Exam 3

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1.  Most bosy water comes from ________, whereas most body water is lost via _____.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
2.  In a state of water balance, average daily fluid gains and losses are equal.
A.
B.
3.  A weak base
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
4.  A renal calculus can be up to 2 cm wide, but even then, it would not obstruct
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
5.  Calcium concentration is regulated by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
6.  Ethyl (drinking) alcohol stimulates the secretion of AVP, thereby reducing reabsorption bu the collecting duct.
A.
B.
7.  Long-term inhibition of thirst is mostly associated with 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
8.  PCTs are responsible for reabsorbing all of the following except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
9.  Total saturation of protein transporters for a given solute in the renal tubules would result in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
10.  Which of the following is a direct result of antidiuretic hormones?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
11.  Water output is significantly controlled through variation in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
12.  Hypocalcemia stimulates
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
13.  Which renal structure is responsible for producing hypertonic urine by reabsorbing water while allowing metabolic wastes and NaCl to pass through?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
14.  The urine is most likely to be hypotonic when
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
15.  Diabetes is any metabolic disorder resulting in chronic polyuria.
A.
B.
16.  Omosis from one fluid compartment to another is determined by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
17.  Which are primarily responsible for maintaing the salinity gradient if the renal medulla?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
18.  In the nephron, the fluid that immediately preceds urine is known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
19.  Fluid intake is governed mainly by hypothalamic neurons called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
20.  Hypernatremia is a plasma _____ concentration above normal
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
21.  The transition from an afferent arteriole to an efferent arteriole occurs in the 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
22.  The kidneys neutralize more acid or base than any other base system
A.
B.
23.  A buffer system converts a weak acid or base into a strong one.
A.
B.
24.  Uncompensated alkalosis is a pH inbalance that can only be corrected with clinical intervention.
A.
B.
25.  WHich of the following does not contribute to water conservation
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
26.  The most toxic of our metabolic wastes are nitrogenous wastes.
A.
B.
27.  This is the greatest determinant of intracellular volume.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
28.  Tissue fluid normally has a pH of 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
29.  Normal urine from a healthy person can be expected to contain all of the following except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
30.  Arginine Vasopressin (AVP), sometimes called ADH,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
31.  Which of the following would reduce the glomerular filtration rate?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
32.  Aldosterone
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
33.  In response to a drop in overall blood pressure, _____ stimulates constriction of the glomerular inlet and even greter constriction of the outlet.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
34.  Two solutions are separated by a selectively permeable membrane. Solution A has a higher concentration of the non permeating solute that solution B. Then, 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
35.  Women have a tendency to retain water during part of the menstrual cycle because estrogen mimics the action of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
36.  Which muscle is located in the bladder?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
37.  A patient was severely dehydrated, losing a large amount of fluid. The patient was given intravenous fluids or normal saline. Normal saline is _______ to your blood cells and is about ______ NaCl.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
38.  In which of these compartments would fluid accumulate in edema?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
39.  The major chemical buffer systems of the body are the _______ systems
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
40.  What is the term for the pigment responsible for the color of urine?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
41.  Micturition is another term for
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
42.  Chloride homeostasis is achieved mainly as a result of _____ homeostasis
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
43.  Prior to chemical tests for glycosuria, clinicians checked for sweetness of the urine as a sign of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
44.  The bicarbonate buffer system would not work very well in the human body if not for the action of the respiratory system, which
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
45.  Albuminuria is a common sign of diabetes mellitus
A.
B.
46.  The innermost connective tissue layer protecting the kidney and assisting in staving off infectuon is known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
47.  The fenestrated endothelium of the capillary has pores small enough to exclude blood cells from the filtrate
A.
B.
48.  Chloride homeostasis is regulated as a side effect of sodium homeostasis
A.
B.
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