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Exam 3

48 Questions  I  By Atalina7
Exam 3

  
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1.  The most toxic of our metabolic wastes are nitrogenous wastes.
A.
B.
2.  Two solutions are separated by a selectively permeable membrane. Solution A has a higher concentration of the non permeating solute that solution B. Then, 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
3.  Calcium concentration is regulated by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
4.  Water output is significantly controlled through variation in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
5.  Women have a tendency to retain water during part of the menstrual cycle because estrogen mimics the action of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
6.  The innermost connective tissue layer protecting the kidney and assisting in staving off infectuon is known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
7.  Arginine Vasopressin (AVP), sometimes called ADH,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
8.  Hypocalcemia stimulates
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
9.  Long-term inhibition of thirst is mostly associated with 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
10.  Ethyl (drinking) alcohol stimulates the secretion of AVP, thereby reducing reabsorption bu the collecting duct.
A.
B.
11.  PCTs are responsible for reabsorbing all of the following except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
12.  Which of the following is a direct result of antidiuretic hormones?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
13.  Fluid intake is governed mainly by hypothalamic neurons called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
14.  A weak base
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
15.  In a state of water balance, average daily fluid gains and losses are equal.
A.
B.
16.  Aldosterone
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
17.  Which are primarily responsible for maintaing the salinity gradient if the renal medulla?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
18.  Tissue fluid normally has a pH of 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
19.  What is the term for the pigment responsible for the color of urine?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
20.  The major chemical buffer systems of the body are the _______ systems
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
21.  The transition from an afferent arteriole to an efferent arteriole occurs in the 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
22.  This is the greatest determinant of intracellular volume.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
23.  A renal calculus can be up to 2 cm wide, but even then, it would not obstruct
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
24.  Albuminuria is a common sign of diabetes mellitus
A.
B.
25.  Chloride homeostasis is achieved mainly as a result of _____ homeostasis
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
26.  Which muscle is located in the bladder?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
27.  In response to a drop in overall blood pressure, _____ stimulates constriction of the glomerular inlet and even greter constriction of the outlet.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
28.  The urine is most likely to be hypotonic when
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
29.  The kidneys neutralize more acid or base than any other base system
A.
B.
30.  Normal urine from a healthy person can be expected to contain all of the following except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
31.  Omosis from one fluid compartment to another is determined by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
32.  Diabetes is any metabolic disorder resulting in chronic polyuria.
A.
B.
33.  Uncompensated alkalosis is a pH inbalance that can only be corrected with clinical intervention.
A.
B.
34.  A patient was severely dehydrated, losing a large amount of fluid. The patient was given intravenous fluids or normal saline. Normal saline is _______ to your blood cells and is about ______ NaCl.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
35.  Prior to chemical tests for glycosuria, clinicians checked for sweetness of the urine as a sign of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
36.  Which of the following would reduce the glomerular filtration rate?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
37.  Micturition is another term for
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
38.  Most bosy water comes from ________, whereas most body water is lost via _____.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
39.  Total saturation of protein transporters for a given solute in the renal tubules would result in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
40.  Which renal structure is responsible for producing hypertonic urine by reabsorbing water while allowing metabolic wastes and NaCl to pass through?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
41.  WHich of the following does not contribute to water conservation
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
42.  The fenestrated endothelium of the capillary has pores small enough to exclude blood cells from the filtrate
A.
B.
43.  Chloride homeostasis is regulated as a side effect of sodium homeostasis
A.
B.
44.  Hypernatremia is a plasma _____ concentration above normal
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
45.  In the nephron, the fluid that immediately preceds urine is known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
46.  A buffer system converts a weak acid or base into a strong one.
A.
B.
47.  In which of these compartments would fluid accumulate in edema?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
48.  The bicarbonate buffer system would not work very well in the human body if not for the action of the respiratory system, which
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
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