Anatomy And Physiology II Mid-term

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  • 1. 
    Tremors, increase heart rate, weight loss, and heat intolerance are symptoms of:
    • A. 

      Hypothyroidism

    • B. 

      Hyperthyroidism

    • C. 

      Hyperadrenalism

    • D. 

      All of the above


  • 2. 
    Gigantism is an excess growth hormone that occurs in:
    • A. 

      Children

    • B. 

      Adults

    • C. 

      Any age

    • D. 

      Males only


  • 3. 
    This gland is divided into anterior and posterior segments:
    • A. 

      Hypothalamus

    • B. 

      Adrenal gland

    • C. 

      Pituitary

    • D. 

      Thyroid


  • 4. 
    The glands that are responsible for the production of milk are called the
    • A. 

      Gonads

    • B. 

      Adrenals

    • C. 

      Mammary glands


  • 5. 
    Which of the endocrine organs can effectively control the pituitary gland?
    • A. 

      Hypothalamus

    • B. 

      Pineal

    • C. 

      Thyroid


  • 6. 
    Chemical messengers released directly into the bloodstream, with the ability to affect cells for hours or days, are called ________.  
    • A. 

      Transmitters

    • B. 

      Hormones

    • C. 

      Enzymes

    • D. 

      None of these


  • 7. 
    The ________ gland is important in regulating blood glucose.
    • A. 

      Thyroid

    • B. 

      Adrenals

    • C. 

      Pancrease

    • D. 

      All of these


  • 8. 
    _______  steroids are a class of molecules that cause an increase in muscle mass
    • A. 

      NSAIDS

    • B. 

      Prednisone

    • C. 

      Anabolic

    • D. 

      Any of these


  • 9. 
     Insulin and glucagon are produced by the ________.
    • A. 

      Thyroid

    • B. 

      Pancrease

    • C. 

      Hypothalamus

    • D. 

      Pineal


  • 10. 
    Melatonin is produced by the:
    • A. 

      Hypothalamus

    • B. 

      Thyroid

    • C. 

      Pituitary

    • D. 

      Pineal


  • 11. 
    Diabetes insipidus is an endocrine disorder characterized by too little ADH or when the kidneys don't respond to ADH. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 12. 
    In Graves disease there is an overproduction of thyroid hormone.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 13. 
    The Thymus sits behind the sternum.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 14. 
    The adrenals are located on top of the kidneys.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 15. 
    The adrenals are divided into 2 layers.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 16. 
    The adrenal cortex produces cortisol as one of its hormones.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 17. 
    The adrenal cortex produces epinephrine.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 18. 
    Prolactin is produced in the anterior pituitary.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 19. 
    The hypothalamus produces LH and FSH.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 20. 
    Diabetes type II is an autoimmune disease.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 21. 
    The pituitary gland is located _________to the hypothalamus.
    • A. 

      Superior

    • B. 

      Inferior

    • C. 

      Lateral

    • D. 

      Medial


  • 22. 
    The thyroid is located in the:
    • A. 

      Base of the brain

    • B. 

      Mid-neck

    • C. 

      Behind the sternum

    • D. 

      None of these


  • 23. 
    A 45 year-old patient with insulin resistance, obesity, using medications for diabetes, and is on a diet and exercise program most likely has:
    • A. 

      Diabetes type I

    • B. 

      Diabetes insipidus

    • C. 

      Diabetes type II

    • D. 

      Hyperadrenalism


  • 24. 
    In homeostasis, the process that opposes or shuts down a stimulus is known as____________
    • A. 

      Positive feedback

    • B. 

      Negative feedback

    • C. 

      Homeostasis

    • D. 

      Set point


  • 25. 
    Chemical messengers released by the endocrine glands are called hormones.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 26. 
    The posterior pituitary produces the hormone(s) __________
    • A. 

      ADH

    • B. 

      Oxytocin

    • C. 

      Melanin

    • D. 

      ACTH

    • E. 

      ADH and OXT

    • F. 

      ACTH and OXT

    • G. 

      MSH and OXT


  • 27. 
    The following substance(s) can shut down ADH
    • A. 

      Citric juice

    • B. 

      Soda

    • C. 

      NSAIDs

    • D. 

      Caffeine

    • E. 

      Alcohol

    • F. 

      NSAIDs and Alcohol

    • G. 

      Caffeine and Alcohol


  • 28. 
    In a patient with diabetes insipidus, if they stop the intake of fluids you would expect__________
    • A. 

      The urine production to continue

    • B. 

      Urine becomes very concentrated due to lack of fluid intake

    • C. 

      The blood sugar to rise rapidly

    • D. 

      The urine becomes very yellow


  • 29. 
    The most common cause of Cushing's syndrome is ____________
    • A. 

      A tumor in the adrenals

    • B. 

      Pituitary mass

    • C. 

      Steroid medications

    • D. 

      Inherited


  • 30. 
    A 45 year-old male presents with complaints of fatigue, depressiion and weight gain. Vital signs are within normal limits except the blood pressure which is elevated. On physical exam you note truncal obesity, blue to purplish striations, and a moon face. What is the most likely cause of this patient's condition?
    • A. 

      GH increase

    • B. 

      PRL increase

    • C. 

      Anabolic steroids only

    • D. 

      Steroid medication use

    • E. 

      Heart disease


  • 31. 

    A 47 year-old male presents with complaints of headache and hearing loss.  He has been a patient of your for 20 years. You notice that over the years his voice is become deeper and his hands have been getting larger. He also tells you that he shoe size has increased over the years. All physical exam findings are normal including weight and height. A picture is shown below. What is the most likely cause of his condiiton?
    • A. 

      Smoking

    • B. 

      Anabolic steroids

    • C. 

      Anterior pituitary tumor producing excess growth hormone

    • D. 

      Cortisol levels

    • E. 

      Posterior pituitary tumor producing excess ADH and OXT


  • 32. 

    The sign shown below is characteristic of____________
    • A. 

      Hashimotos thyroiditis

    • B. 

      Goiter

    • C. 

      Graves disease

    • D. 

      Iodine therapy


  • 33. 
    If serum calcium levels fall, this hormone is likely to increase:
    • A. 

      Calcitonin

    • B. 

      Parathyroid hormone

    • C. 

      Thyroid hormone

    • D. 

      All of the above


  • 34. 
    Normal levels of fasting blood sugar are_____________
    • A. 

      50 - 100 mg/dL

    • B. 

      70-90 mg/dL

    • C. 

      70 - 110 mg/dL

    • D. 

      None of these


  • 35. 
    Diabetes type 2 is considered a multifactoral disease
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 36. 
    Diabetes type 2 may be autoimmune in most cases
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 37. 
    The prolonged use of Anabolic steroids may shutdown the hypothalamus and cause the body not to make its own testosterone leading to testicular atrophy (shrinkage). 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 38. 
    High cortisol levels are associated with stroke in overweight patients
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 39. 
    Loss of bone density is a common side effect of steroids
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 40. 
    What are the vessels that lead from the renal cortex to the glomeruli
    • A. 

      Efferent

    • B. 

      Afferent

    • C. 

      Both

    • D. 

      None


  • 41. 
    Endometrial tissue located outside of the uterus is known as:
    • A. 

      Fibroids

    • B. 

      Endometrial hyperplasia

    • C. 

      Endometritis

    • D. 

      Endometriosis


  • 42. 
    A patient with multiple births and urination with sneezing or lauging most likely has:
    • A. 

      Pyuria

    • B. 

      Urge incontinence

    • C. 

      Stress incontinence

    • D. 

      Cystitis


  • 43. 
    This is the most common type of stone: 
    • A. 

      Uric acid

    • B. 

      Cholesterol

    • C. 

      Calcium

    • D. 

      None of these


  • 44. 
    A knot or network of capillaries found within the corpuscle is known as:
    • A. 

      Nephron

    • B. 

      Afferent arteriole

    • C. 

      Efferent arteriole

    • D. 

      Glomerulus


  • 45. 
    The nephron is divided into two major parts:  
    • A. 

      Minor calyx and major calyx

    • B. 

      Major calyx and capillaries

    • C. 

      Filter and tubules

    • D. 

      Collecting duct and capillaries


  • 46. 
    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) can cause urinary obstruction and lead to urinary frequency and decreased urinary stream.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 47. 
     The 3 layers of the kidneys are the renal capsule, cortex, renal medulla  Renal capsule, cortex, renal medulla Renal capsule, cortex, renal medulla  
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 48. 
    Examination of the hymen is still an acceptable way to check for virginity.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 49. 
    Diabetes type II is an autoimmune disease.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 50. 
     Type II diabetes is characterized by  insulin resistance, obesity, age greater than 30 years-old,.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 51. 
    The adrenal cortex produces epinephrine.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 52. 
    Some of the hormones produced in the ANTERIOR pituitary include ACTH, TSH, PRL, LH, FSH .
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 53. 
     These hormones control the gonads: LH, FSH .
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 54. 
     A disease caused by low thyroid levels during fetal development and leading to severe mental retardation is known as hyperthyroidism.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 55. 
    Symptoms of kidney stones include  hematuria, fever, nausea, flank pain, nausea .
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 56. 
     Diagnosis of kidney stones include history, physical exam, U/A, ultrasound . History, physical exam, U/A, ultrasound History, physical exam, U/A, ultrasound  
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 57. 
    A genetic disorder where large cysts are found in the kidney is known as polycystic ovarian syndrome. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 58. 
     The functional unit of the kidney is the neuron. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 59. 
    The ureter is the tubing that transports urine from the bladder to the outside of the body
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 60. 
    In order to form urine the nephron must perform three major processes: glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, tubular secretion 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 61. 
     Painful urination, urinary frequency, nighttime urination, and foul smelling, cloudy urine are symptoms of ________.
    • A. 

      Uremia

    • B. 

      UTI

    • C. 

      Azotemia

    • D. 

      Prostate cancer


  • 62. 
    The process by which most of the material in the nephron moves back into the blood is called
    • A. 

      Secretion

    • B. 

      Reabsorption

    • C. 

      Filtration


  • 63. 
    The only cure for end-stage renal disease is ________.
    • A. 

      Dialysis

    • B. 

      Renal transplant

    • C. 

      ACE inhibitore


  • 64. 
    Urinary tract infections may often be caused by ________ bacteria from the GI tract
    • A. 

      H. pylori

    • B. 

      E. coli

    • C. 

      Bacteroidis


  • 65. 
    As the blood leaves the kidney, this filtered blood is carried away by the ________
    • A. 

      Renal vein

    • B. 

      Renal artery

    • C. 

      Capillaries


  • 66. 
    The smooth muscle layer of the uterus is called the
    • A. 

      Myometrium

    • B. 

      Myocardium

    • C. 

      Endometrium


  • 67. 
    This Hormone causes ovulation in the mid-cycle
    • A. 

      FSH

    • B. 

      Gonadotropin

    • C. 

      LH

    • D. 

      Testosterone


  • 68. 
    The glands that are responsible for the production of milk are called the
    • A. 

      Gonads

    • B. 

      Adrenals

    • C. 

      Mammary glands


  • 69. 
    Which pair of chromosomes would result in the birth of a male?
    • A. 

      XX

    • B. 

      XY

    • C. 

      XO


  • 70. 
    Which of the following is associated with cervical cancer?
    • A. 

      HSV

    • B. 

      HSV II

    • C. 

      HPV

    • D. 

      Gonorrhea


  • 71. 
    The gland is divided into anterior and posterior segments:
    • A. 

      Hypothalamus

    • B. 

      Adrenal gland

    • C. 

      Pituitary

    • D. 

      Thyroid


  • 72. 
    The following describes the recommended screening for prostate:
    • A. 

      PSA plus digital rectal exam

    • B. 

      PSA only

    • C. 

      DRE only

    • D. 

      No screening recommended


  • 73. 
    screening for pap smears is recommended by:
    • A. 

      Age 15

    • B. 

      Age 18

    • C. 

      Age 18 or 3 years after first sexual relation

    • D. 

      Any age


  • 74. 
    Gigantism is an excess growth hormone that occurs in:
    • A. 

      Children

    • B. 

      Adults

    • C. 

      Any age

    • D. 

      Males only


  • 75. 
    Using the picture in question 80, the structure labeled B is
    • A. 

      Urethra

    • B. 

      Epididymis

    • C. 

      Vas deferens

    • D. 

      Prostate


  • 76. 
    Using the picture in question 80, the structure labeled C is
    • A. 

      Urethra

    • B. 

      Epididymis

    • C. 

      Vas deferens

    • D. 

      Prostate


  • 77. 
    Using the picture in question 80, the structure labeled D is
    • A. 

      Vas deferens

    • B. 

      Epididymis

    • C. 

      Seminal vesical

    • D. 

      Prostate


  • 78. 
    A pap smear should start at 17 years old or 2 years after first sexual intercourse.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 79. 
    HPV has been highly associated with cervical cancer.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 80. 

    Select the multiple choice answer that correspond to the structure labeled A
    • A. 

      Prostate

    • B. 

      Vas deferens

    • C. 

      Epididymis

    • D. 

      Urethra


  • 81. 
    BPH is diagnosed by DRE (digital rectal exam) and PTH levels.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 82. 
    Breast cancer screening is done with self-breast exam, physical exam by the physician, and mammogram. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 83. 
    The average gestational period is ___________
    • A. 

      37 weeks

    • B. 

      34 weeks

    • C. 

      40 weeks

    • D. 

      44 weeks


  • 84. 
    A 25 year-old female presents with breast tenderness. She is currently breast feeding her 6 weeks old infant. On exam you note the breast to be engorged, red, and swollen more on the right side. The doctor recommends heat application and analgesics that are safe for the infant. She asks if she should continue breast feeding, your response should be:
    • A. 

      No, it is dangerous for the infant.

    • B. 

      No, it may be harmful to your health

    • C. 

      Yes, it is recommended to continue breat feeding

    • D. 

      Tell her to you only soy formula


  • 85. 
    A patient presents with difficulty maintaining an erection. He is 25 years-old. After a complete physical exam, and testing him for diabetes, and performong a full work up, everything comes back normal. The most likely cause of his condition is:
    • A. 

      Organic

    • B. 

      Psychogenic

    • C. 

      Peripheral vascular disease

    • D. 

      Diabetes


  • 86. 
    The sperm mature in the ___________________
    • A. 

      Vas deferens

    • B. 

      Seminal vesicles

    • C. 

      Ejaculatory ducts

    • D. 

      Epididymis


  • 87. 
    This hormones stimulates the production of testosterone:
    • A. 

      FSH

    • B. 

      LH

    • C. 

      PRL

    • D. 

      None of these


  • 88. 
    A 32 year-old patient presents with painless vaginal bleeding. She is 34 weeks gestation. On ultrasound you notice that the placenta in over the cervical os. This conditon is known as:
    • A. 

      Abruptio placenta

    • B. 

      Placenta previa

    • C. 

      Cervical cancer

    • D. 

      None of these


  • 89. 
    A patient is diagnosed with premenstrual syndrome (PMS). You want to find out if she really meets the criteria for PMS. You should as the patient to:
    • A. 

      Obtain family history

    • B. 

      Get a pregnancy test

    • C. 

      Document her symptoms in a diary for 3 menstrual cycles

    • D. 

      Refer her to her primary doctor


  • 90. 
    A 25 year-old female patient presents difficulty conceiving for 1 year. On physical exam you notice truncal obesity, facial hair, and a deep voice. Ultrasound of the pelvis demonstrates multiple large cysts taking up the entire ovaries bilaterally (both sides) She asks you if there are any long term complications of her condition. Your best response is:
    • A. 

      Yes, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia is common.

    • B. 

      Yes, typically only fertility problems.

    • C. 

      No, there are no long term complications.

    • D. 

      There is not much that can be done for the infertility issue.


  • 91. 
    The absence of menstruation is known as_______________
    • A. 

      Dysmenorrhea

    • B. 

      Amenorrhea

    • C. 

      Metrorrhagia


  • 92. 
    The production of breast milk takes place in the___________
    • A. 

      Alveoli

    • B. 

      Mammary ducts

    • C. 

      Ampulla

    • D. 

      Lactiferous ducts


  • 93. 
    A condition where endometrial tissue escapes from the uterus is known as:
    • A. 

      Ectopic pregnancy

    • B. 

      Adhesions

    • C. 

      Endometriosis

    • D. 

      None of these


  • 94. 
    The inner layer of the uterus is known as_______
    • A. 

      Perimetrium

    • B. 

      Endometrium

    • C. 

      Myometrium

    • D. 

      None of these


  • 95. 
    This layer of tissue gets shed during the menses:
    • A. 

      Functional layer

    • B. 

      Basal layer

    • C. 

      Perimetrium

    • D. 

      None of these


  • 96. 
    The fertilized ovum is helped into the uterus by this structure:
    • A. 

      Villi

    • B. 

      Flagella

    • C. 

      Cilia

    • D. 

      All of these

    • E. 

      None of these


  • 97. 
    Ovulation is stimulated by this hormone:
    • A. 

      FSH

    • B. 

      LH

    • C. 

      ACTH

    • D. 

      Estrogen


  • 98. 
    The union of the sperm and ovum is known as _________
    • A. 

      Fertilization

    • B. 

      Infertiliy

    • C. 

      Ovulation

    • D. 

      None of these


  • 99. 
    Asexual cellular reproduction is referred to as:
    • A. 

      Meiosis

    • B. 

      Mitosis

    • C. 

      Fertilization

    • D. 

      Chromosomal disjunction


  • 100. 
    These hormone(s) control the female and male gonads
    • A. 

      ACTH

    • B. 

      FSH

    • C. 

      LH

    • D. 

      PRL

    • E. 

      LH and FSH


  • 101. 

    Using the figure below, the structure labeled A is:
    • A. 

      Vagina

    • B. 

      Urethra

    • C. 

      Cervix

    • D. 

      Anal canal


  • 102. 
    Using the figure above in question 101, the structure labeled B is:
    • A. 

      Vagina

    • B. 

      Urethra

    • C. 

      Uterus

    • D. 

      Bladder


  • 103. 
    Using the figure above in question 101, the structure labeled C is:
    • A. 

      Vagina

    • B. 

      Urethra

    • C. 

      Uterus

    • D. 

      Bladder


  • 104. 
    Using the figure above in question 101, the structure labeled E is:
    • A. 

      Vagina

    • B. 

      Cervix

    • C. 

      Uterus

    • D. 

      Bladder


  • 105. 
    Using the figure above in question 101, the structure labeled D is:
    • A. 

      Vagina

    • B. 

      Cervix

    • C. 

      Uterus

    • D. 

      Bladder


  • 106. 
    Down syndrome can be confirmed with amniocentesis.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


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