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  • 1. 
    The primary motive for European exploration during the Renaissance was
    • A. 

      Social, to relieve the population pressure on Europe

    • B. 

      Religious, to spread the Gospel

    • C. 

      Economic, the desire for precious metals and new areas for trade

    • D. 

      Military, to provide new bases for the army


  • 2. 
    The religious crusading motive for exploration was strongest in
    • A. 

      Spain and Portugal.

    • B. 

      Florence and Venice.

    • C. 

      The Byzantine Empire.

    • D. 

      England and France.


  • 3. 
    Prince Henry the Navigator
    • A. 

      Began to explore the west African coast.

    • B. 

      Was the first to round the Cape of Good Hope

    • C. 

      Discovered the Spice lslands

    • D. 

      Discovered the island of Madagascar.


  • 4. 
    Portugal became the early leader in European expansion largely through
    • A. 

      Direct trade policies with China

    • B. 

      Defeating Muslim opposition in establishin trade opportunities with India

    • C. 

      Spending its wealth on ships and manpower

    • D. 

      Winning the race of exploration to the New World


  • 5. 
    The first known circumnavigation of the earth was by
    • A. 

      Amerigo Vespucci

    • B. 

      Ferninand Magellan

    • C. 

      John Cabot

    • D. 

      Christopher Columbus


  • 6. 
    The Treaty of Tordesillas divided
    • A. 

      The Spice Islands between Portugal and the Dutch Republic.

    • B. 

      South Africa between the English and the Dutch

    • C. 

      The New World between Spain and Portugal

    • D. 

      The North Atlantic between England and France


  • 7. 
    Between the sixteenth and the nineteenth centuries, the number of African slaves shipped to the New World es estimated at
    • A. 

      One million

    • B. 

      Two million

    • C. 

      Ten million

    • D. 

      Twenty-five million


  • 8. 
    The African slave trade
    • A. 

      Had little impact upon the number of wars in Africa

    • B. 

      Reduced the number of wars in Africa because all the African states united against the European slavers

    • C. 

      Increased the number of wars in Africa because of the increasing demand for prisoners who could be sold as slaves

    • D. 

      Died out with the discovery of the South Asian Spice Island


  • 9. 
    Mercantilism includes all of the following ideas except
    • A. 

      Economic activity was war carried on by peaceful means.

    • B. 

      The prosperity of a nation depended upon its gold and silver reserves.

    • C. 

      Colonies were not desirable because they consumed too many natural resources.

    • D. 

      Government should stimulate trade through high tariffs and subsidizing industry


  • 10. 
    The event that sparked the Thirty Years' War was
    • A. 

      A Protestant noble rebellion against the Catholic ruler Ferdinand in Bohemia

    • B. 

      The invasion of France by Frederick IV

    • C. 

      The Spanish conquest of the Netherlands and subsequent local enforcement of the bloody Inquisition

    • D. 

      The overthrow of Spanish rule in the new world by roving bands of Dutch pirates


  • 11. 
    The Thirty Years' War
    • A. 

      Was largely confined to agreed upon battlefields

    • B. 

      Witnessed the devastation of much of the German countryside

    • C. 

      Was fought according to chivalric codes.

    • D. 

      Was fought mainly in Italy


  • 12. 
    The "military revolution," or changes in the science and practice of warfare between 1550 and 1650, saw armies
    • A. 

      Become more disciplined but less flexible.

    • B. 

      Align in unites of blocks rather than lines

    • C. 

      Abandon the use of cavalry

    • D. 

      Change from mercenaries to more reliable conscripts for manpower


  • 13. 
    Absolutism means
    • A. 

      The real power in any state must be religious and exercised by churchmen.

    • B. 

      Ultimate authority rests solely in the hands of a sking who rules by divine right

    • C. 

      Subordinate powers have an absolute right to advise the king on conducting the affairs of state.

    • D. 

      No matter how humle, male citizens have an absolute right to participate in politics


  • 14. 
    As Louis XIII's chief minister, Cardinal Richelieu was most successful in politics,
    • A. 

      Evicting the Huguenot presence from France after the La Rochelle revellion.

    • B. 

      Strengthening the central role of the monarchy in domestic and foreign policy.

    • C. 

      Creating a reservoir of funds for the treasury

    • D. 

      Emerging victorious in the Fronde revolts of the nobility.


  • 15. 
    The economic policies of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Louis XIV's controller general of finances
    • A. 

      Were noted for their innovation and originality

    • B. 

      Used new accounting practices to take the tax burden off the peasants

    • C. 

      Were based on the economic theory of mercantilism that stressed government regulation of economic affairs to benefit the state

    • D. 

      Gave Louis the large surplus in the treasury needed to carry out his wars


  • 16. 
    After 1648, the "Holy Roman Empire"
    • A. 

      Became one of the most powerful and centralized monarchies in Europe under the domination of Spanish grandees.

    • B. 

      Was not really an empire at all but rather a loose association of 300 German states

    • C. 

      Became divided into three great warring states: Prussia, Poland, and Silesia.

    • D. 

      Continued to acknowledge the temporal power of the pope.


  • 17. 
    Russian society in the seventeenth century
    • A. 

      Witnessed the reign of ivan the Terrible

    • B. 

      Witnessed profound religious reforms in the Russian Orthodox Church

    • C. 

      Was characterized by a highly oppressive system of serfdom

    • D. 

      Saw the rise of the merchant class to power


  • 18. 
    John Locke was responsible for 
    • A. 

      Synthesizing the previous doctrines on international law.

    • B. 

      The idea of society as being in a constant state of war

    • C. 

      Advocating political democracy for the entire populace

    • D. 

      Two Treatises of Government, which emphasized the social contract between the people and government


  • 19. 
    To Martin Luther, the question of "How can I be saved" was answered through
    • A. 

      The doctrine of justification by grace through faith alone

    • B. 

      Doing good works for one's universal brotherhood

    • C. 

      A strict devotion to monastic order, as with his own Augustian order

    • D. 

      The sacramental system


  • 20. 
    The event that eventually led to Luther's break with the church was
    • A. 

      The Council of Pisa's declaration that maintained the necessity of Purgatory for salvation

    • B. 

      The increase of Papal taxes on the German peasantry

    • C. 

      Widespread sale of indulgences by preaching monks

    • D. 

      The declaration that the German clergy must pay taxes


  • 21. 
    Concerning the sacraments of the Catholic Church, Luther:
    • A. 

      Accepted all seven

    • B. 

      Rejected all of them except baptism and communion, or the Lord's Supper

    • C. 

      Claimed marriage as the only true sacrament

    • D. 

      Eliminated extreme unction


  • 22. 
    The Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation opposed by Luther holds that
    • A. 

      Clerics could move freely from one church office to another anywhere in Europe

    • B. 

      Angels freely visit the earth

    • C. 

      The devil could take any form or shape he or she pleased

    • D. 

      At communion the bread and wine are miraculously turned into the body and blood of Jesus


  • 23. 
    Zwingli's interpretation of the Lord's Supper differed from Luther's in that
    • A. 

      Luther held to the Catholic belief in transubstantiation

    • B. 

      Luther said that the ceremony was totally symbolic.

    • C. 

      Zwingli said the ceremony was only symbolic and that no real transformation in the bread and wine occurred

    • D. 

      Zwingli held to the belief called consubstantiation


  • 24. 
    The Anabaptists 
    • A. 

      Were radical and militant under Menno Simons in Zurich

    • B. 

      Were not regarded as a political threat as they preached separation between church and state

    • C. 

      Were founded by Conrad Grebel, beginning as an elitist movement

    • D. 

      Considered all believers to be equal as priests spreading the spirit of early Christianity.


  • 25. 
    The Reformation in England under Henry VIII
    • A. 

      Was triggered by Henry's desire to annul his marriage

    • B. 

      Witnessed the complete transformation of Catholic doctrine

    • C. 

      Nearly ended with Thomas Cromwell's mishandling of the treasury

    • D. 

      Led to Parliament's leadership over the Church of England


  • 26. 
    Which of the following are among the chief characteristics of John Calvin's reform movement?
    • A. 

      Calvin's acceptance of "justification by faith alone"

    • B. 

      Predestination and the absolute sovereignty of God

    • C. 

      The belief that humans must obey secular authorities

    • D. 

      A belief in congregational church covenant


  • 27. 
    The Council of Trent 
    • A. 

      Compromised with the Protestants on the doctrine of Justification by Faith

    • B. 

      Agreed with most Protestants that there were only two sacraments.

    • C. 

      Reaffirmed traditional Catholic beliefs against the Reformation.

    • D. 

      Asserted the importance of doctrine over ritual


  • 28. 
    In France, the politiques were
    • A. 

      Heads of various religious and political factions during the civil wars

    • B. 

      Administrators in provincial towns, appointed by the kings

    • C. 

      Those who placed politics ahead of religion in an attempt to end the wars of religion

    • D. 

      Advisors to Catherine de'Medici


  • 29. 
    The Atlantic Ocean system involved a complex trading system between Europe, the Americas, and
    • A. 

      Africa

    • B. 

      The Indian Ocean

    • C. 

      India

    • D. 

      Southeast Asia


  • 30. 
    The Catholic Church's effort to respond to the challenges of the Protestant Reformation was known as 
    • A. 

      The Counter-Reformation

    • B. 

      The Doctrine of Infallibility

    • C. 

      The Great Awakening

    • D. 

      The Protestant Reforms


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