Take Another Quiz

Exam 3

48 Questions
Online Exam Quizzes & Trivia
Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Most bosy water comes from ________, whereas most body water is lost via _____.
    • A. 

      Metabolic water; cutaneous transpiration

    • B. 

      Metabolic water; sweat

    • C. 

      Drinking; cutaneous transpiration and expired air

    • D. 

      Drinking; urine

    • E. 

      Drinking; radiation

  • 2. 
    In a state of water balance, average daily fluid gains and losses are equal.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 3. 
    A weak base
    • A. 

      Binds little OH- and has a weak effect on pH

    • B. 

      Binds lots of OH- and has strong effect on pH

    • C. 

      Binds little H+ and has weak effect on pH

    • D. 

      Resists changes in OH-

    • E. 

      Lowers pH

  • 4. 
    A renal calculus can be up to 2 cm wide, but even then, it would not obstruct
    • A. 

      The major calyx

    • B. 

      The ureter

    • C. 

      The urethra

    • D. 

      The urinary bladder

    • E. 

      The renal pelvis

  • 5. 
    Calcium concentration is regulated by
    • A. 

      Hormones

    • B. 

      Sodium and calcium concentration in plasma

    • C. 

      Chloride and phosphate concentration in plasma

    • D. 

      The parasympathetic nervous system

    • E. 

      The sympathetic nervous system

  • 6. 
    Ethyl (drinking) alcohol stimulates the secretion of AVP, thereby reducing reabsorption bu the collecting duct.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 7. 
    Long-term inhibition of thirst is mostly associated with 
    • A. 

      Cooling of the mouth

    • B. 

      Distention of the stomach by ingested water

    • C. 

      A drop in blood osmolarity

    • D. 

      Moistening of the mouth

    • E. 

      Increased salivation

  • 8. 
    PCTs are responsible for reabsorbing all of the following except
    • A. 

      Potassium

    • B. 

      Sodium chloride

    • C. 

      Hydrogen ions

    • D. 

      Urea

    • E. 

      Water

  • 9. 
    Total saturation of protein transporters for a given solute in the renal tubules would result in
    • A. 

      Reabsorption of all the solute

    • B. 

      A renal clearance of zero

    • C. 

      A net filtration pressure of 1.0

    • D. 

      Appearance of that solute in urine

    • E. 

      Absence of that solute in the urine

  • 10. 
    Which of the following is a direct result of antidiuretic hormones?
    • A. 

      Decreased urine volume

    • B. 

      Decreased urine molarity

    • C. 

      Increased urine volume

    • D. 

      Increased urine salinity

    • E. 

      Increased urine acidity

  • 11. 
    Water output is significantly controlled through variation in
    • A. 

      Metabolic water

    • B. 

      Sweating

    • C. 

      Cutaneous transpiration

    • D. 

      Drinking

    • E. 

      Urine volume

  • 12. 
    Hypocalcemia stimulates
    • A. 

      A decrease in adosterone production

    • B. 

      Secretion of parathyroid hormone

    • C. 

      Secretion of renin

    • D. 

      An increase in blood urea nitrogen

    • E. 

      Vasoconstriction of the afferent arterioles

  • 13. 
    Which renal structure is responsible for producing hypertonic urine by reabsorbing water while allowing metabolic wastes and NaCl to pass through?
    • A. 

      Glomerulus

    • B. 

      Proximal convoluted tubule

    • C. 

      Distal convoluted tubule

    • D. 

      Collecting duct

    • E. 

      Nephron loop

  • 14. 
    The urine is most likely to be hypotonic when
    • A. 

      The body's water volume is high

    • B. 

      The body's pH is low

    • C. 

      The output of antidiuretic hormone is high

    • D. 

      The output of natriuretic peptides is high

    • E. 

      A person is lost and deprived of drinking water

  • 15. 
    Diabetes is any metabolic disorder resulting in chronic polyuria.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 16. 
    Omosis from one fluid compartment to another is determined by
    • A. 

      The temperature difference between compartments

    • B. 

      The relative concentration of solutes in each compartment

    • C. 

      The relative volume in each compartment

    • D. 

      The relative size of each compartment

    • E. 

      Blood pressure

  • 17. 
    Which are primarily responsible for maintaing the salinity gradient if the renal medulla?
    • A. 

      Cortical nephrons

    • B. 

      Juxtamedullary nephrons

    • C. 

      Collecting ducts

    • D. 

      Proximal convoluted tubules

    • E. 

      Distal convoluted tubules

  • 18. 
    In the nephron, the fluid that immediately preceds urine is known as
    • A. 

      Plasma

    • B. 

      Glomerular filtrate

    • C. 

      Tubular fluid

    • D. 

      Renal filtrate

    • E. 

      Medullary filtrate

  • 19. 
    Fluid intake is governed mainly by hypothalamic neurons called
    • A. 

      Baroreceptors

    • B. 

      Proprioceptors

    • C. 

      Nociceptors

    • D. 

      Osmoreceptors

    • E. 

      Mecchanoreceptors

  • 20. 
    Hypernatremia is a plasma _____ concentration above normal
    • A. 

      Ca2+

    • B. 

      Na+

    • C. 

      K+

    • D. 

      Cl-

    • E. 

      P

  • 21. 
    The transition from an afferent arteriole to an efferent arteriole occurs in the 
    • A. 

      Glomerulus

    • B. 

      Medulla

    • C. 

      Cortical radiate veins

    • D. 

      Peritubular capillaries

    • E. 

      Vasa recta

  • 22. 
    The kidneys neutralize more acid or base than any other base system
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 23. 
    A buffer system converts a weak acid or base into a strong one.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 24. 
    Uncompensated alkalosis is a pH inbalance that can only be corrected with clinical intervention.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 25. 
    WHich of the following does not contribute to water conservation
    • A. 

      The collecting duct

    • B. 

      The countercurrent multiplier

    • C. 

      The countercurrent exchange system

    • D. 

      Diuretics

    • E. 

      The length of the nephrons

  • 26. 
    The most toxic of our metabolic wastes are nitrogenous wastes.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 27. 
    This is the greatest determinant of intracellular volume.
    • A. 

      K+

    • B. 

      Na+

    • C. 

      Ca2+

    • D. 

      Cl-

    • E. 

      PO43-

  • 28. 
    Tissue fluid normally has a pH of 
    • A. 

      6.95 - 7.05

    • B. 

      7.05 - 7.15

    • C. 

      7.15 - 7.25

    • D. 

      7.25 - 7.35

    • E. 

      7.35 - 7.45

  • 29. 
    Normal urine from a healthy person can be expected to contain all of the following except
    • A. 

      Creatinine

    • B. 

      Urobilin

    • C. 

      Glucose

    • D. 

      Ammonia

    • E. 

      Magnesium

  • 30. 
    Arginine Vasopressin (AVP), sometimes called ADH,
    • A. 

      Stimulates angiotensin II secretion

    • B. 

      Promotes water conservation

    • C. 

      Stimulates hypothalamic osmoreceptors

    • D. 

      Inhibits salivation and thirst

    • E. 

      Targets the cerebral cortex

  • 31. 
    Which of the following would reduce the glomerular filtration rate?
    • A. 

      Vasoconstriction of the efferent arteriole

    • B. 

      A drop in oncotic pressure

    • C. 

      Vasodilation of the afferent arteriole

    • D. 

      Vasoconstriction of the afferent arteriole

    • E. 

      An increase in osmotic pressure in the glomerular capsule

  • 32. 
    Aldosterone
    • A. 

      Increases both Na+ and K+ reabsorption

    • B. 

      Increases both Na+

    • C. 

      Increase Na+ reabsorption and K+ secretion

    • D. 

      Reduces Na+ reabsorption and K+ secretion

    • E. 

      Causes the urine to be more diluted

  • 33. 
    In response to a drop in overall blood pressure, _____ stimulates constriction of the glomerular inlet and even greter constriction of the outlet.
    • A. 

      Azotemia

    • B. 

      Sodium chloride

    • C. 

      Parathyroid hormone

    • D. 

      Aldosterone

    • E. 

      Angiotensin II

  • 34. 
    Two solutions are separated by a selectively permeable membrane. Solution A has a higher concentration of the non permeating solute that solution B. Then, 
    • A. 

      The solute will pass down its concentration gradient from solution A to B

    • B. 

      The solute will pass down its concentration gradient from solution B to A

    • C. 

      Water will pass down its concentration gradient from solution A to B

    • D. 

      Water will pass down its concentration gradient from solution B to A

    • E. 

      Neither the solute nor water will diffuse

  • 35. 
    Women have a tendency to retain water during part of the menstrual cycle because estrogen mimics the action of
    • A. 

      ADH

    • B. 

      Aldosterone

    • C. 

      Atrial natriuretic

    • D. 

      Oxytocin

    • E. 

      Prolactin

  • 36. 
    Which muscle is located in the bladder?
    • A. 

      Detrusor

    • B. 

      Distractor

    • C. 

      Pubococcygeus

    • D. 

      Corpus cavernosum

    • E. 

      Corpus spongiosum

  • 37. 
    A patient was severely dehydrated, losing a large amount of fluid. The patient was given intravenous fluids or normal saline. Normal saline is _______ to your blood cells and is about ______ NaCl.
    • A. 

      Isotonic; 9%

    • B. 

      Isotonic; 0.9%

    • C. 

      Hypertonic; 9%

    • D. 

      Hypotonic; 0.9%

    • E. 

      Hypotonic; 9%

  • 38. 
    In which of these compartments would fluid accumulate in edema?
    • A. 

      Intracellular fluid

    • B. 

      Transcellular fluid

    • C. 

      Tissue (interstitial) fluid

    • D. 

      Blood plasma

    • E. 

      Lymph

  • 39. 
    The major chemical buffer systems of the body are the _______ systems
    • A. 

      Urinary and respiratory

    • B. 

      Urinary and digestive

    • C. 

      Bicarbonate, phosphate, protein

    • D. 

      Bicarbonate, nucleic acids and protein

    • E. 

      Bicarbonate, phosphate, and nitrate

  • 40. 
    What is the term for the pigment responsible for the color of urine?
    • A. 

      Monochrome

    • B. 

      Urochrome

    • C. 

      Cyanochrome

    • D. 

      Multichrome

    • E. 

      Pyuria

  • 41. 
    Micturition is another term for
    • A. 

      The production of nitrogenous wastes

    • B. 

      Glomerular filtration

    • C. 

      The countercurrent multiplier process

    • D. 

      Inflammation of the urinary bladder

    • E. 

      The elimination of urine

  • 42. 
    Chloride homeostasis is achieved mainly as a result of _____ homeostasis
    • A. 

      H2PO4-

    • B. 

      PO4-

    • C. 

      HCO3-

    • D. 

      Na+

    • E. 

      K+

  • 43. 
    Prior to chemical tests for glycosuria, clinicians checked for sweetness of the urine as a sign of
    • A. 

      Diabetes insipidus

    • B. 

      Acute glomerulonephritis

    • C. 

      Diabetes mellitus

    • D. 

      Renal calculus

    • E. 

      Pyelitis

  • 44. 
    The bicarbonate buffer system would not work very well in the human body if not for the action of the respiratory system, which
    • A. 

      Supplies the buffer system with CO2

    • B. 

      Supplies the buffer system with O2

    • C. 

      Expels HCO3- produced by the buffer system

    • D. 

      Expels H+ produced by the buffer system

    • E. 

      Expels CO2 produced by the buffer system

  • 45. 
    Albuminuria is a common sign of diabetes mellitus
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 46. 
    The innermost connective tissue layer protecting the kidney and assisting in staving off infectuon is known as
    • A. 

      The perirenal fat capsule

    • B. 

      The renal fascia

    • C. 

      The hilum

    • D. 

      The fibrous capsule

    • E. 

      The renal medulla

  • 47. 
    The fenestrated endothelium of the capillary has pores small enough to exclude blood cells from the filtrate
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 48. 
    Chloride homeostasis is regulated as a side effect of sodium homeostasis
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

Related Topics