Exam 3

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1.  Omosis from one fluid compartment to another is determined by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
2.  A buffer system converts a weak acid or base into a strong one.
A.
B.
3.  Long-term inhibition of thirst is mostly associated with 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
4.  Hypocalcemia stimulates
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
5.  The urine is most likely to be hypotonic when
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
6.  Arginine Vasopressin (AVP), sometimes called ADH,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
7.  A renal calculus can be up to 2 cm wide, but even then, it would not obstruct
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
8.  Calcium concentration is regulated by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
9.  In the nephron, the fluid that immediately preceds urine is known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
10.  Uncompensated alkalosis is a pH inbalance that can only be corrected with clinical intervention.
A.
B.
11.  Which of the following is a direct result of antidiuretic hormones?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
12.  Albuminuria is a common sign of diabetes mellitus
A.
B.
13.  Which of the following would reduce the glomerular filtration rate?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
14.  Two solutions are separated by a selectively permeable membrane. Solution A has a higher concentration of the non permeating solute that solution B. Then, 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
15.  The major chemical buffer systems of the body are the _______ systems
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
16.  Ethyl (drinking) alcohol stimulates the secretion of AVP, thereby reducing reabsorption bu the collecting duct.
A.
B.
17.  Micturition is another term for
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
18.  In which of these compartments would fluid accumulate in edema?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
19.  Chloride homeostasis is achieved mainly as a result of _____ homeostasis
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
20.  Tissue fluid normally has a pH of 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
21.  PCTs are responsible for reabsorbing all of the following except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
22.  Chloride homeostasis is regulated as a side effect of sodium homeostasis
A.
B.
23.  What is the term for the pigment responsible for the color of urine?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
24.  Diabetes is any metabolic disorder resulting in chronic polyuria.
A.
B.
25.  Aldosterone
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
26.  Women have a tendency to retain water during part of the menstrual cycle because estrogen mimics the action of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
27.  Most bosy water comes from ________, whereas most body water is lost via _____.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
28.  The most toxic of our metabolic wastes are nitrogenous wastes.
A.
B.
29.  Which are primarily responsible for maintaing the salinity gradient if the renal medulla?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
30.  This is the greatest determinant of intracellular volume.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
31.  Total saturation of protein transporters for a given solute in the renal tubules would result in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
32.  Which renal structure is responsible for producing hypertonic urine by reabsorbing water while allowing metabolic wastes and NaCl to pass through?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
33.  The bicarbonate buffer system would not work very well in the human body if not for the action of the respiratory system, which
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
34.  In a state of water balance, average daily fluid gains and losses are equal.
A.
B.
35.  Prior to chemical tests for glycosuria, clinicians checked for sweetness of the urine as a sign of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
36.  A patient was severely dehydrated, losing a large amount of fluid. The patient was given intravenous fluids or normal saline. Normal saline is _______ to your blood cells and is about ______ NaCl.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
37.  The fenestrated endothelium of the capillary has pores small enough to exclude blood cells from the filtrate
A.
B.
38.  WHich of the following does not contribute to water conservation
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
39.  Normal urine from a healthy person can be expected to contain all of the following except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
40.  A weak base
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
41.  The innermost connective tissue layer protecting the kidney and assisting in staving off infectuon is known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
42.  Fluid intake is governed mainly by hypothalamic neurons called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
43.  Which muscle is located in the bladder?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
44.  Hypernatremia is a plasma _____ concentration above normal
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
45.  Water output is significantly controlled through variation in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
46.  The transition from an afferent arteriole to an efferent arteriole occurs in the 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
47.  In response to a drop in overall blood pressure, _____ stimulates constriction of the glomerular inlet and even greter constriction of the outlet.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
48.  The kidneys neutralize more acid or base than any other base system
A.
B.
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