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Sedimentary Rocks

42 Questions
Sedimentary Rocks

Assessment of characteristics of sedimentary rocks.

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Erosion is the:
    • A. 

      Movement of weathered material from its source site.

    • B. 

      Decomposition of rock.

    • C. 

      Disintegration of rock.

    • D. 

      Disintegration of soil.

  • 2. 
    If all of the grains in a sedimentary rock are about the same size, shape, and composition, the rock can be characterized as:
    • A. 

      Cemented.

    • B. 

      Cross-bedded.

    • C. 

      Graded.

    • D. 

      Well sorted.

  • 3. 
    Sediments are classified as:
    • A. 

      Detrital, clastic, and chemical.

    • B. 

      Detrital and clastic.

    • C. 

      Detrital and chemical.

    • D. 

      Organic, particulate, and crystalline.

  • 4. 
    Detrital sediments and rocks are classified by:
    • A. 

      Mineral composition.

    • B. 

      Grain size.

    • C. 

      The conditions in which they formed.

    • D. 

      Mineral composition and grain size.

  • 5. 
    Chemical sedimentary rocks generally have an interlocking grain texture called
    • A. 

      Clastic

    • B. 

      Porphyritic

    • C. 

      Crystalline

    • D. 

      Detrial

  • 6. 
    The properties used to describe detrital sediment are:
    • A. 

      Size

    • B. 

      Sorting

    • C. 

      Rounding

    • D. 

      All answers apply

  • 7. 
    The designation of sediment grain size, from largest to smallest, is
    • A. 

      Clay, silt, sand, gravel

    • B. 

      Gravel, sand, silt, clay

    • C. 

      Gravel, silt, sand, clay

    • D. 

      Clay, sand, gravel, silt

  • 8. 
    Sorting is a result of:
    • A. 

      transportation of sediment by wind

    • B. 

      Transportation of sediment by running water

    • C. 

      Selective transport and deposition

    • D. 

      Transportation of sediment by ice

  • 9. 
    Graded bedding forms when:
    • A. 

      Erosion planes off a portion of the sea bottom

    • B. 

      Sediment is deposited on a steep slope or grade

    • C. 

      Turbidity currents deposit first coarse sediment then fine sediment

    • D. 

      Turbidity currents deposit first fine sediment followed by coarse sediment

  • 10. 
    The presence of mud cracks in a sedimentary rock is a sign that the rock was deposited
    • A. 

      in a region that was drying

    • B. 

      In a desert

    • C. 

      Beneath a glacier

    • D. 

      In a sand dune

  • 11. 
    Oolithic limestone contains small round fossils the make the rock appear bumpy
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 12. 
    Which type of rock is formed when marine organisms convert the calcium and carbonate ions dissolved in seawater into shells and other hard body parts?
    • A. 

      Carbonate

    • B. 

      Oolite

    • C. 

      Evaporate

    • D. 

      Clastic

  • 13. 
    An example of a carbonate sedimentary rock is
    • A. 

      Marble

    • B. 

      Pumice

    • C. 

      Granite

    • D. 

      Limestone

  • 14. 
    Lithification, the conversion of sediment to sedimentary rock, is a result of
    • A. 

      Evaporation and precipitation.

    • B. 

      Decomposition and compaction.

    • C. 

      Compaction and cementation.

    • D. 

      Weathering and erosion.

  • 15. 
    Fossils can be preserved with their original composition like bones or hair.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 16. 
    Which of the following is not a fossil?
    • A. 

      Petrified wood lying on the desert floor

    • B. 

      Fossilized fern leaves in coal

    • C. 

      The impression of dinosaur tracks in a rock

    • D. 

      The skeleton of your pet fish

  • 17. 
    The important difference in the clastic sedimentary rocks types -- conglomerate, sandstone, shale and siltstone -- is:
    • A. 

      Composition

    • B. 

      Cememt type

    • C. 

      Particle size

    • D. 

      Parent rock

  • 18. 
    Rocks made from sediment laid down by turbidity currents often show
    • A. 

      Graded bedding

    • B. 

      Ripple marks

    • C. 

      Mud cracks

    • D. 

      Dinosaur tracks

  • 19. 
    Which of the following is NOT sediment?
    • A. 

      Minerals consolidated into a rock.

    • B. 

      Solid particles of preexisting rocks yielded by mechanical and chemical weathering.

    • C. 

      Minerals extracted from seawater by organisms to build their shells.

    • D. 

      Minerals derived from solutions containing minerals dissolved during chemical weathering.

  • 20. 
    An example of a clastic sedimentary rock is
    • A. 

      Sandstone

    • B. 

      Mudstone

    • C. 

      Arkose

    • D. 

      All answers apply

  • 21. 
    The difference between the sediments gravel, sand, silt, and clay is
    • A. 

      Grain size.

    • B. 

      Roundness.

    • C. 

      Composition.

    • D. 

      Origin.

  • 22. 
    Fossils are commonly found in igneous and metamorphic rocks.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 23. 
    Clastic or detrital sediment larger than 2 millimeters across is
    • A. 

      Gravel.

    • B. 

      Sand.

    • C. 

      Clay.

    • D. 

      Silt.

  • 24. 
    Sediment and sedimentary rocks
    • A. 

      Don't make up as much volume in the crust as do igneous and metamorphic (crystalline) rocks but cover the majority of the surface of the continents.

    • B. 

      Make up about 95% of the Earth's crust by volume.

    • C. 

      Are never older than 10 to 12 million years because they are always weathered and "recycled" quickly in the rock cycle.

    • D. 

      Are interesting to scientists but don't contain ore deposits.

  • 25. 
    Evaporties are formed when chemicals precipitate to form cememt aorund sand-size particles.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 26. 
    You find a sandstone made of well-rounded quartz sand. This likely means that
    • A. 

      Only well-rounded quartz was in the source rock.

    • B. 

      The sands came from clay that converted to quartz.

    • C. 

      The sands must been from a metamorphic rock.

    • D. 

      The sands had a long and hard journey to their place of deposition.

  • 27. 
    Technically speaking, coal is
    • A. 

      A carbonate rock like limestone.

    • B. 

      a low-temperature igneous rock.

    • C. 

      Not a sedimentary rock because it's organic.

    • D. 

      not made of minerals but it still is a rock.

  • 28. 
    Texture can be identified as either pegmatitic, phaneritic, aphanitic, porphyritic, glassy, porous, or fragmental.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 29. 
    The actions of ____________________ and ____________________ are responsible for most soil erosion.
  • 30. 
    A vertical sequence of a(n) ____________________ facies shows an offshore facies superposed on nearshore facies.
  • 31. 
    This rock has no visible crystals and has chemical components.  Some prehistoric tools were made out of this.  The name of this rock is________.
  • 32. 
    This rock is biogenic in nature.  The name of this rock is________.
  • 33. 
    This rock comes from mud, clastic and composed of mica, quartz and feldspar.  This rock is called_________________.
  • 34. 
    This rock's grain size is gravel with angular shape, clastic.  The minerals present are feldspar and quartz..  The name of this rock is_________________.
  • 35. 
    This rock is composed of silt and is clastic.  The name of this rock is ____________________.
  • 36. 
    This rock has interlocking crystals and chemical components.  It can be found around hot springs.  The name of this rock is______________.
  • 37. 
    This rock is composed of mud and or silt with angular grains.  It is usually biogenic because many fossils are found in this type of rock.  The name of this rock is_________________.
  • 38. 
    This rock is composed of sand size grains and has a clastic composition.  It is often made up of quartz, calcite and feldspar.  The name of this rock is______________.
  • 39. 
    The rock has gravel sized grains and those grain are rounded due to water erosion.  It is clastic and lithification is cementing.  The name of this rock is___________________.
  • 40. 
    The grain size is gravel and angular.  The components are clastic and the rock is often found in karst areas.  The name of this rock is______________________.
  • 41. 
    The rock is composed of pieces of seashells cemented together.  The name of this rock is______________.
  • 42. 
    This rock has interlocking crystals of gypsum due to its chemical components.  It is prevalent in marine environments.  The name of this rock is___________________.
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