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Bio Test #2 Review

18 Questions
Biology Quizzes & Trivia

Chapters 41-44

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Which of the following is true of urea? it is
    • A. 

      Insoluble in water

    • B. 

      The primary nitrogenous waste product of most aquatic invertebrates

    • C. 

      More toxic to human cells than ammonia

    • D. 

      The primary nitrogenous waste product of most birds

    • E. 

      The primary nitrogenous waste product of humans

  • 2. 
    Which of the following are the only vertebrates in which blood flows directly from respiratory organs to body tissues without first returning to the heart?
    • A. 

      Mammals

    • B. 

      Birds

    • C. 

      Reptiles

    • D. 

      Fishes

    • E. 

      Amphibians

  • 3. 
    Where and from what compound is urea produced?
    • A. 

      Kidneys from glycerol and fatty acids

    • B. 

      Kidneys from glucose

    • C. 

      Bladder from uric acid and H2O

    • D. 

      Liver from NH3 and CO2

    • E. 

      Liver from glycogen

  • 4. 
    The body is capable of catabolizing many substances as sources of energy. which of the followin would be used as an energy source only after the depletion of other sources?
    • A. 

      Glycogen in muscle cells

    • B. 

      Protein in muscle cells

    • C. 

      Calcium phosphate in bone

    • D. 

      Fat in adipose tissue

    • E. 

      Glucose in the blood

  • 5. 
    Which feature of osmoregulation is found in both marine and freshwater bony fish?
    • A. 

      Gain of water through food

    • B. 

      No drinking of water

    • C. 

      Loss of water in the urine

    • D. 

      Gain of salt through gills

    • E. 

      Loss of water though gills

  • 6. 
    Same nutrients are considered "essential" in the diets of certain humans because
    • A. 

      They are necessary coenzymes

    • B. 

      Only those animals use the nutrients

    • C. 

      Only some foods contain them

    • D. 

      They are subunits of important polymers

    • E. 

      They cannot be manufactured by the organism

  • 7. 
    The body fluids of an osmoconformer would be_________with its__________environment
    • A. 

      Hyperosmotic, saltwater

    • B. 

      Hyperosmotic, freshwater

    • C. 

      Isoosmotic, saltwater

    • D. 

      Isotonic, freshwater

    • E. 

      Hypoosmotic, saltwater

  • 8. 
    Which cells and which signaling molecules are responsible for initiating an inflammatory response?
    • A. 

      Lymphocytes: interferons

    • B. 

      Phagocytes: chemokines

    • C. 

      Mast cells: histamines

    • D. 

      Phagocytes: lysozomes

    • E. 

      Dendritic cells: interferons

  • 9. 
    A marine sea star was mistakenly placed in freshwater and it died. what is the most likely explanation for its death?
    • A. 

      The sea star was stressed and needed more time to acclimate to new conditions

    • B. 

      The contractible vacuoles used to regulate water content ruptured in the freshwater

    • C. 

      The osmoregulatory system of the sea star could not handle the change in ionic content presented by the freshwater

    • D. 

      The sea star is hyperosmotic to the freshwater, and it could not osmoregulate

    • E. 

      The cells of the sea star dehydrated and lost the ability to metabolize

  • 10. 
    The blood level of which gas is most important to controling human respiration rate?
    • A. 

      Nitrogen

    • B. 

      Carbon dioxide

    • C. 

      Carbon monoxide

    • D. 

      Nitric acid

    • E. 

      Oxygen

  • 11. 
    What is the substrate of salivary amylase?
    • A. 

      Starch

    • B. 

      Glucose

    • C. 

      Sucrose

    • D. 

      Maltose

    • E. 

      Protein

  • 12. 
    Organisms in which a circulating body fluid is distinct from the fluid that directly surrounds the body's cells are likely to have which of the following?
    • A. 

      Hemolymph

    • B. 

      A closed circulatory system

    • C. 

      Branched trachea

    • D. 

      A gastrovascular cavity

    • E. 

      An open circulatory system

  • 13. 
    Mammals have Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that act in a manner similar to those of insects. while not specific to a particular pathogen, a TLR can recognize a kind of macromolecule that is absent from vertebrates but present in/on certain groups of pathogens. which of the following is most likely to be recognized by a particular TLR that defends against some viruses?
    • A. 

      Lipopolysaccharides

    • B. 

      Phospholipids

    • C. 

      Double-stranded DNA

    • D. 

      Double stranded RNA

    • E. 

      Glycoproteins

  • 14. 
    Inflammatory responses may include which of the following?
    • A. 

      Release of substances to decrease the blood supply to the inflamed area

    • B. 

      Increased activity of phagocytes in the inflamed area

    • C. 

      Inhibiting the release of white blood cells from bone marrow

    • D. 

      Reduced permeability of blood vessels to conserve plasma

    • E. 

      Clotting proteins migrating away from the site of infection

  • 15. 
    To adjust blood pressure independently in capillaries of the gas exchange surface and in the capillaries of the general body circulation, an organism would need a(n)
    • A. 

      Lymphatic system

    • B. 

      Four-chambered heart

    • C. 

      Open circulatory system

    • D. 

      Hemocoel

    • E. 

      Two-chambered heart

  • 16. 
    Without functioning parietal cells, which of the following would you expect for an individual?
    • A. 

      Only to be able to digest fat in the stomach

    • B. 

      Only to be able to initiate digestion in the small intestine

    • C. 

      Not to be able to initiate protein digestion in the stomach

    • D. 

      Not to be able to produce pepsinogen

    • E. 

      Not to be able to initiate mechanical digestion in the stomach

  • 17. 
    If a newborn were accidentally given a drug that destroyed the thymus, what would most likely happen?
    • A. 

      His humoral immunity would be missing

    • B. 

      His B cells would be reduced in number and antibodies would not form

    • C. 

      Genetic rearrangement of antigen receptors would not occur

    • D. 

      His cells would lack class I MHC molecules on their surface

    • E. 

      His T cells would not mature and differentiate appropraitely

  • 18. 
    Air rushes into the lungs of humans during inhalation because
    • A. 

      The rib muscles and diaphragm contract, increasing the lung volume

    • B. 

      Pulmonary muscles contract and pull on the outer surface of the lungs

    • C. 

      Gas flows from a region of lower pressure to a region of higher pressure

    • D. 

      Pressure in the alveoli increases

    • E. 

      A positive respiratory pressure is created when the diaphragm reaxes