They do not work well in networks that require special heirarchical designs.
They are aware of the complete network topology.
They pass their entire routing tables to their directly connected neighbors only.
They offer rapid convergence times in large networks.
They do not include subnet masks in their routing updates.
OSPF elects designated routers on multiaccess links.
RIP does not support classless routing.
EIGRP supports unequal cost load balancing.
EIGRP uses broadcast traffic to establish adjacencies with its neighbors.
RIP does not advertise a route beyond a hop count of 15.
It reduces the update timer to 15 seconds if there are more then 10 routes.
It uses triggered updates to announce network changes if they happen in between the periodic updates.
It uses random pings to detect if a pathway is down and therefore is preemptive on finding networks that are down.
It uses multicast instead of broadcast to send routing updates.
Annapolis is a 2611 router that is connected to the S0/0 interface of the Montgomery router.
All of the routers are connected to Montgomery through an Ethernet switch.
Montgomery has Layer 2 connectivity with Cumberland.
Layer 3 connectivity is operational for all of the devices listed in the Device ID column.
Brant, Fisherman, and Potomac are directly connected to Montgomery.
Static route to 10.1.0.0/22
RIP route to 10.1.0.0/23
RIP route to 10.1.0.0/24
0.0.0.0/0 via 192.168.0.1
All of the 192.168.x.0 networks will be in the routing table.
Routes to networks 192.168.1.0/24, 192.168.2.0/24, and 192.168.3.0/24 will be in the routing table.
The routing table will be empty because routes and dynamic routes have not been configured.
A default route is automatically installed in the routing table to allow connectivity between the networks.
OSPF interval timers mismatch
Gateway of last resort not redistributed
Interface network type mismatch
No loopback interface configured
Inconsistent authentication configuration
Reboot the routers.
Change the OSPF process ID on all of the routers to 0.
Check to see if the cable is loose between BOS and JAX.
Check to see if CDP packets are passing between the routers.
Use show and debug commands to determine if hellos are propagating.
192.168.10.5 and 192.168.10.9 are feasible successors
Neighbors 192.168.10.9 and 192.168.10.5 have auto summary disabled
Router 3 is load balancing traffic to the 172.16.3.0 network across its serial interfaces
All interfaces shown on Router3 are in the passive state and will not send EIGRP advertisements
The address assigned to the Ethernet0 interface of Router1 is a broadcast address for that subnetwork.
The subnetwork configured on the serial link between Router1 and Router2 overlaps with the subnetwork assigned to Ethernet0 of Router3.
The subnetwork assigned to the Serial0 interface of Router1 is on a different subnetwork from the address for Serial0 of Router2.
The subnetwork assigned to Ethernet0 of Router2 overlaps with the subnetwork assigned to Ethernet0 of Router3.
Used to confirm receipt of certain types of OSPF packets
Used to establish and maintain adjacency with other OSPF routers
Used to request more information about any entry in the BDR
Used to announce new OSPF information and to reply to certain types of requests
Domain name resolution
Learn about directly connected networks
Send hello to discover neighbors and form adjacencies
Choose successors and feasible successors to populate the topology table
Flood LSPs to all neighbors informing them of all known networks and their link states
As new neighbors are discovered, entries are placed in a neighbor table.
If the feasible successor has a higher advertised cost than the current successor route, then it becomes the primary route.
If hello packets are not received within the hold time, DUAL must recalculate the topology.
The reported distance is the distance to a destination as advertised by a neighbor.
EIGRP maintains full knowledge of the network topology in the topology table and exchanges full routing information with neighboring routers in every update. EIGRP builds one routing table that contains routes for all configured routed protocols.
Router_A(config-router)# ospf redistribute default-route
Router_B(config-router)# ospf redistribute default-route
Router_A(config-router)# default-information originate
Router_B(config-router)# default-information originate
Router_B(config-router)# ip ospf update-default
Autonomous system number
A(config)# router rip A(config-router)# passive-interface S0/0
B(config)# router rip B(config-router)# network 192.168.25.48 B(config-router)# network 192.168.25.64
A(config)# router rip A(config-router)# no network 192.168.25.32
B(config)# router rip B(config-router)# passive-interface S0/0
A(config)# no router rip
All routing protocols use the same metrics.
EIGRP uses bandwidth as its only metric.
Routers compare metrics to determine the best route.
The larger metric generally represents the better path.
Router4 will learn about the failed route 30 seconds later in the next periodic update.
Split horizon will prevent Router4 from fowarding packets to the 10.0.0.0 network until the holddown timer expires.
Router5 immediately flushes the unreachable route from its routing table.
Router5 will send Router4 a triggered update with a metric of 16 for network 10.0.0.0.
R1(config-router)# network 172.16.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
R1(config-router)# network 172.16.0.0 0.0.3.255 area 0
R1(config-router)# network 172.16.0.0 0.0.15.255 area 0
R1(config-router)# network 172.16.0.0 0.0.31.255 area 0
The Dijkstra algorithm will calculate the feasible successor.
DUAL will query neighbors for a route to network 192.168.1.0.
Neighbor 172.16.3.2 will be promoted to the feasible successor.
Traffic destined to the 192.168.1.0 network will be dropped immediately due to lack of a feasible successor.
The packet will be dropped.
The packet will be forwarded to the gateway of last resort.
The packet will match the 192.168.0.0 network and be forwarded out Serial 0/0.
The packet will most closely match the 192.168.0.8 subnet and be forwarded out Serial 0/1.
The router modifies the TTL field, decrementing it by one.
The router changes the source IP to the IP of the exit interface.
The router maintains the same source and destination IP.
The router changes the source physical address to the physical address of the exit interface.
The router sends the packet out all other interfaces, besides the one it entered the router on.
The routers must elect a designated router.
The routers must agree on the network type.
The routers must use the same dead interval.
The routers must exchange link state requests.
The routers must exchange database description packets.
Both routes are installed and load balancing occurs across both paths.
The route via Path B is installed because the EIGRP route has the best metric to network 10.2.0.0/16.
The route via Path A is installed because the static route has the best metric to network 10.2.0.0/16.
The route via Path B is installed because the EIGRP route has the lowest administrative distance to network 10.2.0.0/16.
The route via Path A is installed because the static route has the lowest administrative distance to network 10.2.0.0/16.
The JAX router has the wrong process ID.
The JAX router needs the network 10.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 command.
The JAX router needs the network 192.168.3.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 command.
The BOS router needs the network 192.168.3.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 command.
Clears an unreachable route from the routing table after the invalid timer expires prevents regular update messages from inappropriately reinstating a route that may have gone bad
Removes an unreachable route from the routing table after the flush timer expires
Limits the period of time or number of hops a packet can traverse through the network before it should be discarded
Used to mark the route as unreachable in a routing update that is sent to other routers
Router1 is missing a route to the 172.16.0.0 network
Router1 is missing a route to the 192.168.1.0 network
Router2 is missing a route to the 172.16.0.0 network
Router3 is missing a route to the 10.0.0.0 network
Router3 is missing a route to the 192.168.0.0 network
Using dynamic routing instead of static routing would have required fewer configuration steps.
The 10.1.1.0/24 and 10.1.2.0/24 routes have adjacent boudaries and should be summarized.
The static route will not work correctly.
Packets routed to the R2 ethernet interface require two routing table lookups.
Ip route 172.16.0.0 255.255.0.0 S0/0
Ip route 172.16.0.0 255.255.0.0 S0/1
Ip route 172.16.0.0 255.255.0.0 192.168.0.2
Ip route 192.168.0.1 172.16.0.0 255.255.0.0 S0/0
Ip route 192.168.0.1 172.16.0.0 255.255.0.0 S0/1
D 192.168.168.0/24 [90/2195456] via 192.168.200.1, 00:00:09, Ethernet0
O 192.168.168.0/24 [110/1012] via 192.168.200.1, 00:00:22, Ethernet0
R 192.168.168.0/24 [120/1] via 192.168.200.1, 00:00:17, Ethernet0
S 192.168.168.0/24 [1/0] via 192.168.200.1
Tests Layer 2 connectivity
Provides a layer of security
Enabled by default on each interface
Used for debugging Layer 4 connectivity issues
Provides information on directly connected devices that have CDP enabled
The missing information for Blank 1 is the command show ip route.
The missing information for Blank 1 is the command debug ip route.
The missing information for Blank 2 is the number 120.
The missing information for Blank 3 is the letter R.
The missing information for Blank 3 is the letter C.
The route to network 172.16.0.0 has an AD of 156160.
The AD of EIGRP routes has been manually changed to a value other than the default value.
Router1 is running both the EIGRP and OSPF routing process.
Network 172.17.0.0 can only be reached using a default route.
No default route has been configured.
Router JAX has the wrong autonomous-system number.
The command network 192.168.2.0 is missing from the EIGRP configuration on the JAX router.
Automatic summarization is not disabled on the JAX router.
Router JAX has the wrong IP address on the Fa0/1 interface.
Set the encapsulation on both routers to PPP.
Decrease the bandwidth on Serial 0/1/0 on router 2 to 1544.
Change the cable that connects the routers to a crossover cable.
Change the IP address on Serial 0/1/0 on router 2 to 192.168.0.1/30.
The ip classless command is not enabled on the Richmond router.
The route was ignored if the Richmond router did not include the 172.29.198.0/24 network in its routing updates.
The Richmond router is in a different autonomous system than the Suffolk router.
The ip subnet-zero command was not configured on the Suffolk router.
The ip classless command is not enabled on the Suffolk router.
The router selects the routes with the best metric. All routes that have the same best metric are added to the routing table.
The router first selects routes with the lowest administrative distance. The resulting routes are then prioritized by metric and the routes with the best metric are added to the routing table.
The router selects the routes with the lowest administrative distance. All routes with the same lowest administrative distance are added to the routing table.
The router installs all routes in the routing table but uses the route with the best metric most when load balancing.
All passwords are encrypted.
Only Telnet sessions are encrypted.
Only the enable password is encrypted.
Only the enable password and Telnet session are encrypted.
Enable and console passwords are encrypted.
The router chooses the first path that it learned and installs only that route in the routing table.
The router chooses the path with the lowest administrative distance and installs only that route in the routing table.
The router chooses the highest routing ID based on the advertised network IP addresses and installs only that route in the routing table.
The router installs all the equal cost paths in the routing table but sends packets out only one, holding the others in reserve in case the primary route goes down.
The router installs all the equal cost paths in the routing table and performs equal cost load balancing to send packets out multiple exit interfaces.
A, B, D
A, B, D, SWH-1, SWH-2
It will load balance the traffic between ADC and ABC
It will send the traffic via ABC, and will use ADC as a backup path only when ABC fails.
Enter default routes in R1 and R2.
Enable the R1 and R2 serial interfaces.
Configure the static route to use an exit interface instead of a next-hop address.
Enter the copy run start command to force the router to recognize the configuration.
172.16.0.0/16 [1/0] via 192.168.0.1
172.16.0.0/20 [1/0] via 192.168.0.9
172.16.16.0/20 [1/0] via 192.168.0.17
0.0.0.0/0 is directly connected, Serial0/0/1
The address is in the wrong subnet.
192.168.10.31 is the broadcast address for this subnet.
The default gateway is incorrect.
The host address and default gateway are swapped.
It is the value assigned by the Dijkstra algorithm that designates the number of hops in the network.
It is the value used by the DUAL algorithm to determine the bandwidth for the link.
It is the metric, which is cost.
It is the administrative distance.
Perform the POST routine.
Search for a backup IOS in ROM.
Load the bootstrap program from ROM.
Load the running-config file from RAM.
Locate and load the startup-config file from NVRAM.
RIPv2 will load balance across both paths between Router1 and Router5.
EIGRP will load balance across both paths between Router1 and Router5.
RIPv2 traffic will use the path Router1, Router2, Router5 because it has the least hops.
EIGRP traffic will use the path Router1, Router3, Router4, Router5 because it has the best metric.
Used by link state routing protocols to prevent routing loops
Prevent update messages from reinstating a route that may have gone bad
Limit the number of hops a packet can traverse through the network before it is discarded
Prevent a router advertising a network through the same interface from which the network was learned
Permit lower metric updates received from any neighboring router to reinstate the route to a possibly down network
C 172.16.1.0 is directly connected, Serial0/0
S 172.16.1.0 is directly connected, Serial0/0
C 172.16.1.0 [1/0] via 172.16.2.2
S 172.16.1.0 [1/0] via 172.16.2.2
DRAM – loads the bootstrap
RAM – stores the operating system
NVRAM – stores the configuration file
ROM – stores the backup configuration file
POST – runs diagnostics on hardware modules
Paris(config)# router eigrp 100
Paris(config-router)# network 192.168.6.0
Paris(config-router)# network 192.168.7.0
Paris(config-router)# network 192.168.8.0
Paris(config-router)# network 192.168.9.0