Biology Final

106 Questions  I  By Aislingc on June 22, 2010
All my quizzes and test questions combined throughout the year for my biology class to study for my final.

  
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1.  If an atom has a charge of +1, which of the following must be true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
2.  When a complex molecule, such as a polypeptide, folds up in solution in water, regions of the moleculewith _________ bonds will be near the surface (associated with water molecules) because theseregions are ____________.
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B.
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D.
E.
3.  Which of the following properties of water is NOT affected by the strong cohesion between H2O molecules?
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B.
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E.
4.  Carbon has proven to be an extremely useful backbone element for complex biological molecules dueto strong electronegativity and valence number of 7, which allows carbon atoms to attract electrons fromalmost any other element.
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B.
5.  A chemical reaction in which the product has more potential chemical energy than the reactants iscalled endergonic.
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B.
6.  One atom named Stan shares electrons with Betty. Between them they share 4 electrons. What kind ofbond do they share?
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B.
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D.
7.  When Sodium loses an electron to chlorine it becomes?
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D.
8.  The two most common elements in the human body by number (not by mass) are _________and_________ .
9.  A solution contains 1 X 10-12 moles of H+ per liter. What is its pH?____________ Is the solution considered acidic or basic?_______________
10.  Molecules of this type are bonded together in_______________ reactions to form a_________________.
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E.
11.  Amino acids with ___________ groups that contain __________ are likely to be hydrophilic.
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12.  Which one of the following is NOT a component of each monomer used to make proteins?a carboxyl group, COOHa side chain, Ra phosphorous atom, Pan amino functional group, NH2
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D.
13.  Why are polymerization reactions endergonic?
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14.  At the pH found in cells (about 7.0), what happens to the amino group on an amino acid?
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D.
15.  Suppose you discovered a new amino acid. Its R-group contains only hydrogen and carbon atoms.Predict the behavior of this amino acid.
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D.
16.  An isomer of a particular molecule is :
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D.
17.  To act as an effective coolant in a car's radiator, a substance has to be a liquid at the temperaturesfound in your car's engine and have the capacity to absorb a great deal of heat. You have a referencebook with tables listing the physical properties of many liquids. In choosing a coolant for your car,which table would you check first?
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B.
C.
D.
18.  You have isolated a previously unstudied protein, identified its complete structure in detail, anddetermined that it catalyzes the breakdown of a large substrate. You notice it has two binding sites.One of these is large, apparently the bonding site for the large substrate; the other is small, possibly abinding site for a regulatory molecule. What do these findings tell you about the mechanism of thisprotein?
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B.
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D.
E.
19.  Which of the following means of transport would most likely be used for moving a medium-sized molecule (like amonosaccharide or an amino acid) from a low concentration on the outside of a cell to a high concentration onthe inside of a cell?
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D.
20.  GLUT-1 is an example of what?
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D.
21.  The small intestine is the site of digestion and absorption of nutrients. A single layer of epithelial cells lines thesmall intestine. In the duodenum (the first section of the small intestine), these epithelial cells secrete largequantities of digestive enzymes. Which of the following features would be typical of these epithelial cells?
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22.  What is the site of synthesis of proteins for export (secretion from the cell)?
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23.  Which of the following is not a characteristic that chloroplasts and mitochondria share?
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24.  How is the nuclear membrane related to the endoplasmic reticulum?
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25.  What is a purpose of the cell wall for both prokaryotes and plant cells?
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26.  What can you infer about high-molecular-weight proteins that cannot be transported into the nucleus?
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27.  What is the most important factor in explaining why diffusion occurs spontaneously?
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28.  Mitochondrial DNA codes for about 13 proteins (depending on the species of organism). These 13 proteinsaccount for a small proportion of the proteins present in mitochondria. The remaining proteins are coded for bynuclear DNA. What is the most likely explanation for how these proteins find their way to the mitochondria?
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D.
29.  Under what circumstances does membrane transport always require energy?
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30.  Osteocytes are bone cells. Collagen fibers and calcium salts are found in abundance between and among theosteocytes. The collagen and calcium salts are ________.
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D.
31.  Integrins are integral membrane proteins. They are often attached to ________.
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D.
32.  Put the following events in the process of signal-transduction for epinephrine action in order:1. A conformational change in the signal-receptor complex activates an enzyme.2. Protein kinases are activated.3. A signal molecule binds to a receptor.4. Target proteins are phosphorylated.5. Second messenger molecules are released.
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D.
33.  A kinase is an enzyme that ________.
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34.  G-protein receptors and tyrosine kinase receptors both initiate the signal transduction response bybinding signal molecules.
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35.  Nitric oxide (NO), a substance with small molecular weight, is rapidly degraded within an organismbut can function as a hormone. How does this substance enter the cell?
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D.
36.  Spherocytosis is a defect associated with a defective cytoskeletal protein in red blood cells. What do you suspectis one consequence of defective cytoskeletal proteins in red blood cells?
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37.  Multiple Choice Average Score 0.63 points (Extra credit)The glucocorticoid receptor is a protein that is found only in the cytoplasm until the hormone glucocorticoid entersthe cell and binds to this receptor. The receptor then translocates to the nucleus, where it regulates thetranscription of certain genes. If a specific sequence of the receptor is deleted from the protein, the receptor stillbinds glucocorticoid but does not enter the nucleus. Consider the following additional hypothetical experiment. Ifthe mutant receptor is fused with a fragment of protein that is normally found in the nucleus, the receptor entersthe nucleus regardless of whether glucocorticoid is bound. Which conclusion can be drawn from theseobservations?
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38.  Hormones are chemical substances produced in one organ that are released into the bloodstream and affect thefunction of a target organ. For the target organ to respond to a particular hormone, it must ________.
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D.
39.  Blood sugar is regulated by two pancreatic hormones, namely insulin and glucagon. When blood sugar rises,insulin is released; it binds to receptors and, through signal transduction, results in an increase in glucoseuptake by cells, effectively lowering blood glucose. When blood sugar decreases, glucagon is released, binds tocell receptors, and causes glucose to be released into circulation. Diabetes mellitus is a disorder that results from excessively high levels of blood glucose. Type II diabetics have normal to elevated levels of insulin. What,then, might be causing the elevated blood glucose levels?
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40.  What characteristic of ATP is responsible for its high energy level compared to AMP?
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41.  Following glycolysis and the Krebs cycle and before the electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation,the carbon skeleton of glucose has been broken down to CO2. Most of the energy from the original glucose atthat point is still in the form of ________.
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42.  Why might adding inorganic phosphate to a reaction mixture where glycolysis was rapidly proceeding help sustainthe metabolic pathway?
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43.  A metabolic pathway, glycolysis, is active when cellular energy levels are ________; the regulatory enzyme,phosphofructokinase, is ________ by ATP.
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44.  Substrate-level phosphorylation occurs within a metabolic pathway where sufficient energy is released by a givenchemical reaction to drive the synthesis of ATP from ADP and phosphate. Substrate-level phosphorylation is seenin which metabolic pathway(s)?
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45.  Which of these statements concerning the following reaction is true?Malate + NAD+ → oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
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46.  Which of the following events takes place in the electron transport chain?
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47.  Which of the following statements about the electron transport chain is true?
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48.  Animals inhale air containing oxygen and exhale air with less oxygen and more carbon dioxide. Afterinhalation, the extra oxygen from the air will mostly be found in
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49.  Fatty acids typically have an even number of carbons. They are catabolized by a process called beta-oxidation.The end-products of the metabolic pathway are acetyl groups of acetyl CoA molecules. What is the most likelyfate of the acetyl groups?
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50.  10 Multiple Choice Average Score 0.65 pointsWhich of the following statements concerning cellular metabolism is false?
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51.  The inner mitochondrial membrane normally ________.
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52.  A parent cell divides to form two genetically identical daughter cells in the process of mitosis. For mitosis to takeplace ________.
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53.  At the end of mitosis, each G1 daughter cell has ________.
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54.  Scientists isolate cells in various phases of the cell cycle. They find a group of cells that have 1½ times moreDNA than do G1 phase cells. The cells of this group are in ________.
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55.  The microtubular organizing center found in animal cells is an identifiable structure present during all phasesof the cell cycle. Specifically, it is known as which of the following?
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56.  The mitotic spindle is a microtubular structure that is involved in ________.
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57.  Some cells have several nuclei per cell. How might such multinucleated cells arise?
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58.  In the process of chromosome separation, how do microtubules maintain contact with the kinetochores andshorten at the same time?
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59.  Stomata, openings in the leaf, are important to photosynthesis for ________.
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60.  CAM plants function using crassulacean acid metabolism. Like C4 plants, CAM plants provide a preparatory stepfor the Calvin cycle. CAM plants are found in hot, dry environments; to prevent dessication, they keep theirstomata closed during the day. They take in carbon dioxide at night while stomata are open. To increase theconcentration of carbon dioxide available to the enzyme rubisco and minimize the degree of photorespiration, theCAM plants carboxylate ________.
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61.  Which of the following is a reasonable pathway for a carbon atom in a CO2 molecule, released from the Krebscycle in one of your cells, to re-enter the Krebs cycle in another one of your cells?
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62.  Which cytoskeletal proteins are important constituents of the contractile structures that form the cleavage furrowsinvolved in animal cell cytokinesis?
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63.  FtsZ is a bacterial cytoskeletal protein. It forms a contractile ring involved in bacterial cytokinesis. Its function isanalogous to ________.
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64.  Once researchers understood that chromosomes are moved by the spindle microtubules, the next question theywanted to answer is how the microtubules function to bring about this process. They used fluorescent labels tomake the chromosomes and the microtubular structures fluoresce. When anaphase began (centromeres split),they photobleached a section of microtubules. As chromosomes moved toward the poles of the daughter cells,the photobleached sections of the microtubules remained stationary. This result suggests that ________.
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65.  Nerve cells lose their ability to undergo mitosis. Instead, they are permanently stuck in ________.
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66.  Once a cell completes mitosis, molecular division triggers must be turned off. What happens to MPF duringmitosis?
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67.  Which of the following is not an effect of mitosis-promoting factor (MPF) involved in moving a cell into M phase?Correct Answers Percent Answered
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68.  The M-phase checkpoint is designed to make sure all chromosomes are attached to the mitotic spindle. If thisfails to happen, in which stage of mitosis would the cells be most likely to arrest?
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69.  If a cell has accumulated DNA damage, it is unlikely to ________.
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70.  9 Multiple Choice Average Score 0.92 pointsRegulatory proteins that serve to prevent a cell from entering the S phase under conditions of DNA damage arealso known as ________.
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71.  10 Multiple Choice Average Score 0.71 pointsFor cells to divide more rapidly, increased production would likely be required of each of the following proteinsexcept ________.
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72.  Egg and sperm, involved in sexual reproduction, are formed through a process called ________.
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73.  Egg and sperm, involved in sexual reproduction, are formed through a process called ________.
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74.  Sister chromatids in meiosis separate during ________.
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75.  What is a major difference between meiosis II and mitosis?
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76.  Crossover, the exchange of segments of homologous chromosomes, takes place during which of the followingprocesses?
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77.  Homologous chromosomes ________.
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78.  The egg of a fruit fly has 4 chromosomes. How many chromosomes are in a somatic cell of a fruit fly?
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79.  What happens when an individual has an odd number of chromosome sets (e.g., triploidy)?Correct Answers Percent Answered 8.696%
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80.  At what stage of meiosis does DNA replication take place?
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81.  The diploid number of a roundworm species is 4. You have a male and a female roundworm that are planninga family. Assuming there is no crossover, and random segregation of homologues during meiosis, how manydifferent possible combinations of chromosomes might there be in the offspring?
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82.  Adaptation to a changing environment occurs most efficiently through which of the following processes?
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83.  What is a major difference between mitosis and meiosis I?Correct Answers Percent Answered
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84.  If an individual has two copies of the same allele at a given locus, which of the following terms would describehis/her genotype for that specific trait?
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85.  Multiple Choice Average Score 0 pointsWhy was Mendel able to recover a three to one ratio of parental types in the F2 generations of his monohybridcrosses?
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86.  The following is a reasonable modern statement of Mendel's two laws of inheritance: "each individual has twoalleles at a given locus, which segregate from each other at meiosis and assort independently from other unlinkedloci."
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B.
87.  A recessive allele is defined as any allele that results in a deleterious or negative phenotype.
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88.  A mother with type A blood and a father with type B blood produce a child with type O blood. Which of thefollowing statements must be true?
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89.  A man and woman are both of normal pigmentation, but both have one parent who is albino (without melaninpigmentation). Albinism is an autosomal (not sex-linked) recessive trait. What is the probability that theirfirst child will be an albino girl?
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90.  Two white-flowered parental plants from independent but true-breeding genetic lineages produce an F1 generationwith all purple flowers. Which of the following is a reasonable explanation?
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91.  Which of the following is the genetic basis for a phenotypic trait that has a normal distribution in a population (forexample, height of individuals in the population).
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92.  A standard dihybrid cross of two true-breeding individuals produces the following phenotypic ratios in the F2generation: 9:3:3:1. You would be safe coming to which of the following conclusions?
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93.  If you performed a dihybrid cross of two loci that were 100 centimorgans apart, you would expect to see 100%recombinant phenotypes in the F2 generation.
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94.  Which of the following individuals provided the first empirical evidence that genes are located on specificchromosomes, using genetic crosses in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster?
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95.  Question 12 Multiple Choice Average Score 0 points (Extra credit)In humans, blue eyes are inherited as a recessive autosomal trait and color blindness is an X-linked recessivetrait. A woman with blue eyes and normal color vision whose father was color blind marries a man who also hasnormal color vision. He has brown eyes but his mother had blue eyes. Which of the following do you expect tobe true for their daughters?
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96.  RNA polymerase needs a subunit to initiate transcription that is not needed for transcript elongation. What is thesubunit?
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97.  2 Multiple Choice Average Score 1 pointsThe segments of DNA where transcription begins have a binding site for RNA polymerase. These segments areknown as ________.
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