Chapter 12

46 Questions  I  By Failatlife
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  • 1. 
    About 90% of neurons in the nervous system are          neurons
    • A. 

      Motor

    • B. 

      Afferent

    • C. 

      Efferent

    • D. 

      Association

    • E. 

      Sensory


  • 2. 
    The autonomic nervous system is also called the
    • A. 

      Central nervous system

    • B. 

      Somatic sensory division

    • C. 

      Somatic motor division

    • D. 

      Visceral motor division

    • E. 

      Visceral sensory division


  • 3. 
                  division carries signals to the smooth muscle in the large intestine.
    • A. 

      Visceral motor

    • B. 

      Afferent

    • C. 

      Somatic motor

    • D. 

      Somatic sensory

    • E. 

      Visceral sensory


  • 4. 
    Nerve fibers refers to
    • A. 

      A nerve cell

    • B. 

      An axon

    • C. 

      An organ

    • D. 

      A bundle of macromolecules in nerve cells

    • E. 

      An organelle in nerve cells


  • 5. 
    Some            neurons are specialized to detect stimuli, whereas       neurons send signals to the effectors of the nervous system.
    • A. 

      Efferent; afferent

    • B. 

      Motor; sensory

    • C. 

      Afferent; efferent

    • D. 

      Afferent; association

    • E. 

      Efferent; association


  • 6. 
          form myelin in the spinal cord
    • A. 

      Oligodendrocytes

    • B. 

      Satellite cells

    • C. 

      Microglia

    • D. 

      Astrocytes

    • E. 

      Schwann cells


  • 7. 
    Nerves are         of the nervous system
    • A. 

      Cells

    • B. 

      Organs

    • C. 

      Organelles

    • D. 

      Tissues

    • E. 

      Organ systems


  • 8. 
    Most metabolic and regulatory functions in a neuron happen at the
    • A. 

      Axon

    • B. 

      Dendrites

    • C. 

      Schawnn cell

    • D. 

      Soma

    • E. 

      Axon hillock


  • 9. 
               neurons are the most common type of neurons
    • A. 

      Bipolar

    • B. 

      Multipolar

    • C. 

      Anaxonic

    • D. 

      Dendritic

    • E. 

      Unipolar


  • 10. 
                are the primary site for receiving signals from other neurons
    • A. 

      Synaptic knobs

    • B. 

      Somas

    • C. 

      Dendrites

    • D. 

      Axons

    • E. 

      Axon collateral


  • 11. 
                are examples of effectors in the nervous system.
    • A. 

      Glands

    • B. 

      Stimuli

    • C. 

      Reflexes

    • D. 

      Sense organs

    • E. 

      Receptor


  • 12. 
    The myelin sheath is formed by
    • A. 

      Organelles

    • B. 

      Polymers

    • C. 

      Cells

    • D. 

      Macromolecules

    • E. 

      Fibers


  • 13. 
    Opening of sodium gates typically leads to
    • A. 

      Plasma membrane voltage returning to the resting membrane potential

    • B. 

      Drifting of plasma membrane voltage toward a more negative value

    • C. 

      Depolarization of the plasma membrane

    • D. 

      Hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane

    • E. 

      Repolarization of the plasma membrane


  • 14. 
    The            division tends to prepare the body for action.
    • A. 

      Parasympathetic

    • B. 

      Motor afferent

    • C. 

      Sympathetic

    • D. 

      Sensory afferent

    • E. 

      Somatic motor


  • 15. 
    Conduction speed of a nerve fiber would be fastest in a
    • A. 

      Small myelinated fiber

    • B. 

      Large myelinated fiber

    • C. 

      Small fiber with multiple schwann cells

    • D. 

      Small unmyelinated fiber

    • E. 

      Large unmyelinated fiber


  • 16. 
    Most of the myelin sheath is composed of
    • A. 

      Lipids

    • B. 

      Carbohydrates

    • C. 

      Glycoproteins

    • D. 

      Proteins

    • E. 

      Polysaccharides


  • 17. 
    Local potentials are         , meaning they vary in magnitude according to the strength of the stimulus
    • A. 

      Reversible

    • B. 

      Decremental

    • C. 

      Graded

    • D. 

      Excitatory

    • E. 

      Inhibitory


  • 18. 
                 has the greatest influence on the resting membrane potential
    • A. 

      Potassium

    • B. 

      Phosphate

    • C. 

      Calcium

    • D. 

      Sodium

    • E. 

      Chloride


  • 19. 
    Most local potentials happen at the
    • A. 

      Somas

    • B. 

      Dendrites

    • C. 

      Schwann cells

    • D. 

      Trigger zone

    • E. 

      Axon hillock


  • 20. 
    During hyperpolarization ( or afterpotential)
    • A. 

      Sodium ions are entering the cells

    • B. 

      Sodium ion are leaving the cell

    • C. 

      Potassium ions are entering the cell

    • D. 

      Potassium ions are leaving the cell

    • E. 

      Both sodium and potassium are leaving the cell


  • 21. 
    When the voltage of a plasma membrane shifts from +35mV towards 0 mV, we say the cell is
    • A. 

      Depolarizing

    • B. 

      Repolarizing

    • C. 

      Hyperpolarizing

    • D. 

      Reaching the threshold

    • E. 

      Exiting the threshold


  • 22. 
    While the membrane is depolarizing its
    • A. 

      Potassium gates are fully open

    • B. 

      Chloride gates are partially open

    • C. 

      Chloride gates are fully open

    • D. 

      Sodium gates are fully open

    • E. 

      Sodium gates are partially open


  • 23. 
    Which of the following will cause the plasma membrane to hyperpolarize when at its RMP?
    • A. 

      Inflow of sodium

    • B. 

      Inflow of patassium

    • C. 

      Inflow of calcium

    • D. 

      Inflow of chloride

    • E. 

      Outflow of chloride


  • 24. 
    An inhibitory local potential
    • A. 

      Depolarizes the plasma membrane

    • B. 

      Repolarizes the plasma membrane

    • C. 

      Hyperpolarizes the plasma membrane

    • D. 

      Drifts the membrane potential towards the resting membrane potential

    • E. 

      Neutralizes the plasma membrane


  • 25. 
    In order for a peripheral nerve fiber to regenerate it must have
    • A. 

      At least part of the soma intact

    • B. 

      At least the entire axon and neurilemma inteact

    • C. 

      The soma and at least some neurilemma intact

    • D. 

      All dendrites intact

    • E. 

      At least half the length of the fiber intact


  • 26. 
    During the absolute refractory period
    • A. 

      It is possible to trigger a new action potential, but only with an unusually strong stimulus

    • B. 

      No stimulus of any strength will trigger a new action potential

    • C. 

      If a neuron reaches threshold, the action potential goes to completion

    • D. 

      The neuron fires at its maximum voltage if a stimulus depolarizes the neuron to threshold

    • E. 

      The signals grows weaker with distance


  • 27. 
    Local potentials are         , whereas action potential are       .
    • A. 

      Irreversible; reversible

    • B. 

      Self-propagating; local

    • C. 

      Graded;all or none

    • D. 

      Nondecremental; decremental

    • E. 

      Produced by voltage-regulated channels; produced by gated cahnnels


  • 28. 
    A cholinergic synapse employs        as its neurotransmitter
    • A. 

      Epinephrine

    • B. 

      Acetycholine

    • C. 

      Monoamine

    • D. 

      Norepinephrine

    • E. 

      Catecholamine


  • 29. 
    A traveling wave of excitation is what we know as
    • A. 

      A local potential

    • B. 

      A graded potential

    • C. 

      An action potential

    • D. 

      Nerve signal

    • E. 

      A depolarizing signal


  • 30. 
    All of the following are typical characteristics of neurotransmitters except
    • A. 

      They are released in response to stimulation

    • B. 

      They are synthesized by a presynaptic neuron

    • C. 

      They are released into the bloodstream before reaching the postsynaptic cell

    • D. 

      They bind to specific receptors on the postsynaptic cell

    • E. 

      They alter the physiology of the postsynaptic cell.


  • 31. 
    The best type of neural pool for producing a prolonged output is
    • A. 

      A converging circuit

    • B. 

      Reverberating circuit

    • C. 

      A diverging circuit

    • D. 

      A presynaptic pool

    • E. 

      An autonomic pool


  • 32. 
    Even though all action potentials are the same, the brain can differentiate a variety of stimuli by source and intensity. The mechanism by which the nervous system converts these action potentials into meaningful information is called neural
    • A. 

      Y-aminobutyric acid (GABA)

    • B. 

      Noradrenaline

    • C. 

      Epinephrine

    • D. 

      Acetycholine

    • E. 

      Norepinephrine


  • 33. 
    All of these contribute to the cessation of the signal in a synaptic transmission except
    • A. 

      The synaptic knob reabsorbs some neurotransmitters by endocytosis

    • B. 

      Neurotransmitters stop being released

    • C. 

      Neurotransmitters escapes from the synapse into the nearby extracellular fluid

    • D. 

      Synaptic vesicles secrete neurotransmitter by exocytosis

    • E. 

      Enzymes in the postsynaptic cell break down some neurotransmitters


  • 34. 
    Openings of             gates produces an        .
    • A. 

      Calcium and sodium; IPSP

    • B. 

      Potassium; EPSP

    • C. 

      Calcium; IPSP

    • D. 

      Chloride; IPSP

    • E. 

      Sodium; IPSP


  • 35. 
    What would be the best explanation for why myelinated fibers conduct signals faster than unmyelinated fibers?
    • A. 

      Active transport of sodium and potassium is faster in myelinated fibers

    • B. 

      Facilitated diffusion of sodium and potassium is faster in unmyelinated fibers

    • C. 

      Difussion of ions along the axoplasm is faster

    • D. 

      There are more internodes in unmyelinated fibers

    • E. 

      There are no internodes in unmyelinated fibers


  • 36. 
    Some anitdepressant drugs act by inhibiting monoamine oxidase (MAO), which iss an enzyme
    • A. 

      That binds to chloride gates

    • B. 

      That breaks downs monoamines

    • C. 

      That blocks sodium channels

    • D. 

      That converts ATP to cyclic AMP

    • E. 

      That degrades acetylcholine


  • 37. 
    Accumulation of Ca2+ in the synaptic knob is called         , and probably plays an important role in
    • A. 

      Synaptic facilitation; short-term memory

    • B. 

      Neural coding; immediate memory

    • C. 

      Postsynaptic potential; long-term memory

    • D. 

      Neural coding; short-term memory

    • E. 

      Long-term potentiation; long-term memory


  • 38. 
             excites skeletal muscle and inhibits cardiac muscle
    • A. 

      Acetylcholine

    • B. 

      Norepinephrine

    • C. 

      Dopamine

    • D. 

      Histamine

    • E. 

      B-endorphin


  • 39. 
    Presynaptic inhibition is sthe opposite of
    • A. 

      Facilitation

    • B. 

      Summation

    • C. 

      Recruitment

    • D. 

      Integration

    • E. 

      Coding


  • 40. 
    Which of these happens first in an adrenergic synaptic transmission
    • A. 

      ATP is converted to cyclic AMP

    • B. 

      Adenylate cyclase is activated

    • C. 

      G protein dissociates from the NE receptor

    • D. 

      G protein binds to adenylate cyclase

    • E. 

      Cyclic AMP induces several effects in the cell


  • 41. 
    Parkinson disease is a progressive loss of motor  functino due to the degeneration of specific neurons. These neurons secrete an inhibitory neurotransmitter that prevents excessive activity in motor centers of the brain. This neurotransmitter is
    • A. 

      GABA (y-aminobutyric acid)

    • B. 

      Serotonin

    • C. 

      Dopamine

    • D. 

      Aceylcholine

    • E. 

      Glutamate (glutamic acid)


  • 42. 
    Which of these is an example of an EPSP in a typical neuron?
    • A. 

      A voltage change from 0 mV to +35 mV

    • B. 

      A voltage change from -70 mV to -69.5 mV

    • C. 

      A voltage change from -69.5 mV to -70 mV

    • D. 

      A voltage change from +35 mV to 0 mV

    • E. 

      A voltage change from -70 mV to -70.5 mV


  • 43. 
    Which of these happens first in an cholinergic synaptic transmission
    • A. 

      ACh diffuses across the synaptic cleft

    • B. 

      Postsynaptic potential is produced

    • C. 

      Sodium enters the postsynaptic cell

    • D. 

      Synaptic vesicles release ACh

    • E. 

      Ach binds to ligand-regulated gates


  • 44. 
    A neuron can receive thousands of EPSP's from different neurons, and responds by triggering or not triggering an action potential. This addition and response to the net effect of postsynaptic potentials is called
    • A. 

      Temporal summation

    • B. 

      Neural summation

    • C. 

      Spatial summation

    • D. 

      Neural coding

    • E. 

      Recruitment


  • 45. 
              Binds to ligand-regulated gates, and is the most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain
    • A. 

      Hyperpolarization of the cell membrane

    • B. 

      Repolarization of the cell membrane

    • C. 

      No change of the cell membrane potential

    • D. 

      No change of the threshold


  • 46. 
    Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) are associated with depolarization of the cell membrane
    • A. 

      Recruitment

    • B. 

      Coding

    • C. 

      Pooling

    • D. 

      Facilitation

    • E. 

      Integration


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