Nonconsequentialist (deontological) Theories Of Morality And Virtue Ethics

10 Questions  I  By Reyimp
Nonconsequentialist (Deontological) Theories of Morality and Virtue Ethics
This is a quiz for the Philo Class of Dr Reynaldo Imperial.

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1.  Many of us encounter people who truly enjoy doing good turns for others. We meet people who help the homeless, who feed the hungry, and who contribute to worthy causes not out of a sense of duty, but rather because that's what makes these people happiest. They get a sense of fulfillment from acting in a morally upright fashion.What does Kant have to say about such individuals?
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2.  In 19th century England, a group of prison reformers decided that convicts should be required to engage in "improving labor." In some cases, they were put to productive work; in others, they simply toiled at meaningless occupations like turning a heavy wheel, producing nothing. The idea behind this practice was that by forcing the prisoners (who were often viewed as being naturally lazy) to engage in regular hard labor, their characters would be improved, no matter how much they resented it at the time.The reformers' beliefs seem most closely to resemble those of
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3.  One aspect of ethics is the evaluation of particular actions. When a prosperous person gives money to a panhandler on the street, an act utilitarian would evaluate the moral character of that action by looking at its consequences, whereas a Kantian might do so by considering the maxim -- the rule -- that the action followed.How would Aristotle evaluate such an action according to his Virtue Ethics?
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4.  Every child learns the "Golden Rule:" we ought treat others as we would have them treat us. This bears a marked resemblance to which element of an ethical theory discussed in the text?
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5.  Often, doctors are faced with situations where terminally ill patients, suffering great pain, cannot be given any increase in their pain-relieving medication (such as morphine) because any increase in dosage would cause respiratory failure and death. It is still not unheard of for a doctor to go ahead and increase the dosage anyway, even knowing that the increase will cause the patient's death. The argument is frequently made that this practice is not euthanasia, since the doctor's true motivation is to relieve pain, rather than to cause death.From a nonconsequentialist standpoint, which of the following factors is least relevant in assessing the morality of the doctor's act of increasing the dosage?
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6.  In debates about public morality, the argument is often between those who want some sort of government regulation and those who favor a reliance on personal responsibility. For instance, there is currently a dispute between those who want to require schools to use "filtering" software to block students from accessing some portions of the Web, and those who think children ought to be taught by their parents and others to simply avoid certain sorts of content.If these young people actually need to be taught the difference between right and wrong, this seems like it might supply the basis for a strong argument against
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7.  It's not uncommon to hire healthy people to participate in trials of new drugs. That is, a researcher will persuade people who will not benefit from a drug to be given doses of it for a period of time in order to evaluate its safety, and to discover any unanticipated side effects. Some ethicists might say this sort of practice violates Kant's Practical Imperative because 
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8.  Ross's prima facie duty of fidelity requires, among other things, that we tell the truth. His duty of nonmaleficence requires that we not injure others. Imagine a case in which you have knowledge that a friend's spouse is carrying on an affair. You would violate the duty of fidelity by not telling your friend what you know, and you would violate nonmaleficence by telling, since that would inevitably cause pain.According to Ross, which of the following applies to this case?
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9.  One argument given for intuitionism is that people who have never formally studied ethics still seem to have a moral sense. That is, they seem to have some idea of what moral rules they are supposed to follow, even if they haven't spent any time reasoning or reflecting about moral matters. In fact, our legal system imposes what seems a minimal requirement for defendants to be able to stand trial: they must be able to tell right from wrong.This clearly seems to pose a difficulty for
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10.  A "moral dilemma" will occur whenever you find yourself obliged to follow two different moral rules which require mutually exclusive actions. For instance, you might discover a co-worker embezzling from your employer, and, in a moment of weakness, promise not to expose the thief. On the one hand, it seems you are morally obliged to blow the whistle on your co-worker. At the same time, you also seem bound by your promise to remain silent. One nonconsequentialist theory that tells us how such conflicts might be resolved is 
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