1989 Ap U.S. Govt. & Politics

56 Questions  I  By Ravin.netty
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 1989 ap U.S. govt. & politics
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  • 1. 
    Which of the following principles protects a citizen from imprisonment without trial?
    • A. 

      Representative government

    • B. 

      Separation of powers

    • C. 

      Due process

    • D. 

      Checks and balances

    • E. 

      Popular sovereignty


  • 2. 
    A first-term member of the House of Representatives from North Dakota who wished to maximize opportunities for constituent service would be most likely to seek placement on which of the following committees?
    • A. 

      Judiciary

    • B. 

      Agriculture

    • C. 

      Rules

    • D. 

      Foreign Affairs

    • E. 

      Science and Technology


  • 3. 
    In the last thirty years, the single most important variable in determining the outcome of an election for a members of the House of Representatives has been
    • A. 

      Incumbency

    • B. 

      Personal wealth

    • C. 

      Previous political offices held in the district

    • D. 

      Membership in the political party of the President

    • E. 

      Positions on key social issues


  • 4. 
    The power of the Rules Committee in the House of Representatives rests on its authority to
    • A. 

      Choose the chairs of other standing committees and issue rules for the selection of subcommittee chairs

    • B. 

      Initiate all spending legislation and hold budget hearings

    • C. 

      Place a bill on the legislative calendar, limit time for debate, and determine the type of amendments allowed

    • D. 

      Determine the procedures by which nominations by the President will be approved by the House

    • E. 

      Choose the President if no candidate wins a majority in the electoral college


  • 5. 
    In Marbury v. Madison (1803), the Supreme Court assumed the power to
    • A. 

      Decide whether internal congressional procedures are constitutional

    • B. 

      Advise Congress on the constitutionality of a proposed law

    • C. 

      Regulate slavery

    • D. 

      Decide on the constitutionality of a law or an executive action

    • E. 

      Approved executive agreements


  • 6. 
    All of the following help to explain the president's difficulty in controlling cabinet-level agencies EXCEPT
    • A. 

      Agencies often have political support from interest groups

    • B. 

      Agency staff often have information and technical expertise that the President and presidential advisers lack

    • C. 

      The President can only fire appointees before they have been confirmed by the Senate

    • D. 

      Civil servants who remain in their jobs through changes of administration develop loyalties to their agencies

    • E. 

      Congress is a competitor for influence over the bureaucracy


  • 7. 
    The activities of the Federal Reserve Board have the most direct influence on
    • A. 

      Bank interest rates

    • B. 

      Government spending

    • C. 

      Oil prices

    • D. 

      Troop-strength levels of the armed services

    • E. 

      Availability of scarce minerals


  • 8. 
    Which of the following statements most accurately compares elections in the United States with those in most other Western democracies?
    • A. 

      United States citizens have fewer opportunities to vote in elections

    • B. 

      Political parties exert a stronger influence over voting in the United States

    • C. 

      There are fewer obstacles to voting in the United States

    • D. 

      There are more political parties in the United States

    • E. 

      The voter turnout rate in the United States is usually lower


  • 9. 
    Which of the following activities of American labor unions is recognized by law?
    • A. 

      Engaging in strikes

    • B. 

      Denying the public access to a business

    • C. 

      Refusing a subpoena to appear before an investigative committee of Congress

    • D. 

      Disobeying a court injunction to return to work

    • E. 

      Requiring members to make political contributions


  • 10. 
    Which of the following best describes the relationship between socioeconomic status and participates in politics?
    • A. 

      The lower one 's socioeconomic statues, the more likely it is that one will run for public office

    • B. 

      The higher one' s socioeconomic status,the greater the probability of active involvement in the political process

    • C. 

      Adults who are unemployed have a greater personal interest in policy and tend to participate more actively in politics than do employed adults

    • D. 

      People in the lower middle class are the most likely to participate in politics

    • E. 

      There is no relationship between socioeconomic status and political participation


  • 11. 
    Suppose that in 1980 "strong" Democrats who shared Ronald Reagan 's views on taxation and Republican women who opposed their party' s plank on the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) both turned out to vote at unexpectedly low rates.These findings would provide evidence for which of the following hypotheses?
    • A. 

      Anything that produces cross-pressure reduces turnout

    • B. 

      Strong party identification promotes participation

    • C. 

      "Rational" voters need a sense of civic duty to motivate them to vote

    • D. 

      Those who express satisfaction with candidate choices are less likely to vote

    • E. 

      Those who are party activists are not likely to vote


  • 12. 
    Which of the following were LEAST likely to have been part of the New Deal electoral coalitions?
    • A. 

      Blue-collar workers

    • B. 

      Racial minorities

    • C. 

      Southerners

    • D. 

      Northern business leaders

    • E. 

      Farm laborers


  • 13. 
    The federal Constitution guarantees all of the following rights to a person arrested and charged with a serious crime EXCEPT the right to
    • A. 

      Remain silent

    • B. 

      Be represented by a lawyer

    • C. 

      Negotiate a plea bargain

    • D. 

      Demand a writ of habeas corpus

    • E. 

      Receive and speedy and public trial


  • 14. 
    "The Constitution limits the sixe of the District of Columbia to _______." -State of Alabama literacy test, 1936The question above and the literacy test from which it came were most likely designed to
    • A. 

      Determine the literacy of potential voters

    • B. 

      Prevent Black people from exercising their right to vote

    • C. 

      Assess the general population's understanding of the Constitution

    • D. 

      Promote opposition to statehood for the District of Columbia

    • E. 

      Stop people from moving to the District of Columbia


  • 15. 
    "We are unanimously of opinion, that the law passed by the legislature of Maryland, imposing a tax on the Band of the United States, is unconstitutional and void....This is a tax on the operation of an instrument employed by the government of the Union to carry its powers to execution. Such a tax must be unconstitutional...." -excerpt from a United States Supreme Court decision.This decision of the Supreme Court upheld the principle that
    • A. 

      The federal government and the state governments are equal

    • B. 

      Congress has only those powers specifically enumerated in the Constitution

    • C. 

      Congress has the power to make laws to carry out its constitutional duties

    • D. 

      Taxation without representation is unconstitutional

    • E. 

      The federal government alone may levy taxes


  • 16. 
    "We are unanimously of opinion, that the law passed by the legislature of Maryland, imposing a tax on the Band of the United States, is unconstitutional and void....This is a tax on the operation of an instrument employed by the government of the Union to carry its powers to execution. Such a tax must be unconstitutional...." -excerpt from a United States Supreme Court decision.Which of the following resulted from this Supreme court decision?
    • A. 

      The power of the national government was strengthened

    • B. 

      The power of the Supreme Court was weakened

    • C. 

      The owner of state governments to tax individual citizens was clearly limited

    • D. 

      Congress was given the power to coin money

    • E. 

      Congress alone was given the power to charter banks


  • 17. 
    The details of legislation are usually worked out in which of the following settings?
    • A. 

      A party causus

    • B. 

      The majority leader's office

    • C. 

      The floor of the House

    • D. 

      Legislative hearings

    • E. 

      A subcommittee


  • 18. 
    Which of the following is responsible for the preparation of executive spending proposals submitted to Congress?
    • A. 

      Treasury Department

    • B. 

      Council of Economic Advisors

    • C. 

      Federal Trade Commission

    • D. 

      Department of Commerce

    • E. 

      Office of Management and Budget


  • 19. 
    In United States v. Nixon the Supreme Court ruled that
    • A. 

      The judicial branch should not intervene in political disputes between the President and Congress

    • B. 

      Presidential power is not automatically extended during times of national emergency

    • C. 

      Presidents must account to the Court for the way in which they implement policy

    • D. 

      There is no constitutional guarantee of unqualified executive privilege

    • E. 

      The President does not have the power of an item veto over congressional legislation


  • 20. 
    "Pork barrel" legislation helps the reelection chances of a member of Congress because such legislation
    • A. 

      Gives the member of Congress national standing and coverage on national television news

    • B. 

      Helps earn the member of congress a reputation for service to his or her district

    • C. 

      Attracts campaign contributions from ideological political action committees (PAC's)

    • D. 

      Prevents other candidates from claiming that the member of Congress is too liberal for his or her district

    • E. 

      Requires the member of Congress to travel extensively


  • 21. 
    Which of the following statements reflects a pluralist theory of American politics?
    • A. 

      American politics is dominated by a small elite

    • B. 

      Public policies emerge from cooperation among elites in business, labor, and governemtn

    • C. 

      Public policies emerge from compromises reached among competing groups

    • D. 

      American politics is dominated by cities at the expense of rural areas

    • E. 

      The American political arena is made up of isolated individuals who have few group affiliations outside the family


  • 22. 
    All of the following are formal or informal sources of presidential power EXCEPT
    • A. 

      Presidential authority to raise revenue

    • B. 

      Presidential access to the media

    • C. 

      Precedents set during previous sdministrations

    • D. 

      Public support

    • E. 

      The Constitution


  • 23. 
    An advantage that bureaucrats in federal government have over the President in the policymaking process is that bureaucrats
    • A. 

      Control the budgetary process

    • B. 

      Have an independence from the President that is guaranteed by the consititution

    • C. 

      Find it easier to marshall public support that does the President

    • D. 

      Usually have a continuity of service in the executive branch that the President lacks

    • E. 

      Have better access to the media than does the President


  • 24. 
    Which of the following is the best predictor of the Department of Education's annual budget?
    • A. 

      The preferences of the Chair of the Senate Finance Committee

    • B. 

      The budget recommendations of the National Education Association

    • C. 

      The rate of increase of teachers' salaries

    • D. 

      The number of children entering kindergarten

    • E. 

      The size of the previous year's budget


  • 25. 
    Which of the following groups would be LEAST likely to maintain a national lobbying organization in Washington D.C.?
    • A. 

      Environmentalists

    • B. 

      Public housing tenants

    • C. 

      Nurses

    • D. 

      Automobile manufactures

    • E. 

      Automobile assembly-line workers


  • 26. 
    Which of the following would result from the direct election of presidential candidates?
    • A. 

      A national primary would be established

    • B. 

      Party nominating conventions would be abolished

    • C. 

      Each vote would count equally in determining which candidate won the election

    • D. 

      The electoral college would become more influential in the electoral process

    • E. 

      Third-party candidates would have less chance of winning the election


  • 27. 
    Since 1960 the presidential election process has been affected by an increase in all of the following EXCEPT the
    • A. 

      Proportion of independents in the electorate

    • B. 

      Influence of political consultants

    • C. 

      Number of primaries

    • D. 

      Turnout of voters

    • E. 

      Role of television


  • 28. 
    Between 1964 and 1984, which of the following would have been most likely to vote for the Democratic presidential candidate?
    • A. 

      A Cuban-American business executive from Miami

    • B. 

      A Black teacher from Los Angeles

    • C. 

      A White doctor from Atlanta

    • D. 

      A Polish-American truck driver from Phoenix

    • E. 

      A Methodist farmer from Iowa


  • 29. 
    "Voting is partly a matter of habit: the more frequently a person has voted in the past, the most likely she or he is to vote in the current election"All of the following support the observation above EXCEPT
    • A. 

      Immediately after the Twenty-Sixth Amendment in 1917 gave 18-to-21 year olds the vote, the proportion of eligible voters who actually voted declined

    • B. 

      Immediately after the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920 gave women the vote, the proportion of eligible voters who actually voted declined

    • C. 

      Immediately after the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the participation rate of Blake voters in the South was lower than that of White voters in the South

    • D. 

      Unmarried persons over the age of 65 are less likely to vote than are married persons in that age group

    • E. 

      Newly naturalized citizens may need special inducements to vote


  • 30. 
    All of the following statements reflect positions the Supreme Court has taken with regard to the right of free speech EXCEPT
    • A. 

      A restriction on the right of free speech should always be viewed with skepticism

    • B. 

      There are no acceptable governmental restrictions of free speech

    • C. 

      Government has an obligation to try to ensure citizens the right to be heard

    • D. 

      The right to free speech is a fundamental natural right

    • E. 

      The First Amendment protects free speech from incursions of both the federal and state governments


  • 31. 
    In the Constitution as originally ratified in 1788, the provisions regarding which of the following most closely approximate popular, majoritarian democracy?
    • A. 

      Election of members of the House of Representatives

    • B. 

      Election of members of the Senate

    • C. 

      Election of the President

    • D. 

      Ratification of treaties

    • E. 

      Confirmation of presidential appointments


  • 32. 
    Most of the bills introduced in the House and the Senate are then
    • A. 

      Passed by one chamber but not the other

    • B. 

      Passed by both chambers but vetoed by the President

    • C. 

      Referred to committee but never sent to the full Congress

    • D. 

      Voted down during the amendment stage of the floor debate

    • E. 

      Killed in the Rules Committee


  • 33. 
    Which of the following best defines the term "judicial activism"?
    • A. 

      The demands on judges to hear large numbers of cases

    • B. 

      The efforts to judges to lobby Congress for funds

    • C. 

      The attempts by judges to influence election outcomes

    • D. 

      The unwillingness of judges to remove themselves from cases in which they have a personal interest

    • E. 

      The tendency of judges to interpret the Constitution according to their own views


  • 34. 
    A President may persuade recalcitrant members of Congress to vote for a particular bill by
    • A. 

      Having members who oppose the bill transferred to unpopular committees

    • B. 

      Denying campaign funds to members who oppose the bill

    • C. 

      Threatening to deny renomination to members who oppose the bill

    • D. 

      Threatening to item veto part of a different bill that enjoys bipartisan support in Congress

    • E. 

      Making a direct appeal to the public through the mass media


  • 35. 
    In general, independent regulatory commissions are created primarily for the purpose of
    • A. 

      Supporting and helping cabinet-level departments

    • B. 

      Proposing policy alternatives during periods of crisis

    • C. 

      Regulating the activities of other bureaucratic agencies to ensure that they act in a fair and objective manner

    • D. 

      Regulating certain industries to protect the public interest

    • E. 

      Increasing the President's patronage powers


  • 36. 
    The President's veto power is accurately described by which of the following statements? I. A President sometimes threatens to veto a bill that is under discussion in order to influence congressional decision-makingII. A President typically vetoes about a third of the bills passed by CongressIII. Congress is usually unable to override a President's veto
    • A. 

      I only

    • B. 

      III only

    • C. 

      I and III only

    • D. 

      II and III only

    • E. 

      I, II, and III


  • 37. 
    Which of the following has decreased in Congress over the past twenty years?
    • A. 

      The chances of members' reelection

    • B. 

      The influence of committee chairs

    • C. 

      The power of subcommittees

    • D. 

      The total number of congressional staff employees

    • E. 

      The cost of congressional elections


  • 38. 
    Invocation of the War Powers Act of 1973 would be most important in determining which of the following?
    • A. 

      The nature of the commitment of United States Marines to a peace-keeping role in Lebanon

    • B. 

      The amount of financial aid to the Contras of Nicaragua

    • C. 

      The timing of naval maneuvers off the coast of Libya

    • D. 

      The appointment of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

    • E. 

      The legality of extraditing foreign agents responsible for acts of terrorism against United States citizens abroad


  • 39. 
    American political culture is characterized by strong popular support for all of the following EXCEPT
    • A. 

      The rule of law

    • B. 

      Limited government

    • C. 

      Individual liberty

    • D. 

      Equality of opportunity

    • E. 

      Economic equality


  • 40. 
    All of the following are commonly used by interest groups to influence the political process EXCEPT
    • A. 

      Lobbying

    • B. 

      Contributing money to candidates

    • C. 

      Nominating candidates

    • D. 

      Filling lawsuits

    • E. 

      Appealing to public opinion


  • 41. 
    "Such considerations apply with added force to children in grade and high schools. To separate them from others of similar age and qualifications solely because of their race generates a feeling of inferiority as to their status in the community that may affect their hearts and minds in a way unlikely ever to be undone.......We conclude that in the field of public education the doctrine of "separate but equal" has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently inequal. Therefore, we hold that the plaintiffs....are, by reason of the segregation complained of, deprived of the equal protection of the laws guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment" -excerpt from a major Supreme Court decision.The doctrine of "separate but equal" referred to above had previously been upheld by which of the following Supreme Court decisions?
    • A. 

      Dred Scott v. Sanford, 1857

    • B. 

      Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896

    • C. 

      Youngstown Sheet and Tube Company v. Sawyer, 1952

    • D. 

      Engel v. Vitale, 1962

    • E. 

      Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg County Board of Education, 1971


  • 42. 
    "Such considerations apply with added force to children in grade and high schools. To separate them from others of similar age and qualifications solely because of their race generates a feeling of inferiority as to their status in the community that may affect their hearts and minds in a way unlikely ever to be undone... ....We conclude that in the field of public education the doctrine of "separate but equal" has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently inequal. Therefore, we hold that the plaintiffs....are, by reason of the segregation complained of, deprived of the equal protection of the laws guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment" -excerpt from a major Supreme Court decision.The Supreme Court decision quoted above did which of the following?
    • A. 

      Brought a rapid end to school segregation in the South

    • B. 

      Prohibited segregation in hotels and restaurants

    • C. 

      Required desegregation of teaching staff

    • D. 

      Initially affected only schools where segregation was mandated by law

    • E. 

      Affected segregation in the North rather than in the South


  • 43. 
    Which of the following best defines the constitutional interpretation of federalism?
    • A. 

      The federal government and the states each have separate and mutually exclusive roles and responsibilities; neither controls the other

    • B. 

      The states have some powers reserved to them which they may exercise if the Supreme Court permits

    • C. 

      The federal government and the states have separate but overlapping powers: where these powers conflict the federal government prevails

    • D. 

      The states may only exercise those powers delegated to them by Congress

    • E. 

      The federal government may exercise only those powers specifically enumerated in the Constitution


  • 44. 
    All of the following issues were decided at the Constitutional Convention EXCEPT
    • A. 

      Representation in the legislature

    • B. 

      Voting qualifications of the electorate

    • C. 

      Method of electing the President

    • D. 

      Congressional power to override a presidential veto

    • E. 

      Qualifications for members of the House and Senate


  • 45. 
    The usefulness to the President of having cabinet members as political advisers is undermined by the fact that
    • A. 

      The President has little latitude in choosing cabinet members

    • B. 

      Cabinet members have no political support independent of the President

    • C. 

      Cabinet members are usually drawn from Congress and retain loyalties to Congress

    • D. 

      The loyalties of cabinet members are often divided between loyalty to the President and loyalty to their own executive departments

    • E. 

      The cabinet operates as a collective unit and individual members have no access to the President


  • 46. 
    Cabinet departments differ from independent regulatory agencies in which of the following ways?
    • A. 

      The President can use an executive order to create a cabinet department but not to create an independent regulatory agency

    • B. 

      The President can dismiss cabinet officers, but not commissioners of independent regulatory agencies

    • C. 

      The President seeks appointees who reflect administration views in making cabinet appointments but not in making appointments to independent regulatory agencies

    • D. 

      Through the appropriations process, Congress can exert control over the cabinet departments but not over independent regulatory agencies

    • E. 

      The courts can overrule regulations issued by cabinet departments, but not those issued by independent regulatory agencies


  • 47. 
    Which of the following techniques would a corporate lobbyist be likely to use to influence political outcomes in Congress?I. Organizing a demonstration in Washington just before a key House voteII. Ensuring that the corporation's political action committee (PAC) makes donations to the campaigns of members of key committeesIII. Meeting informally with Senate aids over lunch or cocktailsIV. Bringing influential constituents to Washington to discuss important policy matters with their representatives
    • A. 

      II only

    • B. 

      I and II only

    • C. 

      III and IV only

    • D. 

      I, III, and IV only

    • E. 

      II, III, and IV only


  • 48. 
    Congress has exerted the greatest influence on the operation of federal agency by doing which of the following?
    • A. 

      Requiring the agency to participate in inter-agency task forces

    • B. 

      Dismissing an agency head who disagrees with congressional priorities

    • C. 

      Reviewing the annual budget appropriations for the agency

    • D. 

      Passing "sunset" legislation that terminates programs after a certain period

    • E. 

      Asking the Supreme Court for advisory opinions on agency regulations


  • 49. 
    Which of the following best describes the relationship between the Supreme Court and public opinion?
    • A. 

      The Court assesses pubic opinion on a controversial issue and then tries to follow it

    • B. 

      Court prestige is so hight that its decisions become public consensus

    • C. 

      The existence of a public consensus on an issue limits the extent to which the Court will render decisions contrary to the consensus

    • D. 

      Public opinion has no bearing on the effective implementation of the Court's decisions

    • E. 

      There is no relationship between public opinion and the Court's decisions


  • 50. 
    Which of the following is an accurate statement about political participation in the United States today?
    • A. 

      A majority of Americans campaign for a candidate in each presidential election

    • B. 

      Over 75% of Americans vote in presidential elections

    • C. 

      People who participate in the political process are usually angry at government

    • D. 

      Similar proportions of eligible men and women vote in presidential elections

    • E. 

      People in their thirties or forties are less likely to be active in politics than are those age 18 to 20


  • 51. 
    During the past twenty-five years, all of the following changes in public opinion and political behavior have occurred in the United States EXCEPT
    • A. 

      A decline in party competition in the South

    • B. 

      A decline in the level of trust in government

    • C. 

      A drop in voter turnout

    • D. 

      An increase in ticket-splitting

    • E. 

      An erosion of party loyalties, especially among young people


  • 52. 
    The amendments to the Constitution that were ratified during Reconstruction were primarily designed to
    • A. 

      Protect the rights of women against infringement by the federal government

    • B. 

      Protect the rights of Black citizens against infringement by state governments

    • C. 

      Ensure equal economic opportunity for Black citizens

    • D. 

      Facilitate the rebuilding of the Southern economy

    • E. 

      Limit the power the President had gained during the Civil War


  • 53. 
    Which of the following statements best describes the Supreme Court's actions with reprect to disputes between Congress and the President?
    • A. 

      The Court has steadily favored the expansion fo presidential power at the expense of Congress

    • B. 

      The Court has refused to allow Congress to subpoena officials from the executive branch

    • C. 

      The Court generally has tried to avoid deciding conflicts between Congress and the President

    • D. 

      The Court has supported congressional limits on the President's powers as commander-in-chief

    • E. 

      The Court has supported congressional use of the legislative veto as a means of controlling the President


  • 54. 
    Which of the following statements about political action committees (PAC's) is true?
    • A. 

      PAC's may give unlimited contributions to the election campaigns of individual candidates

    • B. 

      PAC spending has not kept pace with inflation

    • C. 

      PAC activity is limited to direct contribution to candidates

    • D. 

      Social issue groups are the source of most PAC dollars

    • E. 

      PAC spending makes up a higher percentage congressional campaign funds than of presidential campaign funds


  • 55. 
    Which of the following Supreme Court cases involved the principle of "one person, one vote"?
    • A. 

      Baker v. Carr

    • B. 

      Roe v. Wade

    • C. 

      Mapp v. Ohio

    • D. 

      Korematsu v. United States

    • E. 

      Gideon v. Wainwright


  • 56. 
    Debate of a bill in the House of Representatives under a "closed rule" means that
    • A. 

      The bill can only be amended by section

    • B. 

      Debate on the bill will consist of five-minute speeches, pro and con

    • C. 

      Only senior members are allowed to participate

    • D. 

      Amendments to the bill cannot be offered

    • E. 

      The bill must be approved by two-thirds of the House


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