Bio Exam 2

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  • 1. 
    Which of the following staements provides the strongest evidence that prokaryotoes evolved before eukaryotes?
    • A. 

      The primitive structure of plants

    • B. 

      Meoeorities that have struck earth

    • C. 

      Abiotic laboratory experiments that produced liposomes

    • D. 

      Liposomes closely resemble prokary

    • E. 

      The oldest fossilized cells resemble prokaryotes


  • 2. 
    A taxon, all of whose members have the same common ancestor is
    • A. 

      Paraphyletic

    • B. 

      Polyphletic

    • C. 

      Homophylitic

    • D. 

      Monophylyletic


  • 3. 
    Systematics is concerned with
    • A. 

      Naming organisms

    • B. 

      Studying biological diversity

    • C. 

      Taxonomy

    • D. 

      Tracing phylogeny

    • E. 

      All of the above


  • 4. 
    Different groups of sea weeds can generally be distinguished on the basis of
    • A. 

      Color

    • B. 

      Size

    • C. 

      Whether they are multicellular or unicellular

    • D. 

      Whether or not they have true leaves,stems,and roots

    • E. 

      Whether they are autotrophic or heterotrophic


  • 5. 
    An early consequence of the release or oxygen gas by plant bacterial photosynthesis was to
    • A. 

      Make life on land difficult foe aerobic organisms

    • B. 

      Change the atomosphere from oxidizing to reducing

    • C. 

      Make it easier to maintain reduced molecules

    • D. 

      Cause iron in the ocean water and terrestrial rocks to rust(oxidize)

    • E. 

      Prevent the formation of an ozone layer


  • 6. 
    How do fungi "find" things to eat?
    • A. 

      They produce huge numbers of tiny pores

    • B. 

      They make their own food

    • C. 

      They grow rapidly

    • D. 

      They do all of the above

    • E. 

      They do a and c only


  • 7. 
    There are many similarities between prokayotes called_____ and eukaryotic organisms.
    • A. 

      Arhcaea

    • B. 

      Bacteria

    • C. 

      Protozoa

    • D. 

      Cyanobacteria

    • E. 

      Dinoflagellates


  • 8. 
    Which was least abundant in Earth's early atomosphere prior to 2 billion years ago?
    • A. 

      CO2

    • B. 

      O2

    • C. 

      H2O

    • D. 

      NH3


  • 9. 
    The snowball Earth hypothesis provides a possible explanation for the
    • A. 

      Diversification of animals during the late proterozoic

    • B. 

      Oxygenation of Earth's sea and atmosphere

    • C. 

      Colonization of land by plants and fungi

    • D. 

      Origin of O2-producing photosynthesis

    • E. 

      Existence of prokaryotes around hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor


  • 10. 
    Which of the following is true of eukaryotes?
    • A. 

      They are pathogenic

    • B. 

      They are chemoheterotrophs

    • C. 

      They are archaea

    • D. 

      They are protists

    • E. 

      They are photoautotrophs


  • 11. 
    Two animals in the same family would not have to be in the same 
    • A. 

      Genus

    • B. 

      Domain

    • C. 

      Order

    • D. 

      Phylum


  • 12. 
    Certain dinoflagellates enter the cells ofcoral animals and carry out photosynthesis, producing food for themselves and the coral. This is a lot like
    • A. 

      Formation of biofilm

    • B. 

      Primary endosymbiosis

    • C. 

      Secondary endosymbiosis

    • D. 

      How ancient stromatolites were formed

    • E. 

      Endospore formation


  • 13. 
    When using a cladistics approach to systematics, which ofthe following is considered most important for classification?
    • A. 

      Shared primitive characters

    • B. 

      Analogous primitive characters

    • C. 

      Shared derived characters

    • D. 

      The number of homoplasies

    • E. 

      Overall pheinotypic similarity


  • 14. 
    Which of the following taxa is least closely related to the others?
    • A. 

      Archaea

    • B. 

      Plantae

    • C. 

      Bacteria

    • D. 

      Eukarya

    • E. 

      Animalia


  • 15. 
    If you collected a sample of plankton — floating organisms — from near the ocean surface, you would be unlikely to find which of the following?
    • A. 

      Diatoms

    • B. 

      Cyanobacteria

    • C. 

      Radiolarians

    • D. 

      Forams

    • E. 

      Methanogens


  • 16. 
    When a red tide occurs, huge numbers ofthese microscopic organisms are filtered out of coastal by oysters and clams. This sometimes causes the shellfish to become toxic to people that eat them. The organisms that create the red tide are classified as
    • A. 

      Slime molds.

    • B. 

      Diatoms

    • C. 

      Dinoflagellates.

    • D. 

      Red algae.

    • E. 

      Euglenoids


  • 17. 
    A certain unicellular eukaryote has a siliceous (glasslike) shell and autotrophic nutrition. To whicih group does it belong?
    • A. 

      Dinoflagellates

    • B. 

      Diatoms

    • C. 

      Brown algae

    • D. 

      Radiolarians

    • E. 

      Oomycetes


  • 18. 
    Which of the following is least useful in tracing phylogeny?
    • A. 

      Mitochondrial DNA

    • B. 

      Convergent evolution

    • C. 

      Fossils

    • D. 

      Homologous genes

    • E. 

      Gene duplications


  • 19. 
    As she peered through the microscope, Paige said, “I know that this thing is supposed to be either flagellate, or an amoeba, but I can’t figure out which.” Michelle replied, “That’s easy. . . .“
    • A. 

      “Watch how it moves.”

    • B. 

      “How big is it?”

    • C. 

      “All you have to do is see whether it has a nucleus or not.”

    • D. 

      “Watch what it eats.”

    • E. 

      “Look at its chioroplasts.”


  • 20. 
    Thread-like pseudopods that can perform phagocytosis are generally characteristic of which group
    • A. 

      Radiolarians and forams

    • B. 

      Gymnamoebas

    • C. 

      Arnoeboid stage of cellular slime molds

    • D. 

      Entamoebas


  • 21. 
    Members of this phylum form arbuscular mycorrhizae:  
    • A. 

      Zycomycota

    • B. 

      Ascornycota

    • C. 

      Basidiomycota

    • D. 

      Glomeromycota

    • E. 

      Chvtridiomvcota


  • 22. 
    Which feature of the chytrids supports the hypothesis that they represent the most primitive fungi?
    • A. 

      Flagellated spores

    • B. 

      The absence ofchitin within the cell wall

    • C. 

      Parasitic lifestyle

    • D. 

      Formation ofresistant zygosporangia


  • 23. 
    Cyanobacteria often partner with a fungus as a(n) ________________
    • A. 

      Endophyte

    • B. 

      Lichen

    • C. 

      Mycorrhizae

    • D. 

      Mycosis

    • E. 

      Root nodule


  • 24. 
    You are presented with several single-celled organisms, including one thought to belong to the kingdom Fungi.What unique feature helps you identify the fungus?
    • A. 

      Presence of mitochondria

    • B. 

      Absence of chloroplasts

    • C. 

      Presence of nuclei

    • D. 

      Presence of chitinous cell walls


  • 25. 
    If the mitochondria and chloroplasts in eukaryotic cells resulted from endosymbiosis, what feature(s) might we expect these organelles to contain?
    • A. 

      A plasma membrane, DNA, and robosomes

    • B. 

      Plasma membrane, nucleus, and ribosomes

    • C. 

      Nucleus, DNA, and ribosomes

    • D. 

      A plasma membrane, nucleus, and cilia

    • E. 

      Nucleus, ribosomes, and cilia


  • 26. 
    The greatest number of eukaryotic organisms are
    • A. 

      Vertebrates

    • B. 

      Animals

    • C. 

      Plants

    • D. 

      Protists

    • E. 

      Fungi


  • 27. 
    The body of a fungus is generally composed of 
    • A. 

      Cellulose

    • B. 

      Vascular tissue

    • C. 

      Mycorrihizae

    • D. 

      Mold

    • E. 

      Hypae


  • 28. 
    Your parents are coming to visit so you immediately run to the pantry to throw away the loaf of bread with the black fuzzy stuff on it. What phylum of fungi did you probably just trash?
    • A. 

      Basidiornycota

    • B. 

      Zygomycota

    • C. 

      Ascomycota

    • D. 

      Chyridiomycota


  • 29. 
    Which of the following would make the most suitable outgroup species fòr a cladogram relative to the other species ?
    • A. 

      Frog

    • B. 

      Tuna

    • C. 

      Snake

    • D. 

      Penguin

    • E. 

      Bat


  • 30. 
    Land plants are believed to have evolved from_______
    • A. 

      Green algae

    • B. 

      Fungi

    • C. 

      Lichen

    • D. 

      Bacteria

    • E. 

      Protists


  • 31. 
    Structures that evolved from the same structure in a common ancestor are
    • A. 

      Homologous

    • B. 

      Heterologous

    • C. 

      Analogus

    • D. 

      Homplasis

    • E. 

      Convergent adaptations


  • 32. 
    The process through which species not closely related may come to resemble one another if they live in a similar environment is known as
    • A. 

      Coevolution

    • B. 

      Homology

    • C. 

      Similar evolution

    • D. 

      Convergent evolution

    • E. 

      Paedomorphosis


  • 33. 
    Cave-dwelling catfish and cave-dwelling salamanders share striking similarities: both organisms lack pigmentation and their eyes are reduced or absent. The most recent common ancestor to these organisms had normal pigmentation and fully developed eyes. The similarities between cave catfish and cave salamanders are an example of
    • A. 

      Convergent homology

    • B. 

      Analogy (convergent evolution).

    • C. 

      Homology

    • D. 

      Exaptation

    • E. 

      Coincidental similarity


  • 34. 
    Ever since Darwin, systematics has tried to
    • A. 

      Organize species into groups based on logical categories

    • B. 

      Classify species in groups that reflect evolutionary relationships

    • C. 

      Classify species in groups that predict their characteristics

    • D. 

      Prove the existence of evolution using laboratory experiments

    • E. 

      Keep classification and naming as a practical science, separate from controversies involving evolution.


  • 35. 
    Which of the following options lists taxonomic categories in the correct order from most specific to most general?
    • A. 

      Genus, family, class, order, phylum

    • B. 

      Genus, phylum, family, order, class

    • C. 

      Genus, family, order, class, phylum

    • D. 

      Family, genus, order, phylum, class

    • E. 

      Family, genus, class, order, phylum


  • 36. 
    Which of the following is a role NOT performed by any fungi
    • A. 

      Decomposer

    • B. 

      Parasite

    • C. 

      Predator

    • D. 

      Producer


  • 37. 
    Which of the following taxonomic names includes the fewest number of species?
    • A. 

      Animalia

    • B. 

      Panthera

    • C. 

      Felidae

    • D. 

      Carnivora


  • 38. 
    Animals that possess homologous structures probably_____________
    • A. 

      Evoloved from the same ancestor

    • B. 

      Are headed for extinction

    • C. 

      By chance had similar mutations in the past

    • D. 

      Are not related

    • E. 

      Have increased genetic diversity


  • 39. 
    The worldwide die-off of frogs has been traced to infection by what type of fungus?
    • A. 

      Basidiomycetes

    • B. 

      Ascomycetes

    • C. 

      Zygomycetes

    • D. 

      Imperfect fungi

    • E. 

      Chytrids


  • 40. 
    The science of naming and classifying organisms is called:
    • A. 

      Biology

    • B. 

      Phylogeny

    • C. 

      Genectics

    • D. 

      Taxonomy

    • E. 

      Parisimony


  • 41. 
    Most Prokaryotes
    • A. 

      Obtain energy from sunlight and carbon from organic compounds

    • B. 

      Obtain both energy and carbon from inorganic compounds

    • C. 

      Obtain energy from inorganic compounds and carbon from CO2

    • D. 

      Obtain energy from sunlight and carbon from CO2

    • E. 

      Obtain both energy and carbon from organic compounds


  • 42. 
    The largest seaweeds belong to which group?
    • A. 

      Red algae

    • B. 

      Green algae

    • C. 

      Brown algae

    • D. 

      Golden algae

    • E. 

      Blue algae


  • 43. 
    Which of the following taxonomic categories contains all the others?
    • A. 

      Genus

    • B. 

      Class

    • C. 

      Family

    • D. 

      Subclass

    • E. 

      Order


  • 44. 
    _________ and ___________ mean the same thing.
    • A. 

      Clade. . . parsimony

    • B. 

      Parsimony. . . analogy

    • C. 

      Clade. . . monophyletic taxon

    • D. 

      Derived. . . ancestral

    • E. 

      Derived. . . outgroup


  • 45. 
    In mammals, the presence of four limbs is ________ and hair is______. 
    • A. 

      An optional feature . . . a required feature

    • B. 

      A shared dervived character...a shared ancestral character that places mammals in the tetrapod clade

    • C. 

      A shared ancestral character . . . a shared derived character unique to mammals

    • D. 

      A homologous feature . . . an analogous feature

    • E. 

      Monophyletic . . . parsimonious


  • 46. 
    A systematist includes a lizard in a phylogenetic analysis of relationships among bird families. In this analysis, the lizard would be treated as
    • A. 

      The ingroup

    • B. 

      The outgroup

    • C. 

      A derived group

    • D. 

      An analogous group

    • E. 

      An independent origin of avian traits


  • 47. 
    A(n) ________ has been used to estimate that HIV-1 M first spread to humans in the 1930s.
    • A. 

      Parsimony analysis

    • B. 

      Cladistic method

    • C. 

      Epidermiological study

    • D. 

      Outgroup comparison

    • E. 

      Molecular clock


  • 48. 
    The three-domain system
    • A. 

      No longer recognizes eukaryotes as a monophyletic group

    • B. 

      Subdivides the eukaryotes into two different domains

    • C. 

      Subdivides the prokaryotes into two different domains.

    • D. 

      Separates plants, animals, and fungi into domains

    • E. 

      Is based upon the presence or absence of cell walls.


  • 49. 
    An organism has a relatively large number of Hox genes in its genome. Which of the following is not true of this organism?
    • A. 

      It evolved from evolutionary ancestors that had fewer Hox genes

    • B. 

      It must have multiple paired appendages along the length of its body

    • C. 

      It has the genetic potential to have a relatively complex anatomy

    • D. 

      . At least some of its lox genes owe their existence to gene duplication events.

    • E. 

      Its Hox genes cooperated to produce the positional patterns ofthis organism as it developed.


  • 50. 
    . All organisms called “algae” are
    • A. 

      Unicellular

    • B. 

      Autotrophic

    • C. 

      Prokaryotic

    • D. 

      Multicellular


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