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Quiz 4

50 Questions
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Pscy

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Personality psychology and clinical psychology overlap most when apporaching
    • A. 

      Personality processes

    • B. 

      Personality disorders

    • C. 

      Personality development

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 2. 
    The taks of an employer who attempts to identify dependable, cosceintious, and hard working job applicants is similar to the task of the ______ psychologist, who attempts to ientify and assess individual differences.
    • A. 

      Psychoanalytic

    • B. 

      Trait

    • C. 

      Cognitive

    • D. 

      Behavioral

  • 3. 
    Intrapersonal processes include
    • A. 

      Communication between people

    • B. 

      The emotions that we experience

    • C. 

      Conflicts between the family members

    • D. 

      All of these

  • 4. 
    Psychologists following the phenomenological apporach 
    • A. 

      Focus on the workings of the unconscious mind and the resolution of internal mental conflict

    • B. 

      Study how overt behavior is affected by rewards and punishments

    • C. 

      Build theoretical models of how people process information

    • D. 

      Are concerned with out conscious experience of the world and the consequences of having free will

  • 5. 
    The personality pradigm that focuses on rewards and punishments is known as the _____ paradigm
    • A. 

      Trait

    • B. 

      Behaviorist

    • C. 

      Phenomenological

    • D. 

      Psychoanlytic

  • 6. 
    Personality psychologists ahering to the _____ apporach focus on psychic energy, the workings of the unconscious mind, and the nature and resolution of internal mental conflict
    • A. 

      Psychoanalytic

    • B. 

      Trait

    • C. 

      Cognitive

    • D. 

      Phenomenological

  • 7. 
    The purpose of a basic apporach (or paradigm) is 
    • A. 

      To expand the range of data you consider

    • B. 

      To integrate diverse perspectives

    • C. 

      To limit inquiry to certain kinds of observations and patterns

    • D. 

      To resolve contradictions in data

  • 8. 
    That trait apporach, the behaviorist approach, and the psychoanalytic approach
    • A. 

      Are irreconcilable and contradictory views of human psychology

    • B. 

      Are all part of the One Big Theory

    • C. 

      All address the biological basis of human psychology

    • D. 

      Address different sets of questions about human psychology

  • 9. 
    Personality psychology has a variety of theoretical persepectives that are sometimes seen as competing with each other. Regarding this diversity, a major theme of this text book is:
    • A. 

      The personality puzzle will never be solved

    • B. 

      The One Big Theory (OBT) can account for everything in personality

    • C. 

      Great strengths are usually great weaknesses

    • D. 

      A single basic approach must be chosen as best on the basis of rigorous data analysis

  • 10. 
    Personality psychologists who adhere to the ________ approach focus on identifying, conceptualizing, and measuring the ways in which people differ psychologically from one another.
    • A. 

      Psychoanlytic

    • B. 

      Trait

    • C. 

      Cognitive

    • D. 

      Phenomenological

  • 11. 
    The unique mandate of personality psychologists is to attempt
    • A. 

      To identify and measure individual differences in ability and behavior

    • B. 

      To determine the effect of the social environment on behavior

    • C. 

      To explain, whole, functioning persons in their social context

    • D. 

      To prevent or treat psychological personality disorders

  • 12. 
    The unique mandate of personality psychologists is to attempt
    • A. 

      To identify and measure individual differences in ability and behavior

    • B. 

      To determine the effect of the social environment on behavior

    • C. 

      To explain, whole, functioning persons in their social context

    • D. 

      To prevent or treat psychological personality disorders

  • 13. 
    Which formula in psychometrics quantifies the principle of aggregation? 
    • A. 

      Alpha

    • B. 

      Spearman-Brown

    • C. 

      Kappa

    • D. 

      Kaiser-Guttma

  • 14. 
    In order to examine the relationship between early life experiences and adult criminality, Dr. Robbins asks his research participants to fill out questionnaires describing their early life. He then obtains copies of their arrest records from the county courthouse. The questionnaires used in Dr. Robbins’s study would be ________ data, whereas the arrest records would be ________ data.
    • A. 

      L;B

    • B. 

      S;I

    • C. 

      S;L

    • D. 

      B;L

  • 15. 
    The fact that life outcomes are mulit-determined is the biggest disadvantage of L data
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 16. 
    Reliability and validity are both aspects of a broder concept called
    • A. 

      Factorial invariance

    • B. 

      Psychometric integrity

    • C. 

      Measurement equivalence

    • D. 

      Generalizability

  • 17. 
    A reseacher asks parents to report on the persoanlity characteristics of their children. This is an example of ____ data.
    • A. 

      B

    • B. 

      I

    • C. 

      L

    • D. 

      S

  • 18. 
    Which kind of data would probably appeal most to an applied psychogist who is keenly interested in predicting workplace deviance?
    • A. 

      S

    • B. 

      B

    • C. 

      I

    • D. 

      L

  • 19. 
    Observing how fast someone walks after an experimental prime is an example of L data
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 20. 
    According to the text, it is reasonable to first assume that almost all psychological findings lack generalizibility 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 21. 
    The techinical meaning of reliability concerns
    • A. 

      How much measurement error is present in your assessment intrument

    • B. 

      Whether or not an instrument accurately assesses the construct it is intended to measure

    • C. 

      Whether or not an instrument correlates with a similar measure of the same construct

    • D. 

      Whether or not a sample participants resonably represents the population of interest

  • 22. 
    Which of the following is the best definition of validity?
    • A. 

      The degree to which an instrument yields consistent scores

    • B. 

      The degree to which measurement error affects scores on an instrument

    • C. 

      The degree to which an instrument actually reflects the construct of interest

    • D. 

      The degree to which an instrument yields dependable scores

  • 23. 
    Answers to projective tests such as the Rorschach ink blots are considered B data
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 24. 
    The MMPI was designed
    • A. 

      To assess individuals with psychological disorders

    • B. 

      To assess normal individuals

    • C. 

      To identify the Big Five personality factors

    • D. 

      To assess Jung's psychological types

  • 25. 
    What is the ultimate criterion for judging a measure of personality? 
    • A. 

      Whether its reliable

    • B. 

      Whether it is internally consistent

    • C. 

      Whether it predicts behavior

    • D. 

      Whether it has content validity

  • 26. 
    According to the text, which projective test appears to have produced evidence that comes close to establishing its validity? 
    • A. 

      Draw-a-Person Test

    • B. 

      TAT

    • C. 

      Buss-Perry Aggression Q-sort

    • D. 

      Draw-a-Face test

  • 27. 
    According to the book personality and assessment, a correlation of .30 is impressive
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 28. 
    If there is a positive correlation between extraversion and risk taking, then the
    • A. 

      Researcher can be certain that extraversion causes risk taking

    • B. 

      Higher a person's extraversion score, the more risks he or she is likely to take

    • C. 

      Lower a person's extraversion score, the more risks he or she is likely to take

    • D. 

      Researcher can be certain that extraversion does not cause risk taking

  • 29. 
    The improvement is reliabilty gained by adding additoinal "good" test items can be precisely calculated using what formula?
    • A. 

      The perason product moment

    • B. 

      The alpha

    • C. 

      The tucker-lewis

    • D. 

      Spearman-brown

  • 30. 
    Which of the following approaches to test construction is the most atheoretical? 
    • A. 

      Rational

    • B. 

      Factor analytic

    • C. 

      Content validation

    • D. 

      Empirical

  • 31. 
    In order to improve personality research, researchers can
    • A. 

      Check for moderator variables

    • B. 

      Predict behavioral trends rather than single acts

    • C. 

      Measure behavior in real life

    • D. 

      All of the above. Each of these behaviors would be equally easy to predict

  • 32. 
    Personality assessment refers to
    • A. 

      A treatment for personality disorders

    • B. 

      The analysis and interpretatoin of genetic markers of personality

    • C. 

      The measurement of any characteristic pattern of behavior, thought, or emotion

    • D. 

      The selection of a group of individuals with the most unique temperments

  • 33. 
    Eliminating the use of personality tests in employment screening will
    • A. 

      Prevent biases from affecting hiring decisions

    • B. 

      Decrease the likelihod that women and minorities will be discrimnated against in hiring

    • C. 

      Increase the use of lie detector tests and drug tests in employment screening

    • D. 

      Not prevent traits from being judged but will change the way they are judged

  • 34. 
    It is possible to evaluate personality judgments by acquaintances in basically the same ways that all personality tests are evaluated.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 35. 
    What term refers to a limit on the generalizability of a particular research conclusion? 
    • A. 

      A threshold condition

    • B. 

      A boundary condition

    • C. 

      An exclusionary condition

    • D. 

      A caveat condition

  • 36. 
    Sam argues that all inerpretations of reality are equally accurate. What philosophical poistion is Sam advocating? 
    • A. 

      The realist

    • B. 

      The positivist

    • C. 

      The empiricist

    • D. 

      The constructivist

  • 37. 
    The philosophy of construcitvism is widespread in modern intellectual life.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 38. 
    It is only possible to improve personality accuracy at the utilization stage. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 39. 
    According to Lee Jussim (1991), the source of real-life expectanices is likely
    • A. 

      Erroneous stereotypes about groups

    • B. 

      Previous observations of behavioral tendencies

    • C. 

      Authoritarian personality traits

    • D. 

      A cognitive bias to seek in congruent information

  • 40. 
    What are the steps in the Realistic Accuarcy Model (RAM) or personality judgement?
    • A. 

      Recall/adjustment/manipulation

    • B. 

      Realism/accuracy/manipulation

    • C. 

      Recall/activation/matching/detection

    • D. 

      Relevance/availability/detection/utilization

  • 41. 
    Which of the following was NOT mentioned as a potential moderator of accuracy?
    • A. 

      Qualities of personality judges

    • B. 

      Qualities of the target of the judgment

    • C. 

      The amount of information available to judges

    • D. 

      The age of the target of the judgment

  • 42. 
    Which correlates of delay of gratification were common in both girls and boys?
    • A. 

      Being playful, reflective, and reasonable

    • B. 

      Being intelligent, competent, and attentive

    • C. 

      Being shy, quiet, and complain

    • D. 

      Being anxious, resourceful, and emotionally labile

  • 43. 
    Studies using the Q-set suggest that overcontrol might be a risk factor for depression in males but not females.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 44. 
    Ego control was related to increased delay of gratification in boys but not girls.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 45. 
    Which of the Big Five traits appears to be most difficult to understand?
    • A. 

      Neuroticism

    • B. 

      Extraversion

    • C. 

      Psychoticism

    • D. 

      Openness

  • 46. 
    The plasticity factor covers both extraversion and openness
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 47. 
    What is the best summary of the current state of knowlesge about personality types?
    • A. 

      Knowing a person's personality type adds to our ability to predict his or her behavior, beyond what can be predicted by knowing how the person stands on the stands on the traits that define typology

    • B. 

      Although types add little for psychometric purposes of measurement and prediction, they still may have value as aids in education and theorizing

    • C. 

      There are five basic personality types, each corresponding to one of the Big Five personality

    • D. 

      Compared to the trait approach, the typological approach is completely useless for explaining or describing people or behavior.

  • 48. 
    If a researcher is using factor analysis to identify traits, then what approach is he likely to favor?
    • A. 

      A single-trait approach

    • B. 

      A many-trait approach

    • C. 

      An essential trait approach

    • D. 

      A typological approach

  • 49. 
    Which Big Five domain captures a tendency toward general psychopathology? 
    • A. 

      Psychoticism

    • B. 

      Extraversion

    • C. 

      Neuroticism

    • D. 

      Openness

  • 50. 
    Whicih of the Big Five traits appears to have the most inconsistency in terms of cross-culture replication?
    • A. 

      Agreeableness

    • B. 

      Extraversion

    • C. 

      Psychoticism

    • D. 

      Openness