Endocrine System

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Endocrine System Quizzes & Trivia
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  • 1. 
    Endocrine gland(s)
    • A. 

      Release their secretion directly into the blood

    • B. 

      Have an unusually low density of blood capillaries

    • C. 

      Secrete their products by way of ducts

    • D. 

      Secrete substances that do not alter the metabolism of their target cells, but have extracellular effects

    • E. 

      Secretions may be released into the body surface


  • 2. 
    The nervous system reacts to stimuli ___ compared to the endocrine system, adapts_____ compared to the endocrine system, and has ____ effects compared to the endocrine system
    • A. 

      Slowly,slowly,widespread

    • B. 

      Quickly,slowly,specific

    • C. 

      Quickly,quickly,specific

    • D. 

      Quickly,quickly, widespread

    • E. 

      Slowly,quickly, specific


  • 3. 
    ___ are secreted by one cell into the tissue fluid, diffuse to nearby cells in the same tissue, and stimulate physiology
    • A. 

      Neurotransmitters

    • B. 

      Neuromodulators

    • C. 

      Paracrines

    • D. 

      Parahormones

    • E. 

      Hormones


  • 4. 
    The___ is not an endocrine gland but it has a role in endocrine function
    • A. 

      Pancreas

    • B. 

      Kidney

    • C. 

      Thyroid gland

    • D. 

      Parathyroid gland

    • E. 

      Adrenal gland


  • 5. 
    What makes a cell target of a particular hormone?
    • A. 

      The chemical properties of the hormone

    • B. 

      The presence of a receptor for that particular hormone

    • C. 

      The location of the gland that secretes the hormone

    • D. 

      The location of the target cell in the body

    • E. 

      The site where the hormone is secreted


  • 6. 
    The neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary) secrets
    • A. 

      Prolactin (PRL)

    • B. 

      Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

    • C. 

      Thyroid hormone (TH)

    • D. 

      Growth hormone (GH)

    • E. 

      Oxytocin (OT)


  • 7. 
    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone targets the
    • A. 

      Anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)

    • B. 

      Thyroid gland

    • C. 

      Thyroid hormone

    • D. 

      Hypothalamus

    • E. 

      Posterior pituitary (neurohyphophysis)


  • 8. 
    The hypophyseal portal system connects
    • A. 

      The posterior pituitary (neurohyphophysis) with the hypothalamus

    • B. 

      The anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) with the hypothalamus

    • C. 

      The anterior pituitary with the posterior pituitary

    • D. 

      The hypothalamus with its target organs

    • E. 

      The pituitary with its target organs


  • 9. 
    These are all hypothalamic hormones except
    • A. 

      Somatostatin

    • B. 

      Thyrptropin releasing hormone (TRH)

    • C. 

      Prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH)

    • D. 

      Anitdiuretic hormone (ADH)

    • E. 

      Lutenizing hormone (LH)


  • 10. 
    Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) targets the
    • A. 

      Pancreas

    • B. 

      Hypothalamus

    • C. 

      Kidneys

    • D. 

      Adrenal gland

    • E. 

      Anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)


  • 11. 
    ___ has more target cells in the body than any of the others
    • A. 

      Oxytocin (OT)

    • B. 

      Growth hormone (GH)

    • C. 

      Growth hormone- releasing hormone (GHRH)

    • D. 

      Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)

    • E. 

      Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)


  • 12. 
    Target organs most often regulate the pituitary gland via
    • A. 

      Negative feedback inhibition

    • B. 

      Up-regulation

    • C. 

      Positive feedback inhibition

    • D. 

      Down-regulation

    • E. 

      Antagonistic regulation


  • 13. 
    The infundibulum is
    • A. 

      A depression of the sphenoid bone that protects the pituitary gland

    • B. 

      A bulky nucleus composed of the paraventricular nucleus and the supraoptic nucleus

    • C. 

      A portal system between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland

    • D. 

      A mass of endocrine and neural cells

    • E. 

      A projection of the hypothalamus from which the pituitary glands hangs


  • 14. 
    ___ secretion is controlled by neuroendocrine reflexes, whereas ___ secretion is controlled by negative feedback mechanism
    • A. 

      Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH); lutenizing hormone (LH)

    • B. 

      Follicle-stimulating hormone; lutenizing hormone (LH)

    • C. 

      Oxytocin (OT); Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

    • D. 

      Antidiuretic hormone (ADH); oxytocin (OT)

    • E. 

      Antidiuretic hormone (ADH); thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)


  • 15. 
    Negative feedback inhibition occurs when
    • A. 

      Thyroid hormone (TH) targets the anterior pituitary

    • B. 

      Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) causes the anterior pituitary to release thyroid- stimulating hormone (TSH)

    • C. 

      Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) target the anterior pituitary pituitary

    • D. 

      Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)target the thyroid gland

    • E. 

      Thyroid- stimulating hormone (TSH) targets the thyroid gland


  • 16. 
    This hormone plays an important tole in synchronizing physiological function with the cycle of daylight and darkness
    • A. 

      Calcitonin

    • B. 

      Melanin

    • C. 

      Hepcidin

    • D. 

      Melatonin

    • E. 

      Inhibin


  • 17. 
    The ___ secretes several hormones that stimulate the developement of lymphatic prgans and regulates developement and activity of T cells (white blood cells)
    • A. 

      Adrenal gland

    • B. 

      Thymus

    • C. 

      Thyroid

    • D. 

      Spleen

    • E. 

      Parathyroid


  • 18. 
    The ___ secretes a hormone that increases the body's metabolic rate, promotes alertness and quickness reflexes, and stimulates the fetal nervous system
    • A. 

      Pancreas

    • B. 

      Thyroid gland

    • C. 

      Adrenal gland

    • D. 

      Parathyroid gland

    • E. 

      Thymus


  • 19. 
    The ___ secretes a hormone as a response to hypocalcemia
    • A. 

      Parathyroid gland

    • B. 

      Thymus

    • C. 

      Thyroid gland

    • D. 

      Pineal gland

    • E. 

      Pituitary gland


  • 20. 
    The ____ secrete(s)___, which promotes Na+ and water retention
    • A. 

      Adrenal medulla; epinephrine

    • B. 

      Pancreas;cortisol

    • C. 

      Kidneys; corticosterone

    • D. 

      Thyroid;calcitonin

    • E. 

      Adrenal cortex; aldosterone


  • 21. 
    This zona fasiculata in the adrenal gland secretes
    • A. 

      Estradiol

    • B. 

      Androgens

    • C. 

      Glucagon

    • D. 

      Cortisol

    • E. 

      Aldosterone


  • 22. 
    Many hours after a meal, alpha cells in the pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans) secrete
    • A. 

      Glucacorticoids, which raise blood glucose

    • B. 

      Insulin, which raises blood glucose

    • C. 

      Insulin, which lowers blood glucose

    • D. 

      Glucagon, which lowers blood glucose

    • E. 

      Glucagon, which raises blood glucose


  • 23. 
    These are all secreted bu the pancreas except
    • A. 

      Somatotropin( growth hormone)

    • B. 

      Glucagon

    • C. 

      Gastrin

    • D. 

      Pancreatic polypeptide

    • E. 

      Somatostatin (growth hormone-inhibiting hormone)


  • 24. 
    This gland has both endocrine and exocrine function
    • A. 

      The ovary

    • B. 

      The thymus

    • C. 

      The pineal gland

    • D. 

      The salivary gland

    • E. 

      The adrenal gland


  • 25. 
    ___is not a steroid hormone
    • A. 

      Cortisol

    • B. 

      Insulin

    • C. 

      Progesterone

    • D. 

      Aldosterone

    • E. 

      Estradiol


  • 26. 
    ____synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum
    • A. 

      Calcitrol

    • B. 

      Glucagon

    • C. 

      Cortisol

    • D. 

      Aldosterone

    • E. 

      Testosterone


  • 27. 
    Absence of iodine in the diet leads to
    • A. 

      Hypoxemia

    • B. 

      Hypoparathyroidism

    • C. 

      Hypothyrodism

    • D. 

      Hypoglycemia

    • E. 

      Hypocalcemia


  • 28. 
    T4 and T3 are ___ hormones that are mainly transported___ in the blood.
    • A. 

      Monoamine; unbound (free)

    • B. 

      Steroid; bound to transcortin-binding protein (TBP)

    • C. 

      Steroid; unbound (free)

    • D. 

      Catecholamine; bound to thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG)

    • E. 

      Monoamine; bound to thyroxine-binding globuli (TBG)


  • 29. 
    ___ enters the target cell's nucei and acts directly on the genes
    • A. 

      Oxytocin (OT)

    • B. 

      Glucagon

    • C. 

      Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

    • D. 

      Estorgen

    • E. 

      Insulin


  • 30. 
    This is the last step in the sequence of events when cyclic AMP acts as a second messenger.
    • A. 

      G protein is activated by the binding of a hormone to the recpetor

    • B. 

      CAMP activates protein kinases

    • C. 

      G protein activates adenylate cyclase

    • D. 

      Enzymes are activates or deactivated by the action of the protein kinases

    • E. 

      Adenylate cyclse produces cAMP


  • 31. 
    Even a small quantity of hormone can have a strong effect on its target cell because of
    • A. 

      Negative feedback inhibition

    • B. 

      An antagonistic effect

    • C. 

      Up-regulation

    • D. 

      Enzyme amplification

    • E. 

      Down-regulation


  • 32. 
    Neither follicle stimulating (FSH) hormone nor testosterone along can stimulate significant sperm production whereas when they act together, the testes produce some 300,000 sperm per minute. This exemplifies
    • A. 

      Hormone clearance

    • B. 

      The casade effect

    • C. 

      The syngerist effect

    • D. 

      The permissive effect

    • E. 

      The antagonistic effect


  • 33. 
    The resistance stage in the general adaptation syndrome (stress response) is dominated by
    • A. 

      Corisol

    • B. 

      Epinephrine

    • C. 

      Norepinephrine

    • D. 

      Angiotensin

    • E. 

      Aldosterone


  • 34. 
    During the exhaustin stage of the general adaptation syndrome (stress response) stress overwhelms homestasis. A characteristics of this stage is that 
    • A. 

      Glyco supplies are depleted

    • B. 

      Energy demands are met primarily by fat metabolism

    • C. 

      Fermentation is not enough to provide the necessary ATP

    • D. 

      Energy demands are met primarily by protein metabolism

    • E. 

      Energy demands are primarily by carbohydrate metabolism


  • 35. 
    Cortisol
    • A. 

      Stimulates glucose intake by most organs

    • B. 

      Promotes glycogen synthesis

    • C. 

      Stimulates protein synthesis

    • D. 

      Inhibits fat digestion

    • E. 

      Promotes breakdown of fat and protein


  • 36. 
    The initial response to stress is called ___ and is mediated mainly by ___ .
    • A. 

      The exhaustion stage; norepinephrine and epinephrine

    • B. 

      The alarm reaction;cortisol

    • C. 

      The alarm reaction; norepinephrine and epinephrine

    • D. 

      The resistance stage; aldosterone and cortisol

    • E. 

      The resistance stage; cortisol


  • 37. 
    Eicosanoids are derived from
    • A. 

      Leukotriene

    • B. 

      Arachidonic acid

    • C. 

      Prostaglandis

    • D. 

      Prostacyclin

    • E. 

      Thromboxanes


  • 38. 
    Prostaglandins have all the following roles except
    • A. 

      To inhibit gastric secretion

    • B. 

      To act as vasodilators or vasoconstrictors

    • C. 

      To constrict or dilate arterioles

    • D. 

      To induce labor contractions

    • E. 

      To stop fever and pain


  • 39. 
    Aspirin and ibuprofen block
    • A. 

      The action of cyclooxygenase

    • B. 

      The action of phospholipase A1

    • C. 

      The action of phospholipase A2

    • D. 

      The action of lipoxygenase

    • E. 

      The action of arachiidonic acid fro the plasma membrane


  • 40. 
    Diabetes insipidus is caused by
    • A. 

      Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) hyposecretion

    • B. 

      Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) hypersecretion

    • C. 

      Aldosterone hypersecretion

    • D. 

      Cortisol hypersecretion

    • E. 

      Epinephrine hypersecretion


  • 41. 
    All these can cause Cushing syndrome except
    • A. 

      Hyperacitivity of the adrenal medulla

    • B. 

      Hyperacitivity of the adrenal cortex

    • C. 

      ACTH-secreting tumors

    • D. 

      ACTH hypersecretion by the pituitary

    • E. 

      Excess cortisol secretion


  • 42. 
    Growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion causes gigantism when it begins in childhood, but it is more likely to cause ____ when it begins in adulthood
    • A. 

      Acromegaly

    • B. 

      Goiter

    • C. 

      Cushing syndrome

    • D. 

      Graves disease

    • E. 

      Myxedema


  • 43. 
    Diabetes mellitus is characterized by the following execpt
    • A. 

      Hypoglycemia

    • B. 

      Polyuria

    • C. 

      Polyphagia

    • D. 

      Polydipsia

    • E. 

      Glycosuria


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