Bill began running track and field because it kept him healthy. After winning a few medals, he noticed that his friends looked up to him more and he became more popular. Because the medal is associated with winning and praise from his friends, Bill begins to focus all his attention on winning medals. The "medal" is an example of a:
This type of learning occurs when an already existing stimulus is removed to decrease the likelihood of a behavior.
Student "A" sees Student "B" get a gold star on his name tag for picking up trash in the hallway. As a result, Student "A" starts picking up trash in the hallway in hopes of also recieving a gold star. This is an example of: