Nce Practice Exam Questions

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  • 1. 
    Rogers holds that psychological imbalance results from a disparity between
    • A. 

      Past motives and future aspirations.

    • B. 

      Active strivings and past fears

    • C. 

      Conception of self and the real self

    • D. 

      Approach and avoidance tendencies


  • 2. 
    Freud is most closely associated with the idea of
    • A. 

      Trait theory.

    • B. 

      Type theory.

    • C. 

      Psychosexual stages.

    • D. 

      Psychosocial stages.


  • 3. 
    Masters and Johnson have delineated a four phase sexual response cycle. Which of the following is a phase in their conceptualization?
    • A. 

      Foreplay

    • B. 

      Excitement

    • C. 

      Relaxation

    • D. 

      Afterplay


  • 4. 
    By "congruence," Rogers means close matching of
    • A. 

      Needs and goals.

    • B. 

      Client and counselor.

    • C. 

      Awareness and experience.

    • D. 

      Feelings and perceptions.


  • 5. 
    According to the counseling model developed by Carkhuff, which of the counselor's responses lsited below is most appropriate for the statement made by a client during an initial counseling interview? Client: "I'm not really sure why I am here; I've been to counselors before and they've never really helped." Counselor:
    • A. 

      "What do you think is your real motivation for coming here today?"

    • B. 

      "You shouldn't feel that way about all counselors, some are better than others."

    • C. 

      You're uncertain why you came here today because you don't feel you've been helped in the past."

    • D. 

      "You say you've never been helped by a counselor, and yet you are here."


  • 6. 
    According to Yalom, __________ is a necessary precondition for effective group therapy.
    • A. 

      Intermember acceptance

    • B. 

      Group cohesiveness

    • C. 

      Intimacy for self disclosure

    • D. 

      Freedom


  • 7. 
    For Rogers, the best approach for bringing about personality change is to
    • A. 

      Reward socially appropriate behaviors.

    • B. 

      Promote optimism.

    • C. 

      Give unconditional positive regard.

    • D. 

      Extinguish undesirable behaviors.


  • 8. 
    B.F. Skinner is best known for his ________ procedures.
    • A. 

      Classical conditioning

    • B. 

      Operant reinforcement

    • C. 

      Personality study

    • D. 

      Psychological testing


  • 9. 
    Which of the following theories of counseling is based on a logical, cognitive approach to the solution of client's problems?
    • A. 

      Psychoanalytic

    • B. 

      Rational emotive

    • C. 

      Existential

    • D. 

      Perceptual


  • 10. 
    Which of the following counseling approaches places central importance on clients making value judgments about current behaviors?
    • A. 

      Client-centered counseling

    • B. 

      Reality therapy

    • C. 

      Adlerian therapy

    • D. 

      Gestalt therapy


  • 11. 
    Which of the following client behaviors is NOT a sign of client resistance?
    • A. 

      Frequent change of topics

    • B. 

      Increased self-disclosure

    • C. 

      Verbal messages incongruent with nonverbal signals

    • D. 

      Decreased eye contact


  • 12. 
    Life-styling workshops generally include
    • A. 

      Role-playing and group discussions.

    • B. 

      Existential messages.

    • C. 

      T-group activities.

    • D. 

      All of the above.


  • 13. 
    Counselors doing group counseling know that recognizing that working through resistance is a major task of the __________ stage in group process.
    • A. 

      Initial

    • B. 

      Transition

    • C. 

      Working

    • D. 

      Final


  • 14. 
    Regarding the role of the group leader's values in group counseling situations, ethical practice implies that group leaders should
    • A. 

      Try to shape the members' values.

    • B. 

      Avoid imposing personal values.

    • C. 

      Be value free.

    • D. 

      Never expose personal values.


  • 15. 
    Which of the following is a true statement about Gestalt therapy groups?
    • A. 

      There are clearly defined roles for group members.

    • B. 

      The group exerts pressure on a member to become someting other than what he/she starts as.

    • C. 

      The major confrontation a group member experiences is with himself/herself.

    • D. 

      An individual must sit on the "hot seat" when asked to do so.


  • 16. 
    Counselors use __________ groups to help members fulfill needs for support, feedback, and learning. 
    • A. 

      T

    • B. 

      Sensitivity

    • C. 

      Encounter

    • D. 

      Developmental


  • 17. 
    Jerry Jones wanted to manage a business of his own but did not have the capital to get started. He settled for a job as a clerk  in a sporting goods store but made contacts with others who would be willing to back him in setting up his own business. In a few years, with the help of backers, he opened his own store, "The Fallen Arch." This business flourished. Soon after, he capitalized on his public relations ability and expanded by opening branches in several other cities. If we use either Ginzberg's first or revised formulations to explain Jerry's career development, we would say tht this is an illustration of
    • A. 

      Optimization.

    • B. 

      Organizational adaptation.

    • C. 

      Constraints reduction.

    • D. 

      Compromise.


  • 18. 
    Which of the following is the most appropriate career education activity for the elementary school?
    • A. 

      Practicing job interviews

    • B. 

      Writing a detailed report of requirements for an occupation

    • C. 

      Developing an awareness of work as a life activity

    • D. 

      Taking an interest inventory for career planning


  • 19. 
    Appropriate career education activities for the elementary school include
    • A. 

      Visiting a local newspaper

    • B. 

      A school "placement office" for "employment in school activities."

    • C. 

      Parent visits to classes to describe their occupations.

    • D. 

      All of the above.


  • 20. 
    Which of the following statements accurately describes current knowledge of the relationship between peoples' cultural and economic characteristics and their career development?
    • A. 

      Research provides clear evidence of the inhibiting effects of cultural deprivation on career development.

    • B. 

      Research involving cultural deprivation and career development indicates that individual demographic characteristics are not important.

    • C. 

      Research on cultural deprivation as it relates to career development is best conducted in "developing" nations where the phenomenon is pervasive as opposed to sporadic.

    • D. 

      Research is lacking in regard to understanding of the relationship between cultural deprivation and career development.


  • 21. 
    Interest inventories are least useful for
    • A. 

      Predicting achievement

    • B. 

      Predicting job satisfaction

    • C. 

      Clarifying interest patterns

    • D. 

      Clarifying experiences


  • 22. 
    A counselor asks, "I wonder how the new job seems to you?" This is an example of what type of question?
    • A. 

      Double-intention

    • B. 

      Closed

    • C. 

      Open

    • D. 

      Indirect


  • 23. 
    A norm table may include all of the following EXCEPT 
    • A. 

      Raw scores

    • B. 

      Percentile ranks

    • C. 

      Standard scores

    • D. 

      Standard error of measurement


  • 24. 
    What is the mean of a z score distribution?
    • A. 

      0

    • B. 

      1

    • C. 

      100

    • D. 

      50


  • 25. 
    In a normal distribution which as the highest value?
    • A. 

      Mode

    • B. 

      Mean

    • C. 

      Median

    • D. 

      All of the above


  • 26. 
    When counselors refer to a test as a "standardized test," they are using the term, in part, to imply that
    • A. 

      The test is widely used throughout the country.

    • B. 

      The test is published by a reputable company.

    • C. 

      There is an equal number of items on each form of the test.

    • D. 

      There is uniformity in the administration and scoring of the test.


  • 27. 
    Which of the following types of variables in NOT synonymous with the term "independent variable?"
    • A. 

      Input

    • B. 

      Treatment

    • C. 

      Response

    • D. 

      Stimulus


  • 28. 
    If counseling researchers are concerned that pretesting may somehow sensitize or alter respondents' responses, they are worried about
    • A. 

      Maturation.

    • B. 

      Internal validity.

    • C. 

      Statistical regression.

    • D. 

      Halo effects.


  • 29. 
    The variable that appears, disappears, or changes as the counseling researcher applies, removes, or varies the independent variable in an experimental study is called
    • A. 

      Intervening.

    • B. 

      Dependent.

    • C. 

      Controlling.

    • D. 

      Experimental.


  • 30. 
    When the slope of the regression line rises when moving left to right across a graphic representation of a group of scores, the counselor knows that this plot reflects a
    • A. 

      Positive correlation.

    • B. 

      Negative correlation.

    • C. 

      Canonical correlation.

    • D. 

      Zero correlation.


  • 31. 
    Which is the median stanine?
    • A. 

      3

    • B. 

      4.5

    • C. 

      5

    • D. 

      9


  • 32. 
    Ahievement tests may be
    • A. 

      Criterion-referenced.

    • B. 

      Norm-referenced.

    • C. 

      Both a and b.

    • D. 

      None of the above.


  • 33. 
    Goal attainment scaling is a method for evaluating
    • A. 

      Interview interactions between counselor and client.

    • B. 

      Interview responses by a client.

    • C. 

      Degree of accomplishment of counseling goals.

    • D. 

      A counseling process paradigm.


  • 34. 
    A counselor in a social service agency working with economically deprived immigrants would focus on the person's most urgent need. The first priority would be the need for
    • A. 

      Love.

    • B. 

      Shelter and food.

    • C. 

      Friendship.

    • D. 

      Education.


  • 35. 
    Heteronomous morality are two stages in the theory of moral development developed by
    • A. 

      Kohlberg.

    • B. 

      Bandura.

    • C. 

      Piaget.

    • D. 

      Erikson.


  • 36. 
    The Standards of Preparation of the ACA's Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Programs (CACREP) emphasize that counselors should have comprehensive knowledge of human psycho-social development across the life span. The primary reason for this standard is that counselors with such knowledge will be better able to
    • A. 

      Work with persons with handicaps.

    • B. 

      Understand clients' developmental concerns.

    • C. 

      Use a variety of counseling techniques in counseling.

    • D. 

      Implement systems theory techniques in counseling.


  • 37. 
    In Erikson's theory of the eight stages of human development, at what stage would people most likely encounter the psychological crisis of initiative vs. guilt?
    • A. 

      Preschool

    • B. 

      Elementary

    • C. 

      Adolescence

    • D. 

      Young adult


  • 38. 
    Many schools and institutions for persons with retardation are reducing their populations because
    • A. 

      Fewer retarded persons are being born today.

    • B. 

      Modern educational methods reduce the need for special training and education.

    • C. 

      More retarded persons are being absorbed into public schools and traditional work/living conditions.

    • D. 

      Less money is available for special programs.


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