The third estate was written by Abbe Sieyes written before the French revolution. It was written in the January of 1789 and is political pamphlet, which influenced the population in a major manner. Before the revolution took place, the third estate had a he tax burden and little political power.
After the revolution, however, there was major shift in power, giving the members of the third estate a large share of the power, smaller tax burdens and more political importance. This influenced the population, helping them establish their role in the community and had a great impact on the members of the third estate.
In 1794 the civil riots were largely quelled, the people had perhaps enjoyed sufficient bloodshed, seen enough royals and royalists guillotined. The terror of the last few years seemed pointless and ruthless Robespierre was not popular, his law making too harsh.
He was executed himself. Within days, that situation had encouraged the few royalists left alive. In the west and in the southeast, a royalist “White Terror” broke out. Royalists tried to seize power in Paris but Napolean's army crushed them and the riot did not last long.
Napolean's strength was too great for everyone for he had led with good example and inspiration. The royalists failed in their bid to return to power.
Ancien regime (means old order) was the political and social system of the Kingdom of France prior to the French Revolution in 1787.
It was in effect from the late middle Ages (circa 15th century) until the later part of the 18th century. Under the Ancien regime, everyone was a subject of the King of France as well as a member of an estate and province.
The Ancien regime divided the society into three estates: the First estate (clergy), the Second estate (nobility), and the Third estate (commoners) and the King was part of no estate.
The war in Vendee lasted for a period of three years (1793 – 1796). There were many reasons for the war in Vendee but the major reasons were rising land taxes, the execution of Louis XVI, the expansion of the revolutionary war, the national government’s attack on the church and the introduction of conscription.
The uprising started small but it escalated quickly. The trigger point was the execution of Louis XVI. The government’s response was swift and it triggered a war in the region. The fight for country lasted for about three years with violence and mass killing.
There was dechristianisation in France during the French Revolution because of the state of the church. It began with attack on church corruption and the wealth of the higher clergy. During the two year period – 1793 to 1794, anti – clericalism grew more violent than any modern European history.
Church authorities were suppressed, the catholic monarchy was abolished and nationalized church property was suppressed. Thousands of priests were exiled and hundreds of them were killed. The Christian calendar was also replaced with one starting from the date of Revolution and festivals of Liberty.
The public reclaimed the power, massive amount of land and money held by the Catholic Church in France.
King Louis XVI failed to handle and control the politics of France like the past monarchs did. He didn’t pay attention the quarrels of prominent political and financial individuals in government. He sent funds to support the American Revolution which eventually put France in a huge debt.
The revocation of the Edict of Nates was another costly mistake he made, the protestant had no choice other than to convert or leave the country. His failed to prevent the mass departure of Protestants from France, the protestant had prominent roles in the economy, when they left France’s economy suffered greatly.
He allied himself with the aristocrats that had fled France and let people that the French people disliked support him. Louis XIV and his family fled during the storming of Bastille, this made the people know that he is not trustworthy. He wanted to retain the old regime so he could have power and the support of the nobles. His actions lead to the beginning of the French revolution.
In 1789 the National Assembly was the first goverment established in France. The other three governments of the French Revolution were the legislative assembly, the first republic and the directory. The latter ran for four years, 1795-99.
It is not surprising that these bodies ran through great difficulties: the country had been run by a rapacious monarchy for generations. On the positive side, the directory set a successful constitutional plebiscite and a general amnesty for political prisoners. Then the 2/3rds rule enfuriated the nobles who had assumed they would return to some power legally.
Their uprising was quickly put down as were attacks by communist elements. Free elections were not possible because of the directory's insistence on barring royalists. It was really the financial disarray that finished the directorate.
It destroyed the good, such as public assistance pensions and free public schooling and strained loyalties, but popularity finally disappeared when the directory interfered with the citizens established way of life with its rules, particularly over the way Sundays were to be enjoyed (or endured).
Yes, it does seem incredible that a rabble of ill-fed, ill-clothed soldiers could win wars against rebellious citizens as well as most other European countries. The first reason for success was size, and the second, recklessness.
All men between the ages of 18 and 25 were forcibly conscripted for military service irrespective of capacity. Men in their 30's regularly volunteered or be called up. Soldiers' first few years in the military suffered disorganization and panic. Revolutionary hype meant officers too luxuriously might be mobbed and sent to the guillotine.
Even NCOs being too harsh might also be killed or stripped of his power. However, the absolutely massive army used to hardship, brutality and conflict could rush and intimidate more civilized armies. Then Napolean, a brilliant strategist, inspired his troops and led them to victory after victory as the eighteenth century turned into the nineteenth.