Exam 3

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1.  The fenestrated endothelium of the capillary has pores small enough to exclude blood cells from the filtrate
A.
B.
2.  Hypernatremia is a plasma _____ concentration above normal
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
3.  Women have a tendency to retain water during part of the menstrual cycle because estrogen mimics the action of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
4.  WHich of the following does not contribute to water conservation
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
5.  Tissue fluid normally has a pH of 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
6.  Hypocalcemia stimulates
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
7.  A weak base
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
8.  Most bosy water comes from ________, whereas most body water is lost via _____.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
9.  Fluid intake is governed mainly by hypothalamic neurons called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
10.  Omosis from one fluid compartment to another is determined by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
11.  The major chemical buffer systems of the body are the _______ systems
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
12.  Chloride homeostasis is regulated as a side effect of sodium homeostasis
A.
B.
13.  Which of the following is a direct result of antidiuretic hormones?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
14.  The innermost connective tissue layer protecting the kidney and assisting in staving off infectuon is known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
15.  This is the greatest determinant of intracellular volume.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
16.  In the nephron, the fluid that immediately preceds urine is known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
17.  Chloride homeostasis is achieved mainly as a result of _____ homeostasis
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
18.  In response to a drop in overall blood pressure, _____ stimulates constriction of the glomerular inlet and even greter constriction of the outlet.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
19.  Prior to chemical tests for glycosuria, clinicians checked for sweetness of the urine as a sign of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
20.  Which of the following would reduce the glomerular filtration rate?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
21.  Which muscle is located in the bladder?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
22.  Normal urine from a healthy person can be expected to contain all of the following except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
23.  Diabetes is any metabolic disorder resulting in chronic polyuria.
A.
B.
24.  Micturition is another term for
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
25.  Which renal structure is responsible for producing hypertonic urine by reabsorbing water while allowing metabolic wastes and NaCl to pass through?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
26.  Total saturation of protein transporters for a given solute in the renal tubules would result in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
27.  In which of these compartments would fluid accumulate in edema?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
28.  Albuminuria is a common sign of diabetes mellitus
A.
B.
29.  The most toxic of our metabolic wastes are nitrogenous wastes.
A.
B.
30.  A buffer system converts a weak acid or base into a strong one.
A.
B.
31.  In a state of water balance, average daily fluid gains and losses are equal.
A.
B.
32.  Long-term inhibition of thirst is mostly associated with 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
33.  Ethyl (drinking) alcohol stimulates the secretion of AVP, thereby reducing reabsorption bu the collecting duct.
A.
B.
34.  The transition from an afferent arteriole to an efferent arteriole occurs in the 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
35.  Two solutions are separated by a selectively permeable membrane. Solution A has a higher concentration of the non permeating solute that solution B. Then, 
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
36.  What is the term for the pigment responsible for the color of urine?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
37.  Aldosterone
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
38.  Arginine Vasopressin (AVP), sometimes called ADH,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
39.  The bicarbonate buffer system would not work very well in the human body if not for the action of the respiratory system, which
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
40.  Calcium concentration is regulated by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
41.  A patient was severely dehydrated, losing a large amount of fluid. The patient was given intravenous fluids or normal saline. Normal saline is _______ to your blood cells and is about ______ NaCl.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
42.  Which are primarily responsible for maintaing the salinity gradient if the renal medulla?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
43.  The kidneys neutralize more acid or base than any other base system
A.
B.
44.  Uncompensated alkalosis is a pH inbalance that can only be corrected with clinical intervention.
A.
B.
45.  The urine is most likely to be hypotonic when
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
46.  Water output is significantly controlled through variation in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
47.  A renal calculus can be up to 2 cm wide, but even then, it would not obstruct
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
48.  PCTs are responsible for reabsorbing all of the following except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
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