Social, to relieve the population pressure on Europe
Religious, to spread the Gospel
Economic, the desire for precious metals and new areas for trade
Military, to provide new bases for the army
Spain and Portugal.
Florence and Venice.
The Byzantine Empire.
England and France.
Began to explore the west African coast.
Was the first to round the Cape of Good Hope
Discovered the Spice lslands
Discovered the island of Madagascar.
Direct trade policies with China
Defeating Muslim opposition in establishin trade opportunities with India
Spending its wealth on ships and manpower
Winning the race of exploration to the New World
The Spice Islands between Portugal and the Dutch Republic.
South Africa between the English and the Dutch
The New World between Spain and Portugal
The North Atlantic between England and France
Had little impact upon the number of wars in Africa
Reduced the number of wars in Africa because all the African states united against the European slavers
Increased the number of wars in Africa because of the increasing demand for prisoners who could be sold as slaves
Died out with the discovery of the South Asian Spice Island
Economic activity was war carried on by peaceful means.
The prosperity of a nation depended upon its gold and silver reserves.
Colonies were not desirable because they consumed too many natural resources.
Government should stimulate trade through high tariffs and subsidizing industry
A Protestant noble rebellion against the Catholic ruler Ferdinand in Bohemia
The invasion of France by Frederick IV
The Spanish conquest of the Netherlands and subsequent local enforcement of the bloody Inquisition
The overthrow of Spanish rule in the new world by roving bands of Dutch pirates
Was largely confined to agreed upon battlefields
Witnessed the devastation of much of the German countryside
Was fought according to chivalric codes.
Was fought mainly in Italy
Become more disciplined but less flexible.
Align in unites of blocks rather than lines
Abandon the use of cavalry
Change from mercenaries to more reliable conscripts for manpower
The real power in any state must be religious and exercised by churchmen.
Ultimate authority rests solely in the hands of a sking who rules by divine right
Subordinate powers have an absolute right to advise the king on conducting the affairs of state.
No matter how humle, male citizens have an absolute right to participate in politics
Evicting the Huguenot presence from France after the La Rochelle revellion.
Strengthening the central role of the monarchy in domestic and foreign policy.
Creating a reservoir of funds for the treasury
Emerging victorious in the Fronde revolts of the nobility.
Were noted for their innovation and originality
Used new accounting practices to take the tax burden off the peasants
Were based on the economic theory of mercantilism that stressed government regulation of economic affairs to benefit the state
Gave Louis the large surplus in the treasury needed to carry out his wars
Became one of the most powerful and centralized monarchies in Europe under the domination of Spanish grandees.
Was not really an empire at all but rather a loose association of 300 German states
Became divided into three great warring states: Prussia, Poland, and Silesia.
Continued to acknowledge the temporal power of the pope.
Witnessed the reign of ivan the Terrible
Witnessed profound religious reforms in the Russian Orthodox Church
Was characterized by a highly oppressive system of serfdom
Saw the rise of the merchant class to power
Synthesizing the previous doctrines on international law.
The idea of society as being in a constant state of war
Advocating political democracy for the entire populace
Two Treatises of Government, which emphasized the social contract between the people and government
The doctrine of justification by grace through faith alone
Doing good works for one's universal brotherhood
A strict devotion to monastic order, as with his own Augustian order
The sacramental system
The Council of Pisa's declaration that maintained the necessity of Purgatory for salvation
The increase of Papal taxes on the German peasantry
Widespread sale of indulgences by preaching monks
The declaration that the German clergy must pay taxes
Accepted all seven
Rejected all of them except baptism and communion, or the Lord's Supper
Claimed marriage as the only true sacrament
Eliminated extreme unction
Clerics could move freely from one church office to another anywhere in Europe
Angels freely visit the earth
The devil could take any form or shape he or she pleased
At communion the bread and wine are miraculously turned into the body and blood of Jesus
Luther held to the Catholic belief in transubstantiation
Luther said that the ceremony was totally symbolic.
Zwingli said the ceremony was only symbolic and that no real transformation in the bread and wine occurred
Zwingli held to the belief called consubstantiation
Were radical and militant under Menno Simons in Zurich
Were not regarded as a political threat as they preached separation between church and state
Were founded by Conrad Grebel, beginning as an elitist movement
Considered all believers to be equal as priests spreading the spirit of early Christianity.
Was triggered by Henry's desire to annul his marriage
Witnessed the complete transformation of Catholic doctrine
Nearly ended with Thomas Cromwell's mishandling of the treasury
Led to Parliament's leadership over the Church of England
Calvin's acceptance of "justification by faith alone"
Predestination and the absolute sovereignty of God
The belief that humans must obey secular authorities
A belief in congregational church covenant
Compromised with the Protestants on the doctrine of Justification by Faith
Agreed with most Protestants that there were only two sacraments.
Reaffirmed traditional Catholic beliefs against the Reformation.
Asserted the importance of doctrine over ritual
Heads of various religious and political factions during the civil wars
Administrators in provincial towns, appointed by the kings
Those who placed politics ahead of religion in an attempt to end the wars of religion
Advisors to Catherine de'Medici
The Indian Ocean
The Doctrine of Infallibility
The Great Awakening
The Protestant Reforms