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Chapter 13

42 Questions
Chapter 13

Questions that will be on this upcoming exam.

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Which of the following fractures would be the least likely to cause a spinal cord injury?
    • A. 

      A fracture of vertebra L4

    • B. 

      A fracture of vertebra T12

    • C. 

      A fracture of vertebra T5

    • D. 

      A fracture of vertebra C6

    • E. 

      A fracture of vertebra C2

  • 2. 
    • A. 

      The corticospinal tract

    • B. 

      The tectospinal

    • C. 

      The lateral vestibulospinal tract

    • D. 

      The medial vestibulospinal tract

    • E. 

      The spinocerebellar tract

  • 3. 
    Cerebrospinal fluid fills in the space between
    • A. 

      Dura mater and pia mater

    • B. 

      Dura sheath and dura mater

    • C. 

      Arachnoid mater and pia mater

    • D. 

      Dura sheath and vertebral bones

    • E. 

      Dura mater and arachnoid mater

  • 4. 
     The upper motor neurons that control skeletal muscles begin with a soma in
    • A. 

      The postcentral gyus of the cerebrum

    • B. 

      The precentral gyrus of the cerebrum

    • C. 

      The motor association cortex of the cerebrum

    • D. 

      The anterior horn of the spinal cord

    • E. 

      The posterior horn of the spinal cord

  • 5. 
    The following are all functions associated with the spinal cord expect
    • A. 

      To conduct motor information down the cord

    • B. 

      To coordinate the alternating contraction of several muscle groups associated with locomotion

    • C. 

      To protect neurons in both the ascending and descending tract

    • D. 

      To mediate a reflex such as withdrawal of a hand from pain

    • E. 

      To conduct sensory information up to the brain

  • 6. 
    Which if the following sensory functions involves neurons in the posterior root ganglia?
    • A. 

      Smell

    • B. 

      Hearing

    • C. 

      Vision

    • D. 

      Touch

    • E. 

      Taste

  • 7. 
    The spinal cord is divided into all of the following regions except
    • A. 

      Cervical

    • B. 

      Pelvic

    • C. 

      Thoracic

    • D. 

      Sacral

    • E. 

      Lumbar

  • 8. 
               carry motor commands from the brain along the spinal cord.
    • A. 

      Cranial nerves

    • B. 

      Descending tracts

    • C. 

      Spinal nerves

    • D. 

      Ascending tracts

    • E. 

      Both anterior and posterior roots

  • 9. 
    Many upper motor neurons synapse with lower motor neurons in
    • A. 

      The posterior horns

    • B. 

      The anterior horns

    • C. 

      The posterior column

    • D. 

      The anterior column

    • E. 

      The posterior root ganglion

  • 10. 
    There are        pairs of spinal nerves
    • A. 

      12

    • B. 

      24

    • C. 

      31

    • D. 

      35

    • E. 

      62

  • 11. 
    Epidural anethesia is introduced in the epidural space between            to block pain signals during pregnancy
    • A. 

      Dura mater and pia mater

    • B. 

      Arachnoid mater and pia mater

    • C. 

      Dura mater and arachnoid mater

    • D. 

      Dural sheath and vertebral bones

    • E. 

      Dural sheath and dura mater

  • 12. 
    Gray matter contains
    • A. 

      Neurosomas, dendrites, and proximal parts of axons of neurons

    • B. 

      The distal part of axons of lower order motor neurons

    • C. 

      Glial cells only

    • D. 

      Glial cells, axons of motor neurons, and Schwann cells

    • E. 

      Glial cells and myelinated fibers

  • 13. 
    Second-order neurons synapse with third-order neurons in the
    • A. 

      Dorsal root ganglion

    • B. 

      Thalamus

    • C. 

      Spinal cord

    • D. 

      Cerebral cortex

    • E. 

      Medulla oblongata

  • 14. 
                   keeps nerve fibers insulated from one another
    • A. 

      Blood vessels

    • B. 

      Epineurium

    • C. 

      Fascicles

    • D. 

      Endoneurium

    • E. 

      Perineurium

  • 15. 
    A ganglion is a
    • A. 

      Cluster of neurosomas in the PNS

    • B. 

      Bundle of axons in the CNS

    • C. 

      Cluster of dendrites in either the CNS or the PNS

    • D. 

      Bundle of axons in the PNS

    • E. 

      Cluster of neurosomas in the CNS

  • 16. 
    Which of the following structures is the richest in lipid content?
    • A. 

      Gray matter

    • B. 

      Arachnoid mater

    • C. 

      White matter

    • D. 

      Dura mater

    • E. 

      Pia mater

  • 17. 
    The cervical plexus gives origin to the        nerve(s).
    • A. 

      Oculomotor

    • B. 

      Sciatic

    • C. 

      Musculocutaneous

    • D. 

      Phrenic

    • E. 

      Radial

  • 18. 
    A          is a cordlike organ composed of numerous       .
    • A. 

      Nerve fibers; nerves

    • B. 

      Nerve fiber; axons

    • C. 

      Nerve; axons

    • D. 

      Nerve fibers; neurosomas

    • E. 

      Nerve; neurosomas

  • 19. 
    The ventral rami of the spinal nerves form plexuses in all regions except
    • A. 

      The thoracic region

    • B. 

      The brachial region

    • C. 

      The cervical region

    • D. 

      The lumbar region

    • E. 

      The sacral region

  • 20. 
    Tendon organs are
    • A. 

      Chemoreceptors

    • B. 

      Visceral receptors

    • C. 

      Proprioceptors

    • D. 

      Pain receptors

    • E. 

      Nociceptors

  • 21. 
    The bundle of nerve roots tha occupy the vertebral canal from L2 to S5 is called the 
    • A. 

      Cauda equina

    • B. 

      Medullary cone

    • C. 

      Lumbar enlargement

    • D. 

      Cervical enlargement

    • E. 

      Spinal cord

  • 22. 
    A mixed nerve consist of both
    • A. 

      Myelinated and unmyelinated fibers

    • B. 

      Glial cells and nerve cells

    • C. 

      Afferent and efferent fibers

    • D. 

      Association and integration neurons

    • E. 

      Spinal and cranial fibers

  • 23. 
    Which of the following nerves originates in the coccygeal plexus?
    • A. 

      Axillary

    • B. 

      Sciatic

    • C. 

      Phrenic

    • D. 

      Ilioinguinal

    • E. 

      Orbturator

  • 24. 
           fibers innervate eyes and ears
    • A. 

      General

    • B. 

      Somatic

    • C. 

      Visceral

    • D. 

      Special

    • E. 

      White

  • 25. 
    Neurosomas of the posterior root are located in the     , whereas neurosomas of the anterior root are located in the      .
    • A. 

      Posterior root ganglion; gray matter

    • B. 

      Posterior root ganglion; white matter

    • C. 

      Gray matter; white matter

    • D. 

      Posterior root; anterior root

    • E. 

      White matter; gray matter

  • 26. 
    Which of the following branches of a spinal nerve have somas of solely sensory neurons?
    • A. 

      Posterior (dorsal) root

    • B. 

      Anterior (ventral) root

    • C. 

      Posterior ramus

    • D. 

      Anterior ramus

    • E. 

      Meningeal branch

  • 27. 
    These are all properties of reflexes except
    • A. 

      Reflex responses are very predictable

    • B. 

      Reflexes are responses to sensory inputs

    • C. 

      Reflexes are quick responses of the nervous system

    • D. 

      Reflexes are spontaneous actions of the nervous system

    • E. 

      Reflexes are not voluntary

  • 28. 
    Which of these is an ascending tract of spinal cord
    • A. 

      The lateral tectospinal tract

    • B. 

      The medial reticulospinal tract

    • C. 

      The ventral corticospinal tract

    • D. 

      The gracile fasiculus

    • E. 

      The vestibulospinal tract

  • 29. 
    The quickest reflex arcs involve only two neurons, thus forming          reflex arcs.
    • A. 

      Ipsilateral

    • B. 

      Contralateral

    • C. 

      Polysynaptic

    • D. 

      Monosynaptic

    • E. 

      Autonomic

  • 30. 
    A muscle spindle contains mostly
    • A. 

      Glial cells

    • B. 

      Muscle fibers

    • C. 

      Fascicles

    • D. 

      Nerves

    • E. 

      Nerve cells

  • 31. 
    You go to the movies after a long day and you begin to nod off as soon as the movie starts. Your head starts to lower a little but this reflex causes your head to rise. This is called the
    • A. 

      Tendon reflex

    • B. 

      Crossed extension reflex

    • C. 

      Withdrawal reflex

    • D. 

      Stretch (myotatic) reflex

    • E. 

      Flexor (withdrawal) reflex

  • 32. 
    Somatosensory refers to these sensory signals except the sensory signals from
    • A. 

      Bones and muscles

    • B. 

      Joints

    • C. 

      Proprioceptors

    • D. 

      The viscera

    • E. 

      The skin

  • 33. 
    A nurse pricks your finger to type your blood. You flinch at the pain, pulling your hand back. THis is called the
    • A. 

      Pain reflex

    • B. 

      Stretch (myptatic) reflex

    • C. 

      Flexor (withdrawal) reflex.

    • D. 

      Tendon reflex

    • E. 

      Crossed extension reflex

  • 34. 
    The flexor (withdrawal) reflex employs a            , which maintains a sustained contraction.
    • A. 

      Parallel after-discharge circuit

    • B. 

      Diverging circuit

    • C. 

      Converging circuit

    • D. 

      Closed circuit

    • E. 

      Reverberating circuit

  • 35. 
    The fibers that carry action potentials to cause skeletal muscle to contract are
    • A. 

      Gamma motor neurons

    • B. 

      Anulospiral endings

    • C. 

      Intrafusal fibers

    • D. 

      Alpha motor neurons

    • E. 

      Extrafusal fibers

  • 36. 
    The tendon reflex
    • A. 

      Causes a muscle that isbeing stretched to contract

    • B. 

      Makes the contralateral motor neurons contract

    • C. 

      Makes the ipsilateral motor neurons relax

    • D. 

      Prevents overcontraction of a muscle

    • E. 

      Causes a tendon to contract

  • 37. 
    If a bee sting on the right though causes quick involuntary reaction of the right arm, this would be an example of
    • A. 

      An ipsilateral reflex

    • B. 

      An intersegmental reflex

    • C. 

      A withdrawal reflex

    • D. 

      A crossed extensor reflex

    • E. 

      A contralateral reflex

  • 38. 
    A reflex where the sensory inout and motor output are on opposite sides of the spinal cord is called a(n)       reflex arc
    • A. 

      Intersegmental

    • B. 

      Contralateral

    • C. 

      Ipsilateral

    • D. 

      Polysynaptic

    • E. 

      Monosynaptic

  • 39. 
    Which of the following groups of muscles have the most muscle spindles?
    • A. 

      Muscles of the hand

    • B. 

      Muscles of the back

    • C. 

      Muscles of the thigh

    • D. 

      Muscles of the middle-ear

    • E. 

      Muscles of the torso

  • 40. 
    In the patellar tendon reflex arc, the patellar ligament is stretched, which stretches the quadriceps femoris muscle of the thigh. This reflex will cause the quadriceps femoris to
    • A. 

      Contract and the antagonist muscles, the hamstrings, to relax

    • B. 

      Contract and the hamstrings also contract

    • C. 

      Relax and the hamstrings to contract

    • D. 

      Relax and the hamstrings also to relax

    • E. 

      Relax without any effect on the hamstrings

  • 41. 
    This reflex shows the least synaptic delay
    • A. 

      Polysynaptic reflex

    • B. 

      Cross extension reflex

    • C. 

      Withdrawal reflex

    • D. 

      Tendon reflex

    • E. 

      Flexor relfex

  • 42. 
    The sensitivity of the muscle spindle is maintained by
    • A. 

      A stretch reflex

    • B. 

      Alpha motor neurons

    • C. 

      Gamma motor neurons

    • D. 

      Anulospiral endings

    • E. 

      Secondary afferent (group II) fibers

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