B. anabolic processes
C. catabolic processes
A. parietal cells
B. chief cells
C. mucous cells
D. gastrin cells
D. ascending colon
C. small intestine
A. sympathetic nervous system
B. vagus nerve
C. increased saliva
D. absence of food in the system
A. bicarbonate ion
B. hydrochloric acid
C. activated digestive enzymes
A. activate pepsinogen
B. activate intestinal and pancreatic enzymes
C. activate bile salts
D. produce mucus
A. breakdown of glycogen to produce glucose
B. conversion of excess glucose into glycogen for storage
C. formation of glucose from protein and fat
D. breakdown of glucose into carbon dioxide and water
A. peptide hormones
B. clotting factors and antibodies
C. cellular energy
A. They give feces the characteristic brown color.
B. They are enzymes used to break down fats into free fatty acids.
C. They emulsify lipids and lipid-soluble vitamins.
D. They are excreted in the feces.
A. lines the abdominal wall
B. hangs from the stomach over the loops of small intestine
C. contains many pain receptors
D. forms the outer covering of the stomach and intestines
E. covers the kidneys and bladder
A. metabolic alkalosis
B. metabolic acidosis
C. increased respirations
D. increased excretion of hydrogen ions
A. catabolism of proteins and lipids
B. continued loss of gastric secretions
C. loss of pancreatic enzymes
D. retention of sodium ions and water
A. increased bicarbonate ion
B. decreased bicarbonate ion
C. increased carbonic acid
D. increased serum pH
A. ketones produced
B. CO2 retained in the lungs and kidneys
C. hypovolemia and lactic acid production
D. metabolic rate
A. requires coordination of cranial nerves V, IX, X, and XII
B. is entirely voluntary
C. is controlled by a center in the hypothalamus
D. does not affect respiration
A. stimulation by the sympathetic nervous system
B. contraction of the internal anal sphincter
C. coordination through the sacral spinal cord
D. voluntary contraction of abdominal muscles
A. a herniation of the gastric mucosa through a segment of weakened muscle
B. recurrent reflux of chime into the esophagus
C. absence of a connection of the esophagus to the stomach
D. lack of a nerve plexus to relax the lower esophageal sphincter
A. direct passage of saliva and food from the mouth into the trachea
B. repeated reflux of gastric secretions into the esophagus
C. no fluid or food entering the stomach
D. gastric distention and cramps
A. The mandibular processes do not fuse.
B. The hard and soft palates do not fuse during the first trimester of pregnancy.
C. Exposure to environmental factors in the last trimester causes the defect.
D. Speech and eating are not affected.
A. be a common bacterial infection in infants and young children
B. cause painful ulcerations in the mucosa and tongue
C. cause white patches in the mucosa that cannot be scraped off
D. be an opportunistic fungal infection of the mouth
A. Active infection is usually asymptomatic.
B. The virus builds up a resistance.
C. The virus persists in latent form in sensory nerve ganglia.
D. The virus mutates; therefore, no effective immunity develops.
A. erosion of the enamel tooth surface
B. bacterial damage to the ligaments and bone surrounding teeth
C. inflammation and infection of the gingivae
D. formation of calcified plaque on the tooth
A. floor of the mouth or tongue borders
B. mucosa lining the cheeks
C. hard and soft palate
D. gingivae near the teeth
A. an abnormally long esophagus
B. increased intra-abdominal pressure
C. stenosis of the hiatus in the diaphragm
D. a small fundus in the stomach
A. colicky right upper quadrant pain
B. vomiting with epigastric tenderness
C. projectile vomiting after eating
D. diarrhea with abdominal distention
A. atrophy of the gastric mucosa with decreased secretions
B. hyperchlorhydria and chronic peptic ulcers
C. frequent vomiting and diarrhea
D. episodes of acute inflammation and edema of the mucosa
A. unrefrigerated custards or salad dressings
B. poorly canned foods
C. raw or undercooked poultry or eggs
D. contaminated water
A. a long-term, heavy cigarette smoker
B. patient with arthritis taking enteric-coated aspirin on a daily basis
C. a person with an autoimmune reaction in the gastric mucosa
D. an individual with an allergy to shellfish
A. absence of peristalsis in the lower section of the stomach
B. failure of an opening to develop between the stomach and duodenum
C. hypertrophy and hyperplasia of smooth muscle in the pylorus
D. thickening of the gastric wall due to chronic inflammation
A. have an increase in appetite
B. have chronic diarrhea
C. develop severe colicky pains
D. vomit undigested food from previous meals
A. of reduced blood flow to the gastric wall and mucous glands
B. of reduced bicarbonate content in bile and pancreatic secretions
C. stress increases the number of acid/pepsinogen secreting cells
D. increased epinephrine increases motility
A. decreased resistance of the mucosal barrier
B. increased stimulation of pepsin and acid secretions
C. infection by H. pylori
D. increased stimulation of mucus-producing glands
A. severe anemia
B. chemical peritonitis
C. severe gastric hemorrhage
D. pyloric obstruction
A. abdominal discomfort between meals and at night
B. nausea and diarrhea
C. hematemesis and hypotension
D. sharp colicky pain with food intake
A. occult blood in the stool and anemia
B. hematemesis and shock
C. abdominal pain and distention
D. red blood on the surface of the stool
A. a large volume of chyme has entered the intestines, causing distention
B. severe hypoglycemia has developed
C. the pylorus is restricting the flow of chyme
D. bile and pancreatic secretions are irritating the small intestine
A. increased unconjugated bilirubin in the blood
B. increased bleeding tendencies
C. pale stool and dark urine
D. elevated liver enzymes in the blood
A. blood incompatibility between mother and child
B. there is damage to many erythrocytes during the birth process
C. poor circulation and albumin transport for bilirubin
D. the immature liver cannot process bilirubin quickly enough
A. bilirubin or cholesterol concentration in the bile
B. water content in the bile
C. bile salts in the bile
D. bicarbonate ions in the bile
A. intrahepatic jaundice
B. acute pancreatitis
C. severe colicky pain in upper right quadrant
D. inflammation and infection in the gall bladder
A. Bile is no longer available for digestion.
B. Bile is stored in the liver sinusoids until a fatty meal is consumed.
C. Bile is not diluted and is less effective as an emulsifier.
D. Small amounts of bile are continuously secreted and flow into the duodenum.
A. It is also called serum hepatitis.
B. It is transmitted by the fecal-oral route.
C. It contains a double strand of DNA.
D. It frequently leads to chronic hepatitis.
A. Acute infection is present.
B. Chronic infection has developed.
C. Liver failure is in progress.
D. The usual prolonged recovery from any viral infection is occurring.
A. systemic effects of viral infection
B. obstruction of bile ducts and malabsorption
C. necrosis of liver cells
D. ammonia toxicity
A. full recovery to normal tissue after the toxic material is removed
B. acute onset of vomiting, steatorrhea, and jaundice
C. continued mild inflammation of the liver without permanent damage
D. gradual irreversible damage to the liver and cirrhosis
A. below normal blood levels of AST and ALT
B. ULQ tenderness and dull pain
C. a small, firm, nodular liver and portal hypertension
D. accumulation of fat in the hepatocytes and hepatomegaly
A. serum urea
B. conjugated bilirubin
C. serum ammonia
D. serum pH
A. ingesting excessive lipids
B. bleeding occurs in the digestive tract
C. an increase in unconjugated bilirubin occurs in the serum
D. less bile is produced
A. portal hypertension
B. alcohol irritating the mucosa
C. failure to inactivate estrogen
D. poor nutritional status
A. anemia and leucopenia
B. jaundice and pruritus
C. recurrent infections
D. deficit of vitamin K and prothrombin