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Psychology Questions and Answers (Q&A)

I think you are asking how to improve long term memory. The secret is effort, which won't surprise you. To remember something you need constantly to review the item, and to practise recalling it. You test yourself, and do this over a period of time. At first you do this after a very short period, and gradually increase the distance between such reviews.

So you would re-test yourself after a few seconds, then a few minutes, then hours, then days and then months, and then years. This is called spaced repetition. In addition, the practice of making yourself recall the information without a prompt will help firm the item in your long-term memory.

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This is schema-based processing. without being consciously aware of signposts or other structures passed, you are safely driving home. this is a journey you have done perhaps many times before so the steps are securely laid down in long term memory and what you need to attend to is hazards and driving behaviour of others. YOu don't need to attend to the shape or colour of buildings, contours or landscape you are passing. These are familiar and merely serve to subconsciously inform you that you are on your way home.

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The first step is to clarify exactly what you are interested in. That is, precisely delineate your question. It is likely that you have been making observations, or perhaps one notable observation, that makes you curious. There is something you have seen that you are wondering about.

Now to engage in scientific enquiry, you must form the question deriving from your observations. Why do cats have stripes? Would be far too wide to start engaging in any serious enquiry and you would soon allow that many cats do not have stripes, so you must refine your enquiry.

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The most common way psychology is used to manipulate and influence people in their daily lives is through advertising in magazines, and on television, radio, and the Internet. Fear and insecurity are often used to help sell products that claim to correct some “problem” you think you have. Advertisers try to convince you to purchase their products to fix your wrinkles, dark spots, bags under your eyes, thinning hair, or how much you weigh.

Another psychological technique is called anthropomorphism which means giving animals or inanimate objects human characteristics. A recent TV advertising campaign using a box with stick hands and legs to sell home colon cancer test kits is an example of this.

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When a physical or perceptual stimulus enters our field of awareness it has to be processed to be understood or reacted to. We all know when, engaged totally on a task, or when asleep, we become 'vaguely aware' of a fly brushing our skin. This is a shallow level of processing the physical sensation. There was a model of processing proposed by Lockhart in 1972.

This was within a study of how memory traces are effectively laid down. In shallow processing, information is perceived but many not be long retained. It is when it is deeply processed, it is more likely to be laid down in long term memory. To deeply process, the information must be worked upon, such as by repetition, writing down, conscious recall, testing. However, the model is weakened by the fact that 'deep' in terms of processing has not been determined.

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A mental construct is something we can imagine and discuss but not see. Therefore, you could say that all illnesses are mental constructs for all we see are the symptoms. We can see the symptoms of Depression right enough: inability to cope with everyday life such as getting out of bed in the morning, seeing to meals, let alone work duties. The absence of any pleasure or any enjoyment at any time is pretty disabling.

I doubt if depressives feel this is a mental construct that's overrated. There is reactive depression (e.g. after death of a mate) and endogenous depression, which is an illness. What might be overrated is the tendency of others to 'diagnose' depression without having the qualification to understand or recognise such illness. People can have temporary 'downs' - their football team lost, say - but this doesn't stop them operating normally. It is unwise to label someone 'depressed' if they just happen to look miserable. That happens to all of us on occasion.

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The answer to this is letter C. There are always different reasons why people do the things that they do. There are some who will do it because they want to improve themselves. They want to make sure that they will become best for the job that they are applying for.

There are also some people who would like to study and do things in order to learn something new and to become the best version of themselves. Some people also have high standards so they want to be able to live up to their very own standards. Of course, there are also some people who do it because they want to gain the approval of other people but this is not a part of Murray’s definition of achievement motivation.

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Option B - involving the family and the client in planning care.
Doing this will encourage the family to be around the client often which will help the client decrease feeling of isolation.

Banning personal belonging from the bedside will make the client have more of the feeling of isolation.
Providing detailed explanations of the clients condition and treatment is not necessary, this can make the family worry the more about the client's condition. It is better to give simple explanation.

Allow the family to visit as often as possible this will help decrease the feeling of isolation.

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A nurse will often be in the situation where the normal, and expected anxiety of a patient becomes heightened, even panicky. Normally, social convention makes us control anxiety in front of others, and patients follow this pattern.

However, the sight of a new piece of equipment, especially that connected with invasive treatment, can cause heightened anxiety, or it may be the witnessing of another patient's demise or medical distress. The nurse can do much to reduce excess anxiety by talking through with the patient the actual events or stages of treatment, or it might be the function of the dreaded procedure. It is the unknown which is most frightening. Talking about things increases familiarity with them and therefore reduces anxiety.

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Rapport with a new patient is gained by a warm and interested approach, such as asking about family, interests and lifestyle as well as an empathic awareness of their pain or discomfort and probable anxiety about hospitalisation. A therapeutic relationship will greatly help their attitude towards any medical procedures necessary, and their recovery.

This is built up over time, but a nurse's calm reassurance together with the above approach will help the patient feel confident and more relaxed about, what is after all, a rather frightening or at least unsettling situation.

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