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It has the same number of protons as electrons.
It has two more protons than neutrons.
It has one more electron than it does protons.
It has one more proton than it does electrons.
Non-polar / hydrophilic
Non-polar / hydrophobic
Polar / hydrophobic
Parched / thirsty
Polar / hydrophilic
Heat Of vaporization
Bond Of Love
As mad as @#$#@%^&
Exergonic/ hydrogen bond
Aminocarboxylation / protein
Functional / hydrogen
A carboxyl group, COOH
A side chain, R
A phosphorous atom, P
An amino functional group, NH2
They release heat. making the reatant monomers move faster
They reduce entropy
Because the condensation and hydrolysis reactions are equally spontaneous.
Because polymers are energetically more stable and have lower potential energy than monomers do.
It is reduced, and tends to act as an electron donor in redox reactions.
It acts as an acid and loses a proton, giving it a negative charge.
It acts as a base and gains a proton, giving it a positive charge.
It remains neutral, like water, and does not have a charge.
Relative to the amino acids found in organisms, its interactions with water will be intermediate.
It is hydrophilic.
It is hydrophobic.
Relative to the amino acids found in organisms, its interactions with water will be very high.
A molecule that has the same formula, but a different structure.
Another copy of the same molecule.
A molecule that is the same except it has an additional side group.
A molecule that has the same structure as the target molecule, but a different formula.
Heat of vaporization
Density at room temperature
It is probably a structural protein found in cartilage or skeletal tissue.
It is probably a structural protein that is involved in cell-to-cell adhesion.
It is probably an enzyme that works through allosteric regulation.
It is probably a cell membrane transport protein–like an ion channel
It is probably an enzyme that works through competitive inhibition.
Facilitated diffusion through a transporter protein
Facilitated diffusion through an ion channel protein
Active transport through a "pump" protein
A recognition protein that identifies cells as belonging to the body
A transport protein that facilitates diffusion of a large molecule across cell membranes
A protein that is toxic to cells by opening channels in membranes
A membrane-bound pump that moves large molecules against a gradient by using ATP
They have more smooth endoplasmic reticulum than rough endoplasmic reticulum.
They have larger nuclei than cells that secrete large quantities of lipids
They contain large quantities of rough endoplasmic reticulum.
They contain large numbers of lysosomes.
Ribosomes that attach to the outer mitochondrial membrane
Ribosomes that attach to the endoplasmic reticulum
Ribosomes that attach to the Golgi complex
They both have their own DNA.
They are capable of reproducing themselves.
They both have multiple membranes.
They are both part of the endomembrane system.
Ribosomes that exit the nucleus through the nuclear pore complex attach to ribosome receptor locations on the endoplasmic reticulum, thus providing a means of communication between the two structures.
The inner and outer bilayers of the nuclear envelope are separated by a space that is continuous with the space inside the endoplasmic reticulum, thus providing direct contact between the two structures
The nuclear lamina anchors the endoplasmic reticulum, providing structural support and communication through direct contact
The nucleolus is present in the nucleus, but communicates directly with the endoplasmic reticulum.
To provide a means of cell-cell interaction
To protect the cell from the effects of a hypotonic environment
To regulate the passage of solutes into and out of the cell
To enable the cell to obtain nutrients from its environment
They are defective proteins.
They are foreign proteins.
They lack nuclear localization signals (NLS).
They have been tagged for destruction.
The process is endothermic
It leads to an increase in entropy.
It leads to a decrease in entropy.
The process is exothermic.
MRNAs that are manufactured in the nucleus, but translated by mitochondrial ribosomes
Random transport vesicles
Attachment of ribosomes to outer mitochondrial pores and direct deposition into the inner mitochondrial compartment
Whenever molecules are moved that are too large to pass through the phospholipid bilayer membrane
Whenever a solute is charged, such as an ion, and is moved through a phospholipid bilayer membrane
Whenever a molecule is polar and is moved through a phospholipid bilayer membrane
Whenever a solute needs to be moved from low concentration to high concentration through a phospholipid bilayer membrane
Components of the plasma membrane of osteocytes.
Deposited by the circulatory system and are not associated with the osteocytes.
Extensions of the endoplasmic reticulum.
Part of the extracellular matrix
Cytoskeletal proteins and molecules of the extracellular matrix.
Membranes of intracellular organelles.
Glycogen molecules and other cellular inclusions.
Functions as a second messenger molecule.
Produces second messenger molecules.
Adds a phosphate group to target molecules.
Serves as a receptor for various signal molecules.
NO is soluble in the membrane, so it can diffuse into the cell.
It doesn't enter the cell, but attaches to a G-protein receptor and initiates a signal transduction pathway.
It directly affects gene expression.
It attaches to a receptor on the surface. The receptor-signal complex results in a conformational change that internalizes NO.
Adhering of blood cells to blood vessel walls, causing the formation of plaque
Abnormal cell shape
A lack of cellular proteins available to transport oxygen
Insufficient energy supply in the cell
The binding of glucocorticoid to the receptor must expose a nuclear localization signal.
Glucocorticoid is the nuclear localization signal for the receptor.
The glucocorticoid receptor does not have a nuclear localization sequence.
The glucocorticoid receptor enters the nucleus by a mechanism different from other proteins found in the nucleus.
Have the same genetic makeup.
Be from the same cell type as the organ that produced the hormone.
Have receptors that recognize and bind the hormone molecule.
Be experiencing a disruption in homeostasis.
Inability to regulate gene expression
Inadequate insulin production
Defective second messenger
The phosphorus atoms in the phosphate groups
The C—H bonds of the ribose sugar
The closely spaced negative charges associated with the phosphate groups
The nitrogen atoms in adenine
It would increase the amount of glucose available for catabolism.
The metabolic intermediates of glycolysis are phosphorylated
It would increase the oxygen supply available for aerobic respiration because each phosphate group has four oxygen atoms as constituents.
It increases the energy level of the electrons that are transferred to the electron transport chain where ATP is produced.
Both glycolysis and the Krebs cycle
Electron transport chain
All of the above pathways involve steps where substrate level phosphorylation takes place
Malate is more oxidized than oxaloacetate.
Oxaloacetate is more reduced than malate.
NAD+ is more reduced than NADH.
Malate is more reduced than oxaloacetate.
The breakdown of an acetyl group to carbon dioxide
Breakdown of glucose into two pyruvate molecules
The extraction of energy from high-energy electrons remaining from glycolysis and the Krebs cycle
Electrons are received from NADH and FADH2.
Electrons are passed from donor to recipient carrier molecules in a series of oxidation-reduction reactions.
Usually the terminal electron acceptor is oxygen.
Most of the enzymes are part of the inner mitochondrial membrane
All of the above
The carbon dioxide that is exhaled.
They directly enter the electron transport chain.
They are directly decarboxylated by pyruvate dehydrogenase.
They directly enter the energy-yielding stages of glycolysis.
They directly enter the Krebs cycle
Glycolysis is inhibited when cellular energy levels are abundant.
Krebs cycle activity is dependent solely on availability of substrate; otherwise it is unregulated.
Reactions of the Krebs cycle take place in the mitochondrial matrix.
In the electron transport chain, electrons decrease in energy level as they are transferred from one electron carrier to the next.
Contains enzymes responsible for two of the chemical reactions that take place as part of glycolysis.
Contains permease channels that allow small ions and water to pass readily through the membrane by simple diffusion.
Contains an active transport pump that pumps protons into the inner mitochondrial compartment from the point of high concentration to a point of lower concentration.
Is virtually impermeable to hydrogen ions (protons).
The parent cell must first be fertilized.
The parent cell must divide its DNA in half so each daughter cell gets only the genes needed to carry out its functions. In this way, differentiation occurs
The parent cell must reproduce its DNA during telophase.
The parent cell must replicate its entire genome prior to mitosis.
Twice the cytoplasm and the same amount of DNA as the G1 parent cell.
Twice the DNA and half the cytoplasm of the G1 parent cell.
Identical DNA to that of the G1 parent cell.
Half the DNA and half the cytoplasm of the G1 parent cell.
The process of cytokinesis
The G2 phase of the cell cycle.
Triggering the compaction and condensation of chromosomes.
Disassembly of the nucleolus.
Separation of sister chromatids.
Splitting of the cell (cytokinesis) following mitosis.
Repeated mitosis without cytokinesis
Multiple S phases before the entry of a cell into mitosis
Repeated mitosis with concomitant cytokinesis
Repeated cytokinesis with no mitosis
The centrosomes move apart, so the microtubular proteins do not need to shorten.
The centrosomes create the shortening/depolymerization of the microtubular proteins.
Motor proteins move chromosomes down the microtubular structures of the mitotic spindle.
Actin microfilaments cause the microtubular proteins to slide past each other.
Removal of nitrogen-containing waste products
Entry of carbon dioxide that is used in the Calvin cycle.
Entry of oxygen that is used in the Calvin cycle.
Removal of water and carbon dioxide, the end-products of photo-oxidation
Diffuses into the bloodstream → is breathed out through the lungs → is inhaled by a mouse → becomes fixed into a C4 acid by PEP carboxylase → is converted to glucose in the Calvin cycle → the mouse climbs into your freezer and is frozen→ you mistake the mouse for a popsicle and eat it → you digest the mouse and glucose is transported through your bloodstream into a muscle cell → glucose moves through the glycolytic pathway → is converted to acetyl CoA in the mitochondrion.
Diffuses into your bloodstream → is exhaled through your lungs → is incorporated into G-3-P by the Calvin cycle in a sugar plant → is converted into sucrose → the sugar plant is used to make cane sugar, which then is used as an ingredient in Tang → you are sent to Mars as an astronaut/biologist to look for evidence of life → your get thirsty and drink the Tang → glucose enters your bloodstream from intestinal cells by facilitated diffusion → glucose enters your muscle cells and moves into the glycolytic pathway → the end product of glycolysis is converted into acetyl CoA in the mitochondrion.
Diffuses into your bloodstream → is exhaled though your lungs → is inhaled by your friend Stan → is fixed into G-3-P in the Calvin cycle in one of Stan’s mitochondria → is pumped into Stan’s bloodstream through a GLUT-1 transporter → is exhaled by Stan while the two of you are dining at Taco Bell → is picked up by an E. coli cell in your taco → you eat the E. coli cell → the cell diffuses into your bloodstream then into a muscle cell → it enters the mitochondrion and is digested to form G-3-P and acetyl coA.
Diffuses into your bloodstream → is exhaled through your lungs → diffuses into a Dictyostelium cell → causes Dictyostelium to form a fruiting body which releases the molecule as a spore → you inhale the spore and it diffuses into your bloodstream → it is incorporated into acetyl coA through and exergonic reaction catalyzed by the enzyme hexokinase → is imported into a muscle cell via osmosis→ it diffuses into the mitochondrion and combines with citrate to form rubisco.
Diffuses into your bloodstream → is exhaled through your lungs → diffuses into a raindrop and soaks into the ground → is converted into ethanol through fermentation by an anaerobic fungus → moves into the roots of an apple tree by pinocytosis → moves through the plant’s vascular system to a cell in a developing fruit → enters the Z-scheme and is converted to NADPH → moves into the mitochondrion and is converted to acetyl CoA in the Calvin cycle → you eat the apple and acetyl CoA is moved into your bloodstream through a ATPase ion pump → it diffuses into a muscle cell and undergoes β-oxidation, which is yet another name for the Krebs cycle.
The cell plate of eukaryotic plant cells.
The cleavage furrow of eukaryotic animal cells.
The mitotic spindle of eukaryotic cells.
The microtubular organizing center of eukaryotic cells.
The microtubules elongate and shorten at their kinetochore end.
The microtubules overlap, and slide with respect to each other, effectively shortening the microtubules without depolymerizing the actual fiber.
The microtubules are of constant length; centrosomes move farther apart to separate chromosomes
The microtubules elongate and shorten at the centrosome end.
S of interphase.
Cyclin is degraded; the concentration of cyclin-dependent kinase remains unchanged, but without cyclin, MPF is not formed.
The cyclin-dependent kinases take on a function unrelated to mitosis.
Cyclin-dependent kinase is degraded; cyclin concentration remains constant, but without cyclin-dependent kinase, MPF is not formed.
It is completely degraded.
Phosphorylation of an enzyme that breaks down the cyclin molecule
Phosphorylation of lamins, initiating breakdown of the nuclear membrane
Phosphorylation of microtubule associated proteins, triggering the formation of the mitotic spindle
Degradation of cyclin-dependent kinase
Pass the G2 checkpoint.
Synthesize cyclin-dependent kinases.
Enter G1 from mitosis.
Activate DNA repair mechanisms.
Sister chromatids separate in mitosis, and homologues separate in meiosis II.
Meiosis II takes place in a haploid cell, while mitosis takes place in diploid cells
Homologues align on the metaphase plate in meiosis II.
Crossover takes place in meiosis II.
Align on the metaphase plate in meiosis II.
Carry information on the same trait
Carry the same alleles
They go through three sets of meiosis (meiosis I, meiosis II, and meiosis III)
They produce offspring with an even number of chromosome sets (e.g., tetraploid, hexaploid).
Their offspring are often sterile.
Their cells are unable to complete meiosis.
Between meiosis I and meiosis II
DNA replication does not take place in cells destined to undergo meiosis.
None. DNA replication occurs before meiosis I begins.
Asexual reproduction and genetic recombination
Prophase is longer and more complex in mitosis.
Only meiosis I results in daughter cells that contain identical genetic information.
DNA replication takes place prior to mitosis, but not before meiosis I.
Sister chromatids separate in mitosis, and homologues separate in meiosis I.
He worked with round rather than wrinkled peas
He only used co-dominant alleles in his crosses.
He avoided large sample sizes and never took a quantitative approach.
Mendel didn't recover a 3:1 phenotype ratio in the F2 generation. All of F2 progeny showed the same phenotype.
He used only true-breeding parental lines.
The mother is heterozygous for the A allele, and the father is homozygous for the B allele.
Both parents are homozygous at the blood-type locus.
Both parents are heterozygous at the blood-type locus.
Someone else must be the father, because a child of these two parents could not possibly have type O blood.
The mother is homozygous for the A allele, and the father is heterozygous for the B allele.
Flower color is a quantitative trait.
Purple is recessive to white.
Flower color must be encoded for genes in the chloroplast genome.
Mendel was wrong, after all!
Everyone in the population is heterozygous at the height locus.
Many different genetic loci contribute to a given height phenotype.
Tall and short are co-dominant alleles at a single height locus.
Height is inherited in a non-Mendelian fashion.
Height is an X-linked trait
There is a dominant and recessive allele at both loci used in the cross.
The loci encoding the two traits in this cross are unlinked.
The original parental plants both were homozygous at both loci studied in this cross.
The alleles at each locus segregate from each other during meiosis, and assort independently from the alleles at the other locus.
All The Above
Thomas Hunt Morgan
Giggles, the dancing ostrich
One-half of their daughters will be color blind and have blue eyes; 1/2 their daughters will be color blind and have brown eyes
One-half of their daughters will have normal color vision and brown eyes; 1/2 of their daughters will have normal color vision and blue eyes.
Their daughters will all have normal color vision and brown eyes.
One-fourth of their daughters will be color blind and have blue eyes, 1/4 of their daughters will be color blind and have brown eyes, 1/4 of their daughters will have normal color vision and blue eyes, 1/4 of their daughters will have normal color vision and brown eyes.
Their daughters will all have normal color vision and have blue eyes.
The same size as; larger than
Larger than; smaller than
The same as; the same size as
Larger than; the same size as
Autocatalysis by introns
Proteins of the spliceosome
Addition of a methyl-guanosine cap
Removal of introns
Addition of a poly (A) tail
All the above
Concurrent transcription and translation
Translation in the absence of a ribosome
The poly (A) tail of a properly modified mRNA
The anticodon of a properly formed aminoacyl tRNA
The twisting number of a properly supercoiled DNA
The methyl-guanosine cap of a properly modified mRNA
It base pairs with the codon of mRNA
It stabilizes the tRNA-amino acid complex
It attaches to the amino acid.
It is the active site of this ribozyme.
There are tRNAs that can bind one of two related amino acids.
Only 20 of the codons are active–one for each amino acid
An anticodon forms hydrogen bonds with the codon; it must match the first two bases of the codon, but is less specific with respect to the third base.
Only about 40 of the recognized 61 codons are present in mRNA