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Fairly comfortable for women but not for men.
Downright grim for most pioneer families
Free of disease and premature death.
Rarely portrayed in popular literature.
Based on tight-knit communities.
The push west in search of cheap land. government regulation of all major economic industry. a vast number of European immigrants settling in the cities. the push west in search of cheap land
Government regulation of all major economic industry.
A vast number of European immigrants settling in the cities
Newly invented machinery
Better roads, faster steamboats, far-reaching canals, far spread roads
The annual population growth rate was much higher than in colonial days.
The urban population was growing at an unprecedented rate.
The birthrate was rapidly declining
The death rate was increasing
The center of population moved northward
Led to a lower death rate.
Contributed to a decline in the birthrate.
Resulted in unsanitary conditions in many communities
Forced the federal government to slow immigration.
Created sharp political conflict between farmers and urbanites
Were mostly Roman Catholics and hated the British
Tended to settle on western farmlands
Were warmly welcomed by American workers.
Identified and sympathized with free American blacks.
Were often members of the Irish Republican Army.
Were thought to love alcohol
Were Roman Catholic
Frequently became police officers
Were slow to learn English
Often became Baptist or Methodists to escape nativism hatred.
Mixed well with other Americans.
Remained mostly in the Northeast.
Prospered with astonishing ease.
Dropped most of their German customs.
The cult of domesticity.
Want to attend school with Protestants.
Overwhelm the native-born Catholics and control the church
“establish” the Catholic church at the expense of Protestantism.
Assume control of the “Know Nothing” party.
Establish monasteries and convents in the west.
Samuel F. B. Morse
Use of interchangeable parts
Principle of limited liability
Passing of protective tariffs
Samuel Morse 1. Telegraph
Cyrus McCormick 2. Mower-reaper
Elias Howe 3: Steamboat
Robert Fulton 4: Sewing machine
Substantial employment of women and children in factories.
Strikes by workers that were few in number but usually effective. strikes by workers that were few in number but usually effective
A general lengthening of the workday from ten to fourteen hours.
Extensive political activity among workers.
Reliance on the system of apprentices and masters.
Corporations were unconstitutional.
Labor unions were not illegal conspiracies
Labor strikes were illegal, they violated the Fair Labor Acts.
The Boston Associates employment of young woman and children in their factories was inhumane.
The state could regulate factory wages and working conditions.
Gave women more opportunity to seem employment out of the home
Resulted in more pregnancies for women
Restricted women’s moral influence on the family.
Glorified the traditional role of women as homemakers
Was especially strong among rural women.
Subsistence farming became common. subsistence farming became common. subsistence farming became common
Farmers began to support the idea of slave labor
Farmers quickly faced mounting indebtedness.
The South could harvest a larger crop.
The issue of farm surpluses came to the forefront
Mainline Canal in Pennsylvania
James River Canal beginning in Virginia.
Wabash Canal in Indiana.
Erie Canal in New York.
Were more expensive to construct
Transported freight more slowly.
Were generally safer.
Were susceptible to weather delays
Could be built almost anywhere.
Fewer slaves were needed on plantations.
Short-staple cotton lost popularity
Slavery was reinvigorated.
Thomas Jefferson predicted the gradual death of slavery.
The African slave trade was legalized.
Produced fewer front-rank statesmen than the North
Dominated society and politics in the South
Provided democratic rule in the South
Promoted tax-supported public education
Kept up developments in modern thought.
It relied mainly on artificial means to fertilize the soil
It required leaving cropland fallow every other year.
Excessive water was used for irrigation.
It was too diversified, thus taking essential nutrients from the soil
Its excessive cultivation of cotton despoiled good land.
Had little contact with slaves
Primarily controlled male slaves
Frequently supported abolitionism
Commanded a sizable household staff of mostly female slaves
Were almost universally loved by their slaves
Supporting their right to full citizenship.
Disliking the race but liking individual blacks.
Advocating black movement into the new territories
Politically sympathetic but socially segregationist
Disliking the individuals but liking the race
Hobbled the economic development of the region as a whole
Saw many slaves moving to the upper South.
Led to the textile industry’s development in the South first
Relied almost totally on importing slaves to meet the unquenchable demand for labor.
Enabled the South to afford economic and educational progress.
Given some of the most dangerous jobs
Generally spared dangerous work
Given the same jobs as Irish laborers
Usually given skilled rather than menial jobs.
Generally supervised in small groups.
The enforced separation of slave families.
Slaveowners’ frequent use of the whip
The breeding of slaves
Having to do the most dangerous work on the plantation.
Forcible sexual assault by slaveowners
Atlantic states of North and South Carolina.
Deep South states of Georgia and Florida
Territories of Kansas, Nebraska, and New Mexico.
Upper South states of Virginia and Maryland.
Newer states of Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana
Slave life on the frontier was harder than that of life in the more settled areas.
A distinctive African American slave culture developed.
A typical planter had too much of his own prosperity riding on the backs of his slaves to beat them on a regular basis.
By 1860 most slaves were concentrated in the “black belt” of the Deep South.
Most slaves were raised in single unstable parent households.
Without the benefit of a stable home life.
In stable two-parent households.
Never knowing anything about their relatives.
Not to display their African cultural roots.
Sabotage of plantation equipment
Stealing food and other goods.
John Quincy Adams
Proposed by William Loyd Garrison
Proposed as part of the 14th Amendment.
Advocated by Frederick Douglass.
Suggested by the African nation of Liberia
Supported by the black leader Martin Delany.
A, B, C
C, A, B
B, C, A
A, C, B
C, B, A
Shipping freed blacks back to Africa
Outlawing the slave trade.
Preventing the expansion of slavery beyond the South.
Forming an antislavery political party.
The immediate abolition of slavery in the South
A-4, B-2, C-1, D-3
A-1, B-4, C-2, D-3
A-1, B-3, C-4, D-2
A-2, B-1, C-4, D-3
A-3, B-2, C-1, D-4
Were creating disorder in America
Were defending the American way of life
Deserved the right to speak freely.
Had turned their backs on religion
Were undermining fundamental American beliefs.
The concept of original sin
The reliance on reason rather then revolution
Belief in supreme being
Belief in human beings capacity for moral behavior
Denial of the divinity of jesus
The deity of christ
A supreme being who created the universe
the imminent end of the world
Retained the rigor of colonial religion
Was ignored by 3/4 of the people
Had lost some of its austere Calvinist rigor
Had grown more conservative
Had become tied to the upper class
Resulted in the conversion of countless souls
Encouraged a variety of humanitarian reforms
Strengthened democratic denominations like the baptist and methodists
Was a reaction against the growing liberalism in religion
Was not as large as the first great awakening
The deity of christ
Salvation through good works
He bible as the norm of doctrine
Seventh day adventists
Little increase in church membership
A strong religious influence in many areas of american life
Surprisingly few humanitarian reforms
Greater attention to church history and doctrine
All of the above
Opposition to slavery
A perfect christian kingdom on earth
Opposition to alcohol
Public prayer by women
All of the above
Charles G Finney
Promote religious diversity
Reduce social class differences
Blur regional class differences
Discourage church membership
Weaken women’s social position
The “burned over district” of new york
Roman catholics and episcopalians
Unitarians and adventists
Methodists and baptists
Congregationalists and presbyterians
Lutherans and mennonites
Widen the lines between classes and regions
Open the episcopal and presbyterian churches to the poor
Unite southern baptists and southern methodists against slavery
Bring the more prosperous and conservative eastern churches into the revivalist camps
Increase the influence of educated clergy
Ralph Waldo emerson
Charles g finney
The angel moroni
The book of mormon
Salt lake city
Highly individualistic lifestyles
Unwillingness to vote
Refusal to take up arms and defend themselves
Emphasis on cooperative or group effort
Flirtation with foreign governments
Were academically distinguished institutions
Lacked much intellectual vitality
Eventually gained tax supported status
Offered a new nontraditional curriculum
Opened their doors to catholic students
Existed mainly for the wealthy
Eliminated private and parochial education in the U.S.
Began in the south as early as 1800
Provided little opportunity for the poor
Was deemed essential for social stability and democracy
Chiefly available to educate the children of the poor
Most in evidence in the south
Continuously opposed by the wealthy, conservative whites
Open only to tuition paying children of the well to do
More academically demanding then private academies
Had little impact until the twentieth century
Helped to standardize the american language
Was used to educate the 19th century slaves
Came to the U.S. from Britain in the 1800’s
Gave legitimacy to American slang