Chapter 18 And 19

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Chapter 18 And 19

  
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  • 1. 
    Colonial farmers shipped to Europe large Quantites of all of the following products except
    • A. 

      Coffee

    • B. 

      Wool

    • C. 

      Sugar

    • D. 

      Tobacco


  • 2. 
    English Coffeehouses were
    • A. 

      Important places to discuss politics and society

    • B. 

      Patronized only by aristocrats because coffee was so expensive

    • C. 

      Strictly regulated by the government

    • D. 

      Slow to catch on in London but were highly popular in smaller towns


  • 3. 
    The Slave trade had a lasting impact on Euorpe because it
    • A. 

      Encouraged many more Europeans to go to the colonies to find work

    • B. 

      Put many European farmers out of business by undercutting their prices

    • C. 

      Permanently altered consumption patterns for ordinary people

    • D. 

      Introduced African products and goods into Europe for the first time


  • 4. 
    Children of Spanish men and Indian women were called
    • A. 

      Mestizos

    • B. 

      Caballeros

    • C. 

      Quilombos

    • D. 

      Oroonokos


  • 5. 
    The birth and growth of European consumer society succeeded despite
    • A. 

      Attacks by writers and intellectuals who claimed that humans were becoming gluttonous animals

    • B. 

      Efforts by monarchs to stop the flood of imports in order to protect local producers

    • C. 

      Wildly fluctuating prices for new consumer products and exotic foods

    • D. 

      The reluctance of producers in colonial lands to sell commodities at enforced low prices


  • 6. 
    The dutch were unable to do much about the decline in their share of the baltic trade because
    • A. 

      They did not have adequate technology to keep their Baltic ports from silting shut

    • B. 

      Their domestic supplies of raw material, which the depended on to keep their prices low, were nearly exhausted by 1720

    • C. 

      Peter the Grest threatened to invade sny of his neighbors who traded with any country but Russia

    • D. 

      All of the major Baltic countries began to restrict imports of manufactured goods in order to protect their own industries


  • 7. 
    Peter the Great was determined to Westernize his country, and one of the most significant steps in that direction was
    • A. 

      Appointing a chief minister who managed court affaris, made political appointments, and oversaw mercantile policy

    • B. 

      Making up for the lack of a Russian middle class by encouraging noblewomen to become involved in science, education, and trade.

    • C. 

      Undertaking extensive colonization efforts in africa to obtain the raw materials that provided so much of western Europe's wealth

    • D. 

      Founding the new technical and scientific schools that were run by Western officials


  • 8. 
    After Voltaire's Letters Concerning the English Nation was published in the early 1730s, the french government ordered his arrest because the book
    • A. 

      Suggested that the Voltaire had acted as a spy for England during the War of Polish Succession

    • B. 

      Argued that the Anglican church--and Protestantism in general--was more clearly based on scientific priciples that was Catholicism

    • C. 

      Praised the british government's tolerance and flexibility as a way of condemning the French government

    • D. 

      Ridiculed Louis XV, his mistresses, and the entire French court


  • 9. 
    Which of the foloowing statements about the Atlantic slave trade in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries is not true?
    • A. 

      Before 1675, most african slaves were sent to brazil, but within a quarter of a century, half were being shipped to the caribbean

    • B. 

      The plantation economy in North America absorbed a vast number of slaves, reaching its height in the second half of the eighteenth century

    • C. 

      By the time the slave trade began to wind down, in the mid-nineteenth century, some five million Africans had been sold as slaves in the americas

    • D. 

      Most slaves from africa's west coast were sold to european traders by other africans who had captured them through warfare or kidnapping


  • 10. 
    By the eighteenth century, many europeans began to try to provide a rationale for the institution of slavery based predominantly on
    • A. 

      Religious grounds, as many asserted that african "heathens" deserved to be enslaved

    • B. 

      Africans purported mental--and thus racial--inferiorty

    • C. 

      Historical precedent, pointing to slavery as a "natural" practice that dated as far back as ancient Greece and the Roman empire

    • D. 

      The claim that contact with European religion and culture, coupled with hard work, had an edifying or civilizing, effect on so-called primitive peoples.


  • 11. 
    After some 200 years of tolerance and even support, the English and Dutch gov't suddenly tried to stamp out piracy around 1700 because
    • A. 

      It became increasingly hard to retain maritime personnel for the unpleasant work on slave ships when sailors had the option of a more lucrative life as pirates

    • B. 

      Protestant govt in particular began to look upon their association with such "criminal elements" as antithetical to cherished christian values

    • C. 

      The presence of an increasing number of women travelers gave rise to a concomitant public clamor demanding that they be protected from possible contact with pirates

    • D. 

      English, dutch, and french bands of sailors began to form their own assoc. of pirates, especially in the Caribbean, where they preyed on everyones shipping regardless of national origin


  • 12. 
    Demographic historians speak of a "population explosion" beginning in the 17th century, which they attribute to all of the following factors except
    • A. 

      A rise in the birthrate

    • B. 

      The disappearance of plague after 1720

    • C. 

      Improved agricultural techniques

    • D. 

      Better weather conditions


  • 13. 
    Historians emphasize that what came to be called Britains "ag revolution" in the 1700s cannot be attributed to
    • A. 

      The selective breeding of animals

    • B. 

      The planting of fodder crops, such as clover and turnips, instead of field rotation

    • C. 

      The invention of new machinery

    • D. 

      An increase in the amount of land under cultivation


  • 14. 
    Historians describe the english peasantry as "virtually disappearing" in the 18th century as a reslut of
    • A. 

      Immigration to the new world

    • B. 

      A massive shift in the english economy to industrial production and manufacturing which lured young men away from the sountryside

    • C. 

      Cheap agricultural imports from the english colonies, with which individual english peasants could not compete

    • D. 

      The enclosure movement


  • 15. 
    In the peace of Utrect (1713-1714) philip, duke of Anjou, was finally recognized as the new king of Spain by Europe's great powers but was forced to
    • A. 

      Repress revolts in andalusia and aragon which had all opposed him as the french interloper

    • B. 

      Cancel his plans to marry the habsburg revival in the western Med

    • C. 

      Provide massive reparations payments paid in new world silver to the french and habsburg monarchies

    • D. 

      Renounce any furture claim to the french throne and cede spain's territories in italy and the netherlands


  • 16. 
    Following the deaths of william and mary and their successor, anne (mary's sister) the english turned to which dynastic house for their next ruler, King George I
    • A. 

      The austrian hasburgs

    • B. 

      The german house of hanover

    • C. 

      The french of bourbons

    • D. 

      The dutch house of orange


  • 17. 
    Russian tsar peter the great's imposition of a table of ranks in 1722
    • A. 

      Divided the russian nobility up into compulsory military, admin, and judicial service categories

    • B. 

      Created a complex hierachry of the russian courtiers in his court as a means of regulating their frequently bloody competition for high office

    • C. 

      Upset the fledgling entrepreneurial class in Russi, encouraging a damaging drain of talent to the west

    • D. 

      Upset the leaders of the russian orthodox church, as it placed the tsar above the patriarch in both secular and religious matters


  • 18. 
    Despite peter the greats quest to make russia "great" all of the following measures were taken except
    • A. 

      The founding of laboratories, technical, school, and a russian Academy of sciences

    • B. 

      The emancipation of the russian peasantry from a state of virtual slavery with the prohibition of the serf system

    • C. 

      The translation into russian of many western european classics and the introduction of arabic numerals

    • D. 

      The publication of the first public newspaper


  • 19. 
    By 1740 the european state with the highest proportion of men at arms-1 of every 28 people was
    • A. 

      Great britain

    • B. 

      Russia

    • C. 

      France

    • D. 

      Prussia


  • 20. 
    In the eighteenth century enlightenment writers adopted a new historical doctrine to explain human "prpgress" :the belief that
    • A. 

      God approved not only of faith and good works but also of material-that is to say, scientific and technological-success

    • B. 

      Humankind was moving forward to ever higher levels of development on wheels born human , particularly european, endeavor

    • C. 

      Maintaining heightened levels of human activity, leading to more commerce, more trade, more money in circulation, urbanization, higher fertility rates, was a sign of superiority

    • D. 

      One should not measure human actions by what they were intended to produce (good faith) but rather only by what they did produce


  • 21. 
    Writers of the Enlightenment called themselves
    • A. 

      Penses

    • B. 

      Phiosopes

    • C. 

      Bibliophiles

    • D. 

      Incroyables


  • 22. 
    The Encyclopedia contributed to enlightenment goasl of social reform by
    • A. 

      Promtiing the spread of knowledge that would be used to make informed decisions about social problems

    • B. 

      Funding from its sales the charitable schools established jointly by Diderot and Voltaire

    • C. 

      Providing systematic plans for socail refrom the could be used by anyone who was abe to read

    • D. 

      Proving that a state-run system of education intellectual projects like the Encyclopedia


  • 23. 
    The eighteenth century belief that god created the universe to follow set, logical priciples and did not intervene in its functioning once he had set it in motion is known as
    • A. 

      Pietism

    • B. 

      Jansenism

    • C. 

      Ateism

    • D. 

      Deism


  • 24. 
    In 1762, Jean-Jacques Rousseau published Emile, which offered his theoried on
    • A. 

      Democracy

    • B. 

      Catholic church

    • C. 

      Education

    • D. 

      The military


  • 25. 
    The Enlightenment spread outward from three cities where discussion and debate of new ideas flourished among the growing middle classes; these cities were
    • A. 

      Amsterdam, paris, and london

    • B. 

      Paris, london, and berlin

    • C. 

      London, edinburgh, and amsterdam

    • D. 

      Berlin, amsterdam, and paris


  • 26. 
    How did the Enlightenment in France differ from that in Germany?
    • A. 

      The german govt wholeheartedly supported its intellectuals, including Lessing and Kant, while France's philosophes faced censorship or arrest.

    • B. 

      Germanys intellectuals like Immanual Kant were far more interested in the practical application of the new ideology than were their French counterparts

    • C. 

      French philosophers were far more aggressive in their condemnation of church and state than were german scholars

    • D. 

      French phiosophes intended their workfor the masses but because the Prussian state limited education only to the well-to-do, ordinary people could not participate in the Enlightenment


  • 27. 
    The underlying message of Jean-Jacques Rousseau's Emile was that
    • A. 

      Clerical supervision in schools stunted individual development and independent thinking, which were necessary preparation for joining society

    • B. 

      The university system was hopelessly flawed because students studiued Latin and Greek instead of logic

    • C. 

      Qualified workers and members of the bourgeoisie should be admitted to universities in order to increase national wealth

    • D. 

      Marriages arrnged by parents were happier than those unions arranged by the participants because the young people had fewer illusions in arranged matches


  • 28. 
    Although the Diplomatic Revolution in 1756 resulted in major changes in European alliances, the two major rivalries remained unchanged; these were
    • A. 

      France versus britian and austria versus russia

    • B. 

      France versus austria and britian versus prussia

    • C. 

      France versus russia and austria versus prussia

    • D. 

      France versus britian and austria versus prussia


  • 29. 
    Which event dramatically changed the outcome of the Seven Years war?
    • A. 

      George 2 died in 1760,leaving Hanover vunerable to attack by prussia, and this brought Great Britain into the war

    • B. 

      The turks unexpectedly entered the war on the side of prussia, hoping to regain territory lost to their joint enemy, austria

    • C. 

      Empress elizabeth of russia died and her successor immediately reversed her anti-Prussian policy, allowing fredrick the great to escape a crushoing defeat

    • D. 

      The great lisbon earthquake of 1755 was so devasting to the french and spanish economies that they were unable to fully pursue the war


  • 30. 
    Although most intellectuals of the enlightenment publicaly embraced the doctorine of religios toleration, in practice, many of then were still intolerant of
    • A. 

      Atheists

    • B. 

      Jews

    • C. 

      Muslims

    • D. 

      Calvinists


  • 31. 
    The only enlightened ruler who ended the personal aspect of serfdon was
    • A. 

      Catherine the great of russia

    • B. 

      Joseph 2 of austria

    • C. 

      Fredrick the great of prussia

    • D. 

      George 3 of england


  • 32. 
    The term food riot is somewhat misleading when applied to late eighteenth-century conflicts becuase
    • A. 

      The word riot implies random destructiveness, but participants were trying to enfore a fair price for grain or ensure supplies of it to feed their families

    • B. 

      Food was only one of many commodities that were the focus of such unrest.

    • C. 

      Official reports used this term to disguise the fact that these were really attempts tp institute a more democratic political system based on universal suffrage

    • D. 

      These disturbances were far more important than they really were.


  • 33. 
    The seven years war had a significant impact on american-british relations because
    • A. 

      The colonists resented the british govt decision to begin treating the naqtive americans as full citizens

    • B. 

      The americans had sided with the french during the war and they resisted returning to allegiance to britain in the 1760s

    • C. 

      It dramatically expanded the borders of british america and american colonists became angry when the british encouraged them to leave the ast coast to become settlers in the wilderness of the ohio river valley

    • D. 

      It removed the threat of french invasion fromt he north, which made the colonists less dependent on british naval might and thus more willing to act on their grievances


  • 34. 
    In responce to a massive uprising of the long oppressed serfs of russia, empress cathrine the great
    • A. 

      Increased the nobles power over them

    • B. 

      Promulgated laws easing the legal restriction that had prevented serfs from leaving family plots,earning independent livelihoods, and marrying without their feudal lords permission

    • C. 

      Declare war on prussia as a way of diverting attention away from social problems at home

    • D. 

      Repealed the tax increase of the mid-centru and shifted some of the tax burden to the heretofore tax-exempt nobility


  • 35. 
    Enlightenment ideas typically spread in the eighteenth century by way of books and newpapers, perosnal correspondence, learned societies, private clubs like Masonic lodges and
    • A. 

      Religious dissenters

    • B. 

      Salons

    • C. 

      Royal courts

    • D. 

      Universities


  • 36. 
    In his philosophical dictionary, Voltaire offered
    • A. 

      A systematic analysis of the various philosophical schools from antiquity to the eighteenth-century Enlightenment

    • B. 

      A critique of the royal absolutist government

    • C. 

      A compilation of words and phrases commomly used to describe God, man and the universe for which he proposed alternative definitions

    • D. 

      An attack on most of the claims of organized christianity


  • 37. 
    Adam Smith contended that individual self-interest, including greed,
    • A. 

      Contributed untimately to the general welfare or society at large

    • B. 

      Had to be kept in check by the string arm of a powerful, centralized govt

    • C. 

      Served as the source of all earthly woes that only true christians piety, as defined by the church, could alleviate

    • D. 

      Could be transformed into compassion and concern for the general welfare throught the exercise of human reason


  • 38. 
    Oxford-education John Wesley was the founder of the reform movements known as
    • A. 

      Methodism

    • B. 

      Pietism

    • C. 

      Congregationalism

    • D. 

      Chartism


  • 39. 
    In an effort to combat increasing rates of poverty, vagrancy, and crime, the french govt in 1767 created new workhouses called
    • A. 

      Hopitaux de charite

    • B. 

      Domiciles de pauvrete

    • C. 

      Depots de mendicite

    • D. 

      Maisons de travail


  • 40. 
    Although the industrial revolution took hold in england first, textile manufacturing experienced a boom throughout Europe in the Eighteenth century by means of
    • A. 

      The putting out system

    • B. 

      Introduction of the spinning jenny and water frame

    • C. 

      The increasing wealth and demand for fashionabkle clothing of the rising middle classes

    • D. 

      Skyrocketing population growth


  • 41. 
    In the war of the Austrian Succession, empress maria theresa managed to hold on to her throne most of her territory by
    • A. 

      Agreeing to fredrick 2's demand the Poland-Lithuania be divided between Austria, Russia, and Prussia

    • B. 

      Forming an allience with france against prussia and her ally Great Britian

    • C. 

      Arranging for the assassination of the opposing claimant, Francis 1, who had declared the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 invalid, thereby resinding the right of women to inherit the crown

    • D. 

      Conceding Silesia to Prussia, thereby disrupting the Franco-Prussian alliance


  • 42. 
    Prussia had vastly increased the size and effciency of its army, vaulting itself to grear power status by the mid-eighteenth century, with the
    • A. 

      Founding of military training schools for commissioned officers

    • B. 

      Adoption of the year-round "citizen-soldier" system

    • C. 

      Instition of the "canton system"

    • D. 

      Transformation of private militias of local lords into a mass army


  • 43. 
    In the treaty of paris of 1763, France officially acknologed her defeat overseas, ceding virtually all of its territories to Great Britian except,
    • A. 

      Some west indian islands

    • B. 

      Canada

    • C. 

      A swath of territory in North Africa, including modern-day Algeria

    • D. 

      Eastern Louisiana


  • 44. 
    To make tax increases more palatable, the "enlightenment absolutists" of Europe actively undertook to modernize govt through
    • A. 

      Increase equitabiltity of taxes

    • B. 

      Administrative and legal reforms

    • C. 

      Reforming their political systems so as increase accessibility to more citizens

    • D. 

      Expanding access to education and religion tolerance


  • 45. 
    In the wake of extensive legal reforms, the justice system of which absolutist monarchy became "the envy of Europe"?
    • A. 

      France

    • B. 

      Russia

    • C. 

      Austria

    • D. 

      Prussia


  • 46. 
    Althought popular unrest and peasents uprisings marred much of the final quarter of the eighteenth century throughout Europe, the largest single rebellion by far was the
    • A. 

      Pugachev rebellion in russia

    • B. 

      Flour war in france

    • C. 

      Silesian weavers revolt in prussia

    • D. 

      November revolution in Poland-Lithuania


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