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Chapter 11

14 Questions
Chapter 11

DNA: The Molecule of Heredity

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    What did Wilkins and Franklin discover?
    • A. 

      DNA is a helix with repeating subunits.

    • B. 

      The sequence of bases in DNA is different for each individual.

    • C. 

      DNA is a double helix with bases paired to each other.

    • D. 

      The sequence of nucleotide bases, read in sets of three, codes for the sequence of a protein.

    • E. 

      The amount of A is equal to the amount of T and the amount of C is equal to the amount of G.

  • 2. 
    How can we best summarize the role of Watson and Crick in discovering the structure of DNA?
    • A. 

      They made a key observation in the lab while determining the structure of DNA.

    • B. 

      They performed key experiments in determining the structure of DNA.

    • C. 

      They created a key hypothesis for the structure of DNA.

    • D. 

      They provided the final proof of the structure of DNA.

  • 3. 
    What forms the backbone of a DNA molecule?
    • A. 

      Nitrogenous bases and sugar rings

    • B. 

      Sugar rings

    • C. 

      Phosphates

    • D. 

      Nitrogenous bases

    • E. 

      Nitrogenous bases and phosphates

    • F. 

      Sugar rings and phosphates

  • 4. 
    Look at the structures of adenine and cytosine. Why can't adenine bind to cytosine like it binds to thymine?
    • A. 

      Cytosine has the wrong sugar ring, so it cannot be linked to adenine.

    • B. 

      The partial charges are not opposites, so no hydrogen bonds can form.

    • C. 

      The size of cytosine is different from the size of thymine, so the double helix would be kinked.

    • D. 

      Cytosine is facing the opposite direction from thymine, so adenine cannot bind it.

    • E. 

      Cytosine cannot form hydrogen bonds, but thymine can.

  • 5. 
    What is the complementary strand to the following sequence? ATTGCC
    • A. 

      ATTGCC

    • B. 

      CCGTTA

    • C. 

      TAACGG

    • D. 

      GCCATT

  • 6. 
    When sequencing DNA, scientists usually only determine the sequence of one of the two strands. Why is this?
    • A. 

      The first strand only contains AG. The other strand contains the complementary TC, so you don't need the sequence.

    • B. 

      Only one strand is involved in creating proteins, so you don't need the sequence of the other strand.

    • C. 

      Only one strand will be passed on to each daughter cell during cell division, so you don't need the sequence of the other strand.

    • D. 

      Sequencing one strand gives you the complementary sequence to the other strand.

    • E. 

      Sequencing the other strand is impossible because it is facing in the opposite direction relative to 5' and 3'.

  • 7. 
    How is it that the entire diversity of life can be spelled out using only four different bases?
    • A. 

      The diversity is based on the unique shape each base pair forms.

    • B. 

      The diversity is based on amount of each base being different in each DNA molecule.

    • C. 

      The diversity is based on the total number of bases used in each molecule of DNA.

    • D. 

      The diversity is based on the proteins wrapping the bases in each DNA molecule.

    • E. 

      The diversity is based on the unique sequence the bases are in.

  • 8. 
    On the molecular level, what exactly is a mutation?
    • A. 

      A change in the length of a chromosome

    • B. 

      A change in the nucleus of the cell

    • C. 

      A change in the sequence of the protein

    • D. 

      A change in the sequence of DNA bases

    • E. 

      A change in the phosphate backbone of a chromosome

    • F. 

      A change in the number of chromosomes

  • 9. 
    • A. a.
    • A.
    • B. b.
    • B.
    • C. c.
    • C.
    • D. d.
    • D.
    • E. e.
    • E.
    • F. f.
    • F.
  • 10. 
    Scientists can perform a process called polymerase chain reaction in the lab in order to copy DNA inside a test tube. This method is part of creating a DNA fingerprint of a suspected criminal. Cells from the suspect's cheek are placed into a tube. They are popped open and all the proteins and lipids are removed from the solution. The strands of DNA are separated by heating and polymerase is added to copy the DNA. What necessary component of DNA replication has been left out of this description?
    • A. 

      Enzymes to copy the DNA

    • B. 

      Parent DNA

    • C. 

      Enzymes to read the DNA

    • D. 

      Free nucleotides

    • E. 

      Helicases

  • 11. 
    What is the final result of DNA replication of one chromosome?
    • A. 

      Two new strands, bound to each other

    • B. 

      Four new strands, bound in pairs

    • C. 

      Four new strands, each bound to a parent strand

    • D. 

      Two new strands bound to each other and two parent strands bound to each other

    • E. 

      One new strand bound to one parent strand

    • F. 

      Two new strands, each bound to a parent strand

  • 12. 
    You wish to prove that DNA replication is semi-conservative. You choose to work with bacteria because they only have a single chromosome. You have a very special device that can measure radiation in individual cells. Which radioactive element or compound should you add to the cells prior to division and what do you expect to see?
    • A. 

      Add radioactive phosphate and expect only one cell to contain a radioactive chromosome.

    • B. 

      Add radioactive potassium and expect each cell to contain a radioactive chromosome.

    • C. 

      Add radioactive sulfur and expect only one cell to contain a radioactive chromosome.

    • D. 

      Add radioactive phosphate and expect each cell to contain a radioactive chromosome.

    • E. 

      Add radioactive potassium and expect neither cell to contain a radioactive chromosome.

    • F. 

      Add radioactive sulfur and expect neither cell to contain a radioactive chromosome.

  • 13. 
    How do cigarettes and radiation cause cancer?
    • A. 

      By destroying DNA

    • B. 

      By destroying healthy cells

    • C. 

      By activating DNA mismatch repair enzymes

    • D. 

      By repressing the cell cycle

    • E. 

      By forcing mistakes during replication

  • 14. 
    Where in the cell cycle would a checkpoint activate if a mistake were made during replication?
    • A. 

      Prophase

    • B. 

      G0 phase

    • C. 

      G1 phase

    • D. 

      S phase

    • E. 

      G2 phase