# Non-Experimental Quanitative Research

15 Questions
• 1.
The number of police officers and the number of crimes are positively related. This relationship is:
• A.

A causal relationship

• B.

A direct relationship

• C.

A probabilistic causal relation

• D.

A spurious relationship

• 2.
A researcher studies the relation between early reading and later school achievement. She decides that a potentially extraneous variable in the relationship is IQ. In developing her groups for her study, she pairs each child who was an early reader with a child of the same IQ level who was not an early reader. The control technique she used was:
• A.

Holding the extraneous variable constant

• B.

Statistical control

• C.

Matching

• D.

Random assignment

• 3.
The directors of a graduate program in educational research wish to see what types of jobs their graduates take after they finish their program. They randomly sample students from the program and have them fill out questionnaires with items asking about the types of jobs they have had. They also are asked to describe the roles they play in their current positions. This project is best described as having what kind of objective:
• A.

Descriptive

• B.

Predictive

• C.

Explanatory

• 4.
When research is done to test hypotheses and theories about how and why phenomena operate as they do, then the primary purpose of such research is:
• A.

Descriptive

• B.

Predictive

• C.

Explanatory

• 5.
The variable the researcher matches to eliminate it as an alternative explanation is called a(n) _________ variable.
• A.

Matching

• B.

Independent

• C.

Dependent

• D.

Partial

• 6.
The positive correlation between teachers’ salaries and the price of liquor is _________.
• A.

Spurious

• B.

Due to a third-variable

• C.

Nonspurious

• D.

Both a and b

• 7.
When a researcher starts with the dependent variable and moves backwards, it is called ________.
• A.

Predictive research

• B.

Retrospective research

• C.

Exploratory research

• D.

Descriptive research

• 8.
The method of working multiple hypotheses refers to a technique for identifying rival explanations.
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 9.
GLM refers to which of the following?
• A.

General Logit Model

• B.

General Limited Model

• C.

General Lab Model

• D.

General Linear Model

• 10.
The post hoc fallacy is ____.
• A.

Making the argument that because A preceded B, A must have caused B

• B.

Making the argument that because A preceded B, A and B must be correlated

• C.

Making the argument that because A preceded B, they cannot be correlated

• D.

None of the above

• 11.
Which one of the following is not a step in nonexperimental research?
• A.

Determine research problem and hypotheses

• B.

Analyze data

• C.

Interpret results

• D.

All are steps

• 12.
If a research finding is statistically significant, then ____.
• A.

The observed result is probably not due to chance

• B.

The observed result cannot possibly be due to chance

• C.

The observed result is probably a chance result

• D.

The null hypothesis of “no relationship” is probably true

• 13.
Which of the following is/are necessary condition(s) for causation?
• A.

The relationship condition

• B.

The temporal antecedence condition

• C.

The lack of alternative explanation condition

• D.

All of the above

• 14.
Which of the following independent variables cannot be manipulated in a research study?
• A.

Gender

• B.

Ethnicity

• C.

Intelligence and other traits

• D.

None of ht above can be manipulated in a research study

• 15.
Matching can be done when your independent variable is categorical or quantitative.
• A.

True

• B.

False

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