The foreground of a picture is the closest to a viewer. This is often what is clearest in a picture, what’s in focus. Some examples of foreground characters are the dancers in Edgar Degas’s painting Four ballerinas on the stage, and the girl in Pierre Auguste Renoir’s “Little Irene”. The word “foreground” can also be defined as something that is the most important part of something.
So the foreground of a painting is often the most important part of the painting. This could be people - such as the examples given here - or landscapes and flowers. Other examples include the lines in an abstract painting and the scenes of a woodblock print. When one is working with a medium, the things that are most important need to come to the front immediately.
The answer in this list is kozo paper. However, it is usually called washi paper, like the paper tape used for scrapbooking and crafts today. These paper scenes were then pasted onto a block of wood. In Japan, it was mainly cherry wood that was used for wood block art. The wood art was often carved onto the plate backwards so that when it was filled with ink and pressed onto the paper.
Then, when the ink transferred to the paper, the images were rightside around. A tower supposed to face left in the final picture would face right on the wood, and so on and so forth. The prints would often be published as series, and so there was always a collection to find.
Charles-Edouard Jeanneret, also known as Le Corbusier, was from Switzerland. He was born on October 6th 1887. He died, unfortunately, on August 27, 1965. He is in the group of architects that are considered to be the founders of modern architecture. Despite being born in Switzerland, he died a citizen of France. He became a naturalized citizen of France in 1930.
However, he wasn’t always an architect. He had many different hats during his life. Those included writing, designing, painting, and urban planning. These various careers allowed him the flexibility to do what he wanted when he wanted. His career in architecture and urban planning, however, was spurred by a different reason. He wanted to improve the living conditions in the cities because he had seen the horrible living conditions in Paris.
Willem de Kooning was from Rotterdam, Netherlands. He moved to New York in the year 1927 - when he was 23. He was born on April 24, 1904. Kooning died on March 19th, 1997. He spearheaded a movement that is now known as the abstract expressionist movement. He didn’t serve in either world war, but after World War II is when he really began working with what’s called abstract expressionism.
It’s also called action painting. The point of this kind of painting is to show movement, to show how it affects something else. He found the time to develop this technique by participating in the Federal Arts Movement in the 1930s. He participated in that for a couple of years until it was dismantled.
Oil paint was invented somewhere in the Netherlands by Jan van Eyck. Jan van Eyck is credited with this invention because he was the one that decided to use linseed oil as a base for the paint instead of water or something else. Other methods of painting around that time involved limited colors and quick drying times. Tempura, for example, is a paint made with egg yolks. So it always has a yellowish tint to it.
Up until this time, they hadn’t been able to find an oil that would hold the paint well. Nothing worked to keep the colors vibrant and it didn’t really do the job. Linseed oil takes a long time to dry, so this invention allowed artists to mix colors on the painting, and fix mistakes if they found one.
Piet Mondrian was born in the Netherlands. He’s a renowned Dutch painter. This particular painter was born on March 7th, 1872. He died on February 1st, 1944. A lot of great artists died in 1944, and Mondrian is just one of them. Fun fact: did you know that his last name was originally spelled Mondriaan? He dropped the second “a” in 1906. This was done to give him the Parisian avant-garde feel to his name that he was looking for.
He moved to Paris in 1911, and entered the art scene. He started with cubism, and stayed with it until he passed away. Early paintings actually are more abstract than anything else, but once he found cubism, he found it too complicated. He stayed with a simplified version of the art form. And the rest, as they say, is history.
Wassily Kandisky was born in Moscow, Russia. Why this isn’t a choice on the list of answers is baffling, but it can be corrected easily. Anyway, Kandisky was born on December 16th, 1866. He died on December 13th, 1944. This was just three days shy of his 78th birthday.
He’s well-known for his abstract paintings, and is credited with painting the majority of the first pieces that were actually recognized as abstract art. He studied at the University of Russia. He served in the first World War, after settling down in Munich to study at the University of Fine Arts. He was just thirty when he began to paint, creating the abstract pieces that we know as his work today.
Walter Gropius was born in Germany. He’s a renowned German architect. Gropius was born on May 18th, 1883, and died on July 5th, 1969. He is considered to be one of the pioneers of modern architecture, with a few other names. These others include Frank Lloyd Wright and Le Corbusier. However, they aren’t the only architects that are considered to be the pioneers of modern architecture.
Gropius started his career after World War I. If the war hadn’t happened, his career would’ve taken off in 1914. He was called as reservist almost immediately after the war started. He survived the war, despite being shot out of the sky twice and being buried under rubble and dead bodies. For an architect, he was quite hardcore.
Ukiyo-e art was made in the city of Tokyo, Japan. This was called Edo, Japan in the olden days, so the first and the last answers here are correct. Ukiyo-e art, for those who don’t know yet, is made by drawing a picture, and then carving it into wood. The wood used was typically cherry wood because Japan had an abundance of it.
Some of these older carvings are still around because they are incredibly sturdy and can take a lot of ink without becoming gunked up. That said, the artists would take good care of their carvings because it took a long while to carve one. These prints were often divided up into different stages because the labor was so intensive. One artist drew the picture on paper. Another carved it into a block of wood. A third would ink and press.
This is typically called emotionalism. This basically means that the artist is trying to put emphasis on a particular feeling. It could also mean the piece of art is trying to look like or be shaped like a particular feeling. Love, for example, is often expressed with a heart, with flowers, etc.
Happiness could be a glowing sun, a smile, or sitting relaxed in a chair. Sadness could be a lot of blue, tears, water, and an empty or almost empty room. Emotionalism is not a new concept to art. This is usually what the art is trying to do - elicit some kind of emotional response from the viewer. Or it could be trying to tie a specific place to the painting, to that kind of feeling.