The answer to this is option C. Dilation of the afferent arteriole will increase the renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate. The reasons for this are the following: the renal vascular resistance is lessened while the hydrostatic pressure is heightened.
If the dilation of the efferent arteriole occurs, the RPF will increase but the glomerular filtration rate will be decreased. Hyperproteinemia will decrease the glomerular filtration rate. This is also the same as the other choice, ureteral stone. It will also decrease the glomerular filtration rate.
Several things can lead to kidney stone formation. First, it is important to know that they are different kinds of kidney stones. Calcium oxalate stones, ammonium magnesium phosphate stones (struvite), uric acid stones and cysteine stones are the types of kidney stones.
Calcium oxalate stone is the most common type of kidney stone, it occurs where there is a decrease in excretion or excessive amount of calcium and oxalate in the body. Vitamin C abuse, ethylene glycol injection and crohn disease are common causes.
Struvite is caused by certain infection that cause alkalinisation of urine which lead to hydroxylation of urea to ammonium and stones are formed.
Uric acid stone is caused conditions that lead to high uric acid level in the body and cysteine stone is caused by conditions that lead to decease in reabsorption of cysteine in the kidney.
There are many ways that a person must prepare for a marathon. Besides, practicing the ways in which someone runs in order to gain endurance and stamina during the race, the marathon runner must also prepare with the equipment and supplies that they will need during and right after the race.
After running, a person will need several things including water. They must also have ice packs to put on their joints and usually a towel to wipe off the sweat. There are different types of water that the person can drink.
However, the person may want to put back the electrolytes that they lost. Therefore, they will need to pick a certain type of drink to do that. If the person drank distilled water, then they will have decreased plasma osmolarity.
The kidneys play a very important role in osmoregulation. They are the main organs of osmoregulation in mammalian systems. The functional unit of the kidney is the nephron that filters the blood and generates urine. The kidneys regulate the water reabsorbed from the glomerulus in the kidney tubules.
They function to filter the blood and maintain the osmolality of body fluids at 300mOsm. The functions of the kidneys are controlled by hormones such as the anti-diuretic hormones (ADH), angiotensin II and aldosterone. The main function of the kidneys is to maintain the water and salt balance in the body.
Many things can cause kidney failure. Many conditions can contribute to kidney damage, some are primary kidney diseases and some are conditions that indirectly affect the kidney.
Some of the leading causes are:
Polycystic kidney disease – are hereditary kidney disease. There are two main types: the autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and the autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD).
Type 1 and type 2 diabetics destroys the renal architecture which leads to end stage kidney damage.
High blood pressure can also lead to kidney failure over time.
Use of certain medications (certain antibiotics) can lead to kidney failure. Liver disease, urinary tract diseases, kidney stones, heart diseases and many other conditions can cause kidney failure.
A UTI stands for Urinary Tract Infection. It is a common occurrence to get a UTI. Many people get them. They involve your urinary system. The urinary system includes your kidneys, bladder, urethra, and ureters. Infection takes place somewhere in this urinary system.
They usually occur in the bladder or urethra. If you have a urinary tract infection, you will feel the need to go to the bathroom all the time. It may be painful to use the bathroom, and the urine may be different colors than normal. People can stop from getting a UTI by watching what they are eating. Since a UTI can occur in the kidneys, bladder or urethra, the most significant difference would be that a kidney infection infects only the kidneys. However, the symptoms and effects might appear to be the same.
The answer should be c.) Hilum
There are several steps taken place to have Renal glucose reabsorption occur. The first step is for glucose in the proximal tube to be transported. It is carried along with sodium ions into the tube called the proximal convoluted tubule walls. This transport occurs by way of the SGLT2 cotransporter.
Once the transport happens, the glucose diffuses into the blood capillaries. The last step is for the sodium ions that were transported to be removed from the walls and return to the blood flow. After these steps occur, the cycle will return to step one, and the levels will continue.
You should eat foods that can help reduce the amount of oxalate, animal protein, sodium and oxalate in your urine. Keep in mind that calcium oxalate stone is the most common type of stone (over 80% of total kidney stones diagnosed) so you want to consume food with less of these elements.
Nuts and nut products, wheat bran, rhubarb and peanuts contain high amount of oxalate and someone with a history of calcium oxalate stone should avoid consume much of these foods.
Also, drink plenty of fluids especially water, this helps decrease chances of having cysteine stones. Consume less salt. Limit how much proteins you consume because they increase chance of developing uric acid stones. Eat milk based products, yoghurts and berries.
Someone suffering from kidney stone should avoid eating “stone forming” food. Examples are nuts and nut rich products; spinach, beets, chocolates, rhubarb and tea are highly rich in oxalate and should be avoided to prevent the reoccurrence of calcium oxalate stones.
Avoid animal based proteins such as red meat, sea food and poultry because they contain uric acids which can increase the chance of reoccurrence of uric acid stones. A high level protein meal reduces the level of citrate which helps prevent formation of stones in urine.
Colas are also rich in phosphate which can also contribute to kidney stones.
If you are prone to having kidney stones, limit your intake of these foods.