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Into To Criminal Justice Final

100 Questions  I  By Kfitzgerald2196
Into to Criminal Justice Final
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1.  According to a study by researchers at eight universities, which of the following types of new stories dominates local television news shows?
A.
B.
C.
D.
2.  Like the family, schools, organized religion, the media and the law, criminal justice is a(n):
A.
B.
C.
D.
3.  The term jurisdiction, as used in your text, means:
A.
B.
C.
D.
4.  After an arrest has been made, the suspect is brought to the police station to be:
A.
B.
C.
D.
5.  A(n) ____ outlines the formal charge or charges, the law or laws that have been violated and the evidence to support the charge or charges.
A.
B.
C.
D.
6.  The primary purpose of the ____ is to hear the formal information or indictment and to allow the defendant to enter a plea.
A.
B.
C.
D.
7.  Cases that are not resolved through plea bargaining or by a jury trial are decided by a judge in a:
A.
B.
C.
D.
8.  The ultimate goal of the crime control model is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
9.  If defendants are not satisfied with the outcome of their trials, then they have the right to:
A.
B.
C.
D.
10.  ____ is the conditional release of prisoners before they have served their full sentences.
A.
B.
C.
D.
11.  One problem with finding an appropriate definition of crime is that:
A.
B.
C.
D.
12.  If a person does not want to commit a crime but is forced to do so against his or her will, he or she committed the crime:
A.
B.
C.
D.
13.  Which of the following tests for insanity currently is used in most of the United States?
A.
B.
C.
D.
14.  Which of the following legal defenses was used successfully by Amy Carter, daughter of former President Jimmy Carter, Jerry Rubin and other activists who were charged with trespassing for protesting apartheid on the property of the South African embassy in Washington, D.C.?
A.
B.
C.
D.
15.  Which of the following offenses accounted for the largest number of arrests made by the police in 2005?
A.
B.
C.
D.
16.  A study by the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) determined which crimes have the highest annual victim costs. Three of the following crimes have the highest annual victim costs. Which one does NOT belong?
A.
B.
C.
D.
17.  Survey results discussed in your text suggest that there is a greater fear of being ____ than there is of being ____.
A.
B.
C.
D.
18.  A crime is a violation of the ____ of a political jurisdiction.
A.
B.
C.
D.
19.  Which of the following refers to the scope of criminal law?
A.
B.
C.
D.
20.  Which of the following refers to the way in which the criminal law should be enforced?
A.
B.
C.
D.
21.  Which of the following penal sanctions is used primarily to prevent undesired conduct and to provide retribution?
A.
B.
C.
D.
22.  In case law, the decision becomes a potential basis or ____, for deciding the outcomes of similar cases in the future.
A.
B.
C.
D.
23.  The ____ protects Americans from "unreasonable searches and seizures."
A.
B.
C.
D.
24.  The ____ states that excessive bail shall not be required.
A.
B.
C.
D.
25.  A ____ is a written order from a court directing law enforcement officers to conduct a search or to arrest a person.
A.
B.
C.
D.
26.  In which of the following cases did the Supreme Court broaden the protection against compelled self-incrimination to cover nearly all custodial police interrogations?
A.
B.
C.
D.
27.  In jury trials, when does jeopardy attach?
A.
B.
C.
D.
28.  The right to counsel may be waived, but only if the waiver is made:
A.
B.
C.
D.
29.  _____ is a formal means of social control that involves the use of rules that are interpreted and are enforceable, by the courts of a political community. The function of the rules is to set limits to the conduct of the citizens, to guide the officials (police and other administrators) and to define conditions of deviance or unacceptable behavior.
A.
B.
C.
D.
30.  For most people, the only personal experience they have with the criminal justice process is contact with a:
A.
B.
C.
D.
31.  Which of the following is unquestionably the most time-consuming and resource-intensive task of any police agency?
A.
B.
C.
D.
32.  Your textbook names five roles that investigators may play in a police department. Three are listed below. Which one does NOT belong?
A.
B.
C.
D.
33.  With DNA profiling, a unique genetic profile can be derived from ____ found at the scene of a crime or on a victim.
A.
B.
C.
D.
34.  Some of the more important functions of traffic units are:
A.
B.
C.
D.
35.  The crime triangle is a view of crime and disorder as an interaction among three variables, which are:
A.
B.
C.
D.
36.  Which of the following drug enforcement strategies accounts for the greatest number of drug arrests and seizures?
A.
B.
C.
D.
37.  Which of the following is the FBI's definition of terrorism?
A.
B.
C.
D.
38.  A role expectation consists of the rights and responsibilities associated with a particular position in society.
A.
B.
39.  In street police work, passion is the ability to use force or the recognition that force is a legitimate means of resolving conflict.
A.
B.
40.  Field interrogations generally do not reduce crime in targeted areas.
A.
B.
41.  According to your text, three highly important qualities for police are:
A.
B.
C.
D.
42.  Your textbook names some of the characteristics of a police chief's job. Three are listed below. Which of the following is NOT listed in your textbook?
A.
B.
C.
D.
43.  The practice of relying on the judgment of the police leadership and rank-and-file officers to decide which laws to enforce is referred to as:
A.
B.
C.
D.
44.  Which of the following has/have always made the police the major respondents to domestic violence calls?
A.
B.
C.
D.
45.  Which of the following is defined as the harmful physical and emotional outcomes that occur when the requirements of a job do not match the capabilities, resources or needs of the employee?
A.
B.
C.
D.
46.  When did the systematic psychological testing of police officers begin?
A.
B.
C.
D.
47.  _____ are officers who actively seek ways to make money illegally while on duty.
A.
B.
C.
D.
48.  A court of ____ jurisdiction has the authority to hear a case when it is first brought to court.
A.
B.
C.
D.
49.  In highly controversial cases, all of the judges in a circuit may sit together and hear a case in what is known as a(n):
A.
B.
C.
D.
50.  Trial courts of ____ jurisdiction are sometimes referred to generally as "inferior trial courts" or simply as "lower courts."
A.
B.
C.
D.
51.  Which of the following is NOT one of the three key actors in the court process, according to your textbook?
A.
B.
C.
D.
52.  The ____ mandate(s) that a prosecutor provide defense counsel with any exculpatory evidence in the prosecutor's possession.
A.
B.
C.
D.
53.  Your textbook names six non-trial duties of judges. Three are listed below. Which of the following is NOT one of these non-trial duties?
A.
B.
C.
D.
54.  The Supreme Court has ruled that anyone arrested without a warrant may be held no longer than ____ before a judge decides whether the arrest was justified.
A.
B.
C.
D.
55.  The alternative to the grand jury, in states that do not choose to utilize them is the filing of a(n):
A.
B.
C.
D.
56.  Your textbook names three basic types of plea bargaining, which are listed below. Which of the following is NOT one of these basic types of plea bargaining?
A.
B.
C.
D.
57.  From which of the following sources does most funding for prosecutors' offices come?
A.
B.
C.
D.
58.  Incarceration rates are ______ for defendants with publicly financed attorneys than for those with privately retained counsel in state and federal courts and the length of jail or prison sentence is ______ for defendants with publicly financed attorneys.
A.
B.
C.
D.
59.  About ____ of all convictions in felony cases are the result of guilty pleas.
A.
B.
C.
D.
60.  What is the result if, after serious deliberation, even one juror cannot agree with the others on a verdict?
A.
B.
C.
D.
61.  State and federal legislative bodies enact ____ that specify appropriate punishments for each statutory offense or class of offense.
A.
B.
C.
D.
62.  Judges can suspend an entire sentence if the offender:
A.
B.
C.
D.
63.  A(n) ____sentence has a fixed minimum and maximum term of incarceration, rather than a set period.
A.
B.
C.
D.
64.  Presumptive sentences may be based on sentencing guidelines, which are developed by sentencing commissions comprised of:
A.
B.
C.
D.
65.  Your textbook names five major criticisms of determinate sentencing. Three are listed below. Which of the following is NOT one of the criticisms?
A.
B.
C.
D.
66.  Which of the following is an effort to do something for victims and their survivors—to return them, as much as possible, to their previous state and to make them "whole" again?
A.
B.
C.
D.
67.  According to your textbook, restorative justice seeks four goals. Three are listed below. Which of the following is NOT one of the goals of restorative justice?
A.
B.
C.
D.
68.  Generally, a presentence investigation report (PSI) is prepared by a:
A.
B.
C.
D.
69.  Your text lists four examples of the claims that a convicted offender can make at allocution. Three are listed below. Which of the following is NOT one of these claims?
A.
B.
C.
D.
70.  Before 1968, the only issues the Supreme Court considered in relation to capital punishment concerned:
A.
B.
C.
D.
71.  All but four of the capital offenses under federal law involve murder. Three of these are listed below. Which one does NOT belong?
A.
B.
C.
D.
72.  In the 2005 case of ____, the Court effectively limited capital punishment to offenders who are 18 years of age or older at the time of their offenses.
A.
B.
C.
D.
73.  Your textbook names several factors that reflect the American public's sustained support for the death penalty. Three are listed below. Which of the following does NOT belong?
A.
B.
C.
D.
74.  From which of the following sources does the federal government's Crime Victims Fund receive its funding?
A.
B.
C.
D.
75.  Approximately what percent of Americans favor the death penalty?
A.
B.
C.
D.
76.  Which of the following countries typically executes the most people?
A.
B.
C.
D.
77.  For most offenses, a majority of defendants are sentenced either on the day of conviction or the next day.
A.
B.
78.  Judges almost always impose the sentence agreed upon during plea negotiations because if they did not, plea bargaining would not work.
A.
B.
79.  Before the 1600s, institutional confinement usually served functions other than punishment for criminal behavior. Six examples are listed in your textbook and three of these are listed below. Which of the following is NOT one of these examples?
A.
B.
C.
D.
80.  Most early women's prison employed ____, as distinguished from the ____ of men's prisons.
A.
B.
C.
D.
81.  Which of the following is NOT one of the three largest businesses in the private prison industry mentioned in your book?
A.
B.
C.
D.
82.  Inmates who are vulnerable to assault by other inmates may be designated for:
A.
B.
C.
D.
83.  Group counseling is more popular than individual counseling in institutional settings, primarily because:
A.
B.
C.
D.
84.  What state spent the least on inmate health care in 2005?
A.
B.
C.
D.
85.  A ____ is an institutional setting in which people are cut off from the wider society and are expected to live according to institutional rules and procedures.
A.
B.
C.
D.
86.  Several factors have rendered the current inmate society unstable. Five are listed in your textbook and three are listed here. Which one does NOT belong?
A.
B.
C.
D.
87.  Living in prison is fundamentally different from living in the free community in several ways, three of which are listed below. Which one does NOT belong?
A.
B.
C.
D.
88.  A distinguishing feature of the inmate society in many women's prisons is the presence of:
A.
B.
C.
D.
89.  The Supreme Court has ruled that censorship in prisons is legal only if it furthers one of three substantial government interests. Which of the following is NOT one of these interests?
A.
B.
C.
D.
90.  A high percentage of lawsuits filed by inmates are judged:
A.
B.
C.
D.
91.  The parole authority may consist of three different people or groups of people, which are listed below. Which one does NOT belong?
A.
B.
C.
D.
92.  One study on recidivism demonstrated that the inmates who adjusted most successfully to prison ____ to life in the free community upon release.
A.
B.
C.
D.
93.  What is the cause of death for the vast majority of prison inmates who are not eventually released from prison?
A.
B.
C.
D.
94.  According to a recent national study of recidivism among state prisoners, which of the following is NOT true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
95.  Which of the following statements is NOT true about the restoration of convicted felons' civil rights?
A.
B.
C.
D.
96.  Which of the following is NOT commonly cited as a reason for high rates of prison violence?
A.
B.
C.
D.
97.  American criminal justice consists of three main agencies, which are listed below. Which of the following is NOT one of those three main agencies?
A.
B.
C.
D.
98.  Often, an arrest supported by ____ and ____ is sufficient to close a case, especially with a less serious crime.
A.
B.
C.
D.
99.  A suspect becomes a defendant after:
A.
B.
C.
D.
100.  The purpose of the ____ is for a judge to determine whether there is probable cause to believe that the defendant committed the crime or crimes with which he or she is charged.
A.
B.
C.
D.
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