P20(a)

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P20(A)

  
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1.  What is the definition of achalasia?
A.
B.
C.
D.
2.  What is the likely effect of long-term exposure to a hepatotoxin?
A.
B.
C.
D.
3.  What causes elevated serum levels of AST and ALT during the preicteric stage of hepatitis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
4.  What indicates the presence of third-stage alcohol hepatitis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
5.  What does esophageal atresia cause?
A.
B.
C.
D.
6.  An alkaline environment is required in the duodenum to:
A.
B.
C.
D.
7.  Why does herpes simplex infection tend to recur?
A.
B.
C.
D.
8.  What is a common cause of gastroenteritis due to Salmonella?
A.
B.
C.
D.
9.  Which of the following would a perforated gastric ulcer likely cause?
A.
B.
C.
D.
10.  Which of the following statements applies to bile salts?
A.
B.
C.
D.
11.  The visceral peritoneum:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
12.  In the liver, amino acids are used to produce complex molecules by means of:
A.
B.
C.
D.
13.  Prolonged vomiting cause a state of acidosis due to:
A.
B.
C.
D.
14.  A primary factor causing encephalopathy with cirrhosis is the elevated:
A.
B.
C.
D.
15.  Which of the following applies to cleft palate?
A.
B.
C.
D.
16.  Which of the following applies to the act of swallowing?
A.
B.
C.
D.
17.  What would be the result of chronic bleeding from gastric carcinoma?
A.
B.
C.
D.
18.  Which of the following is the primary site for absorption of nutrients?
A.
B.
C.
D.
19.   Following gastric resection, the onset of nausea, cramps, and dizziness immediately after meals indicates:
A.
B.
C.
D.
20.  Which of the following is contained in pancreatic exocrine secretions?
A.
B.
C.
D.
21.  Why does mild hyperbilirubinemia occur in newborns?
A.
B.
C.
D.
22.  When highly acidic chyme enters the duodenum, which hormone stimulates the release of pancreatic secretions that contains very high bicarbonate ion content?
A.
B.
C.
D.
23.  Which of the following describes the supply of bile following a cholecystectomy?
A.
B.
C.
D.
24.  The early stage of vomiting causes:
A.
B.
C.
D.
25.  What can be concluded if the hepatitis B antigen level remains high in the serum?
A.
B.
C.
D.
26.  What does the term periodontitis refer to?
A.
B.
C.
D.
27.  A patient with acquired pyloric stenosis would likely:
A.
B.
C.
D.
28.  Which of the following stimulates increased peristalsis and secretions in the digestive tract?
A.
B.
C.
D.
29.  Which of the following individuals is likely to develop acute gastritis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
30.  What is the most common type of hepatitis transmitted by blood transfusion?
A.
B.
C.
D.
31.  Which of the following applies to hepatitis A infection?
A.
B.
C.
D.
32.  What is a common cause of hiatal hernia?
A.
B.
C.
D.
33.  What is/are common location(s) for oral cancer?
A.
B.
C.
D.
34.  What is the primary cause of increased bleeding tendencies associated with cirrhosis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
35.  Predisposing factors to cholelithiasis include excessive:
A.
B.
C.
D.
36.  Which of the following processes is likely to occur in the body immediately after a meal?
A.
B.
C.
D.
37.  Which of the following is/are (a) manifestation(s) of hemolytic jaundice?
A.
B.
C.
D.
38.  In patients with cirrhosis, serum ammonia may increase when:
A.
B.
C.
D.
39.  What does the pathophysiology of chronic gastritis include?
A.
B.
C.
D.
40.  What does the defecation reflex require?
A.
B.
C.
D.
41.  What does the term gluconeogenesis refer to?
A.
B.
C.
D.
42.  What does congenital pyloric stenosis involve?
A.
B.
C.
D.
43.  Oral candidiasis is considered to:
A.
B.
C.
D.
44.  Dehydration causes acidosis because of increased:
A.
B.
C.
D.
45.  Which of the following breaks protein down into peptides?
A.
B.
C.
D.
46.  Prolonged or severe stress predisposes to peptic ulcer disease because:
A.
B.
C.
D.
47.  What is a common sign of acute gastritis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
48.  What is the first change in arterial blood gases with diarrhea?
A.
B.
C.
D.
49.  Normally, proteins or amino acids are required to produce all of the following EXCEPT:
A.
B.
C.
D.
50.  What is the primary cause of esophageal varices?
A.
B.
C.
D.
51.  The pathophysiology of peptic ulcer disease may involve any of the following EXCEPT:
A.
B.
C.
D.
52.  What is frequently the first manifestation of stress ulcers?
A.
B.
C.
D.
53.  In which structure is oxygenated blood (arterial) mixed with unoxygenated blood (venous) so as to support the functions of the structure?
A.
B.
C.
D.
54.  Which of the following cells in the gastric mucosa produce intrinsic factor and hydrochloric acid?
A.
B.
C.
D.
55.  What is the major effect when a gallstone obstructs the cystic duct?
A.
B.
C.
D.
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