley and her father are engaged in
    • A. 

      Attachment in the making

    • B. 

      Social referencing

    • C. 

      Goodness of fit

    • D. 

      Interactional synchrony

  • 76. 
    Which of the following children is most likely to be receiving abusive or neglectful care?
    • A. 

      Dante, whose attachment is disorganized/disoriented

    • B. 

      Sonya, who attachment is secure

    • C. 

      Anthony, whse attachment is avoidant

    • D. 

      Riley whose attachment is resistant

  • 77. 
    Highly involved fathers
    • A. 

      Tend to lose their arousing play style as their children get older

    • B. 

      Tend to have fathers who were not involved in rearing them

    • C. 

      Are less gender stereotyped in their beliefs than fathers who spend little time with their children

    • D. 

      Are warmer and more sensitive than working mothers

  • 78. 
    Which of the following is a true statement about grandparents who are primary caregivers?
    • A. 

      Warm grandparent- grandchild bonds help protect children from worsening adjustment problems, even under conditions of great hardship

    • B. 

      Less than 1 percent of the US child population live apart from parents and with their grandparents

    • C. 

      Grandparents in Caucasian families are more likely to serve as children's primary caregivers than grandparents in other ethnic groups

    • D. 

      Grandparent caregivers rarely forge secure attachment relationships with grandchildren in their care

  • 79. 
    Newborn Uli displays a stronger rooting reflex in response to an adult's finger touching her cheek than to her own hand touching her cheek. This finding demonstrates that Uli has the beginnings of
    • A. 

      Self awareness

    • B. 

      Effortful control

    • C. 

      An internal working model

    • D. 

      Emotional self-regulation

  • 80. 
    Ahmed age 2 gives her favorite stuffed toy to his little brother when his brother falls down and starts to cry. Ahmed is displaying
    • A. 

      An internal working model

    • B. 

      Empathy

    • C. 

      A categorical self

    • D. 

      Social referencing

  • 81. 
    _____ the appearance of permanent teeth in children
    • A. 

      Overweight and obesity accelerate

    • B. 

      Poor dental hygiene in toddlerhood delays

    • C. 

      Prolonged malnutrition accelerates

    • D. 

      Excessive plaque on baby teeth delays

  • 82. 
    ____ help doctors measure skeltal age
    • A. 

      Growth norms

    • B. 

      X rays of epiphyses

    • C. 

      Height and weight

    • D. 

      Chronological age

  • 83. 
    During early childhood
    • A. 

      Preschoolers show declines in sustained attention

    • B. 

      The number of synapses in the prefrontal cortex is nearly double the adult value

    • C. 

      Energy metabolism in the cerebral cortex is at an all time low

    • D. 

      Synaptic pruning decreases

  • 84. 
    Felicity and Samantha are identical twins. They are
    • A. 

      Probably both right handed

    • B. 

      More likely than ordinary siblings to differ in handedness

    • C. 

      Probably both left handed

    • D. 

      Less likely than fraternal twins to differ in handedness

  • 85. 
    The ___________ plays a critical role in the rate of physical growth
    • A. 

      Pituitary gland

    • B. 

      Hippocampus

    • C. 

      Reticular formation

    • D. 

      Corpus callosum

  • 86. 
    Growth hormone (GH)
    • A. 

      Prompts the thyroid gland in the neck to release thyroxine, which is necessary for brain development

    • B. 

      Stimulates the liver and epiphyses of the skeleton to release insulin like growth factor 1 which triggers cell duplication throughout the body

    • C. 

      Contributes to rapid physical growth in boys, whereas thyroid-stimulating hormone contributes to physical development in girls

    • D. 

      Is necessary during the prenatal period for development of the rains and spinal cord

  • 87. 
    Dmitri, age 5 is very short in stature, show decreased GH secretion has an immature skeletal age and has serious adjustment problems. Dmitri probably has
    • A. 

      A vitamin C deficiency

    • B. 

      A thyroxine deficiency

    • C. 

      Psychosocial dwarfism

    • D. 

      An iron deficiency

  • 88. 
    When young children with psychosocial dwarfism are removed from their emotionally inadquate environments,
    • A. 

      Their dwarfism is permanent, even with immediate treatment

    • B. 

      They rarely exhibit catch up growth

    • C. 

      They must be given high levels of iron to prevent anemia

    • D. 

      Their GH levels quickly return to normal and they grow up rapidly

  • 89. 
    On average 2 and 3 year olds sleep ______ hours per day which 4 to 6 year olds sleep _____ hours
    • A. 

      10-11; 11-12

    • B. 

      11-12; 10-11

    • C. 

      11-12; 13-14

    • D. 

      13-14; 11-12

  • 90. 
    Research on sleep demonstrates that
    • A. 

      Most american parents cosleep with their children into the preschool years

    • B. 

      Sleepwalking in early childhood often signals a severe neurological problem

    • C. 

      Parent-child cosleeping is associated with sleep disorders during the preschool years

    • D. 

      Sleep terrors can be triggered by stress or extreme fatigue

  • 91. 
    Brianna age 4 eats on pasta bread and chicken. Which of the following would you suggest to Brianna's parents to encourage their daughter to eat new food?
    • A. 

      Serve her only new food so that she has no other choices

    • B. 

      Repeatedly expose her to new foods without any direct pressure to eat them

    • C. 

      Add sugar or butter to new foods and offer dessert if she eats them

    • D. 

      Refuse to serve pasta, until she tries to at least one new food

  • 92. 
    Sophia's parents will not allow her to eat any sugary foods. This practice usually
    • A. 

      Prompts children to eat more healthy foods

    • B. 

      Has no effect on children's eating behavior

    • C. 

      Focuses children's attention on sugary foods

    • D. 

      Decreases children's sire to eat sugary foods

  • 93. 
    Which of the following children is the most likely to lack immuniations?
    • A. 

      Sam from the united states

    • B. 

      Kristen from canada

    • C. 

      Nigel from great britain

    • D. 

      Elsa from sweden

  • 94. 
    3 year old billy caught five colds during his first year in preschool. he also experienes repeated otitis media. If billy is like other children with frequent otitis media he may have trouble
    • A. 

      Attending to others' needs

    • B. 

      Falling and staying asleep

    • C. 

      Mastering large motor skills such as running and climbing

    • D. 

      Identifying the letters of the alphabet

  • 95. 
    Childhood injuries
    • A. 

      Are typically accidental and usually cannot be prevented

    • B. 

      Occur within a complex ecological system and can often be prevented

    • C. 

      Rank second only to cancer as a cause of childhood mortality in industrialized nations

    • D. 

      Are less common in the united states than in other industrialized nations

  • 96. 
    Which of the following is a true statement about preventing childhood injury?
    • A. 

      During the past 30 years parents have changed a great deal in the amount they do to protect their children from injury

    • B. 

      In the US more than 80% of infant seats and 40% of child booster seats are improperly used

    • C. 

      In the US about 15% of parents fail to place their children in car safety seats

    • D. 

      Young children properly restrained in car safety seats have a 50% reduced risk of fatal injury

  • 97. 
    Caitlyn age 4 can properly
    • A. 

      Tie her shoes

    • B. 

      Ride a bike with training wheels

    • C. 

      Draw a person with six parts

    • D. 

      Use scissors

  • 98. 
    Harvey age 3 can probably
    • A. 

      Gallop and skip with one food

    • B. 

      Copy some numbers and simple words

    • C. 

      Zip and unzip large zippers

    • D. 

      Ride a bike with training wheels

  • 99. 
    Girls
    • A. 

      Run slightly faster than boys

    • B. 

      Can jump farther than boys

    • C. 

      Are ahead of boys in skills that emphasize force

    • D. 

      Are ahead of boys in drawing skills

  • 100. 
    Direct instruction in which of the following activies is most likely to accelerate gross-motor development in early childhood?
    • A. 

      Throwing

    • B. 

      Running

    • C. 

      Dancing

    • D. 

      Tumbling

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