P20(a)

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1.  Which of the following cells in the gastric mucosa produce intrinsic factor and hydrochloric acid?
A.
B.
C.
D.
2.  What does the defecation reflex require?
A.
B.
C.
D.
3.  What is the major effect when a gallstone obstructs the cystic duct?
A.
B.
C.
D.
4.  What is the definition of achalasia?
A.
B.
C.
D.
5.  What does the pathophysiology of chronic gastritis include?
A.
B.
C.
D.
6.  The visceral peritoneum:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
7.  What is frequently the first manifestation of stress ulcers?
A.
B.
C.
D.
8.   Following gastric resection, the onset of nausea, cramps, and dizziness immediately after meals indicates:
A.
B.
C.
D.
9.  Why does herpes simplex infection tend to recur?
A.
B.
C.
D.
10.  Prolonged vomiting cause a state of acidosis due to:
A.
B.
C.
D.
11.  An alkaline environment is required in the duodenum to:
A.
B.
C.
D.
12.  A primary factor causing encephalopathy with cirrhosis is the elevated:
A.
B.
C.
D.
13.  What is the first change in arterial blood gases with diarrhea?
A.
B.
C.
D.
14.  What does the term periodontitis refer to?
A.
B.
C.
D.
15.  What can be concluded if the hepatitis B antigen level remains high in the serum?
A.
B.
C.
D.
16.  Oral candidiasis is considered to:
A.
B.
C.
D.
17.  Which of the following applies to hepatitis A infection?
A.
B.
C.
D.
18.  Which of the following is/are (a) manifestation(s) of hemolytic jaundice?
A.
B.
C.
D.
19.  What is a common sign of acute gastritis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
20.  In which structure is oxygenated blood (arterial) mixed with unoxygenated blood (venous) so as to support the functions of the structure?
A.
B.
C.
D.
21.  Which of the following individuals is likely to develop acute gastritis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
22.  Which of the following applies to the act of swallowing?
A.
B.
C.
D.
23.  What does esophageal atresia cause?
A.
B.
C.
D.
24.  What does the term gluconeogenesis refer to?
A.
B.
C.
D.
25.  Which of the following processes is likely to occur in the body immediately after a meal?
A.
B.
C.
D.
26.  Which of the following would a perforated gastric ulcer likely cause?
A.
B.
C.
D.
27.  What is a common cause of hiatal hernia?
A.
B.
C.
D.
28.  What indicates the presence of third-stage alcohol hepatitis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
29.  What is the most common type of hepatitis transmitted by blood transfusion?
A.
B.
C.
D.
30.  In the liver, amino acids are used to produce complex molecules by means of:
A.
B.
C.
D.
31.  Prolonged or severe stress predisposes to peptic ulcer disease because:
A.
B.
C.
D.
32.  Which of the following breaks protein down into peptides?
A.
B.
C.
D.
33.  What would be the result of chronic bleeding from gastric carcinoma?
A.
B.
C.
D.
34.  Predisposing factors to cholelithiasis include excessive:
A.
B.
C.
D.
35.  Which of the following is contained in pancreatic exocrine secretions?
A.
B.
C.
D.
36.  What does congenital pyloric stenosis involve?
A.
B.
C.
D.
37.  What causes elevated serum levels of AST and ALT during the preicteric stage of hepatitis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
38.  Dehydration causes acidosis because of increased:
A.
B.
C.
D.
39.  What is/are common location(s) for oral cancer?
A.
B.
C.
D.
40.  What is the likely effect of long-term exposure to a hepatotoxin?
A.
B.
C.
D.
41.  Which of the following describes the supply of bile following a cholecystectomy?
A.
B.
C.
D.
42.  Which of the following applies to cleft palate?
A.
B.
C.
D.
43.  What is the primary cause of esophageal varices?
A.
B.
C.
D.
44.  What is a common cause of gastroenteritis due to Salmonella?
A.
B.
C.
D.
45.  When highly acidic chyme enters the duodenum, which hormone stimulates the release of pancreatic secretions that contains very high bicarbonate ion content?
A.
B.
C.
D.
46.  Which of the following is the primary site for absorption of nutrients?
A.
B.
C.
D.
47.  Normally, proteins or amino acids are required to produce all of the following EXCEPT:
A.
B.
C.
D.
48.  What is the primary cause of increased bleeding tendencies associated with cirrhosis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
49.  A patient with acquired pyloric stenosis would likely:
A.
B.
C.
D.
50.  Why does mild hyperbilirubinemia occur in newborns?
A.
B.
C.
D.
51.  In patients with cirrhosis, serum ammonia may increase when:
A.
B.
C.
D.
52.  Which of the following stimulates increased peristalsis and secretions in the digestive tract?
A.
B.
C.
D.
53.  The early stage of vomiting causes:
A.
B.
C.
D.
54.  Which of the following statements applies to bile salts?
A.
B.
C.
D.
55.  The pathophysiology of peptic ulcer disease may involve any of the following EXCEPT:
A.
B.
C.
D.
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