Adds complexity to networks
Encourages vendors to create proprietary protocols
Provides consistent interconnections across networks
Ensures that communications work best in a single-vendor environment
Simplifies new product development
Type of cable used
Type of data transmission
Speed of transmission
Type of connector required
Maximum length of cable allowed
Source IP address
Source MAC address
Destination IP address
Destination MAC address
Source Ethernet address
Logical addresses only
IP addresses only
MAC addresses only
Broadcast addresses only
Detects transmission errors
provides timing for transmission
Contains the start of frame delimiter
Indicates which protocol will receive the frame
They identify a specific NIC on a host device.
They are used to determine which host device accepts the frame.
They provide vendor-specific information about the host.
They are used to determine the network that the host is located on.
They are used by switches to make forwarding decisions.
It drops the frame.
It sends out an ARP request looking for the MAC address.
It floods the frame out of all active ports, except the origination port.
It returns the frame to the sender.
Prevents collisions on a local network
keeps broadcasts contained within a local network
Controls which hosts have access to the network
Controls host-to-host traffic within a single local network
It sends the data packet as it was received.
It reassembles the frame with different MAC addresses than the original frame.
It reassembles the data packet with different IP addresses than the original data packet.
It reassembles both the packet and the frame with different destination IP and MAC addresses.
The host is unable to communicate on the local network.
The host can communicate with other hosts on the local network, but is unable to communicate with hosts on remote networks.
The host can communicate with other hosts on remote networks, but is unable to communicate with hosts on the local network.
There is no impact on communications.
A server hosted by the ISP
The router interface closest to the computer
A server managed by a central IT department
The switch interface that connects to the computer
IP addressing scheme
Length of cable runs
Physical location of networking devices
Specific layout of interconnections between networking devices and hosts
Wireless access point
It enables the user to map a remote resource with a local drive.
It enables the user to share all files with all users and groups.
It enables the user to share printers.
It enables the user to set more specific security access levels.
H1 sends a unicast message to H2, but the hub forwards it to all devices.
H1 sends a unicast message to H2, and the hub forwards it directly to H2.
H1 sends a broadcast message to H2, and the hub forwards it to all devices.
H1 sends a multicast message to H2, and the hub forwards it directly to H2.