Anatomy & Physiology - Final Exam (respiratory, Renal, & Reproduction)

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Anatomy & Physiology - Final Exam (Respiratory, Renal, & Reproduction)
Bob Beregowitz

  
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1.  Which of the following muscles move the testes towards the body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
2.  The average length of the uterine cycle is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
3.  A boy has a genetic mutation such that FSH is not produced, but LH is normal. After the boy grows to maturity, it is likely he will
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
4.  If the dorsal respiratory group of neurons in the medulla oblongata were destroyed bilaterally,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
5.  The U-shaped segment of the nephron is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
6.  Each of the following is a normal constituent of urine, except .
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
7.  The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in venous blood is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
8.  Where in the male reproductive system would you expect to find the most mature spermatozoa?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
9. 
Identify the structure labeled "5."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
10.  The structure known as the juxtaglomerular apparatus is located near the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
11.  At a PO2 of 70 mm Hg and normal temperature and pH, hemoglobin is ________ percent saturated with oxygen.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
12.  The primary role of FSH in males is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
13.  Which of the following would be greater?
A.
B.
C.
14.  Which of these components of the nephron is largely confined to the renal medulla?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
15.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term endometrium?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
16.  Which of the following muscles might be recruited to increase inspired volume?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
17.  The obstructive lung disease in which elastic fibers are lost, leading to collapse of alveoli and bronchioles, is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
18.  Which of the following is greater?
A.
B.
19.  Stimulation of the apneustic center would result in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
20.  A mature follicle releases an ovum in response to a surge in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
21.  One mechanism the kidney uses to raise systemic blood pressure is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
22.  When the level of ADH (antidiuretic hormone) decreases,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
23. 
Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: What pressure will be present in the space labeled "5"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
24. 
Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: What is the relationship between the pressures at label "3
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
25.  What is the function of gonads?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
26.  Tubular reabsorption involves all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
27.  ________ equals the respiratory rate × (tidal volume - anatomic dead space).
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
28.  Blocking afferent action potentials from the chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies would interfere with the brain's ability to regulate breathing in response to
A.
B.
C.
D.
29.  The spermatic cord is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
30. 
Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "11."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
31. 
Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: Which muscle(s) produce(s) the movement labeled "1"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
32. 
Where does most nutrient reabsorption occur?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
33. 
Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "10."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
34.  Substances secreted by the distal convoluted tubule include
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
35.  Alveolar ventilation refers to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
36.  The granulosa cells of developing follicles secrete
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
37.  ________ is the amount of air that moves into the respiratory system during a single respiratory cycle under resting conditions.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
38.  During the secretory phase of the uterine cycle
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
39.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term nephron loop (loop of Henle)?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
40.  Antidiuretic hormone
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
41.  Approximately ________ liters of glomerular filtrate enter glomerular capsules each day.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
42.  The partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
43.  The dense layer of connective tissue that surrounds the testis is called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
44.  The organ that delivers semen into the female reproductive tract is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
45.  Most of the carbon dioxide in the blood is transported as
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
46. 
Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: What is the relationship between the pressures at label "8"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
47.  Which of the following is greatest?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
48.  Inward projections of the tunica albuginea, known as septa, divide the testis into
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
49.  Follicle-stimulating hormone
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
50.  The most important chemical regulator of respiration is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
51.  ________ is the amount of air that you can inhale above the resting tidal volume.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
52.  The majority of glomeruli are located in the ________ of the kidney.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
53.  Each 100 ml of blood leaving the alveolar capillaries carries away roughly ________ ml of oxygen.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
54.  What percentage of nutrients (glucose, amino acids, etc) are reabsorbed in the PCT?
A.
B.
C.
D.
55.  Which of these age-based changes is false?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
56.  A sample of a woman's blood is analyzed for reproductive hormone levels. The results indicate a high level of progesterone, relatively high levels of inhibin, and low levels of FSH and LH. The female is most likely experiencing ________ of the uterine cycle.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
57.  The principal hormone secreted by the corpus luteum is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
58.  During the menses
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
59.  The mechanism for producing concentrated urine involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
60.  On which of the following days would the level of GnRH be highest in a female?
A.
B.
C.
D.
61.  The organ that is posterior to the urinary bladder is (are) the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
62.  Autoregulation of the rate of glomerular filtration has which of the following properties?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
63. 
Where does countercurrent multiplication occur?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
64.  Functions of the accessory glands of the male reproductive system include all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
65.  The renal sinus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
66.  The organ that surrounds the urethra and produces an alkaline secretion is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
67.  A male bodybuilder starts taking injections of testosterone (an anabolic steroid) on a daily basis. After 3 weeks, which of the following would you expect to observe?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
68.  A 10 percent increase in the level of carbon dioxide in the blood will
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
69.  Major calyces are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
70.  Pulmonary ventilation refers to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
71. 
Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "4."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
72.  In response to increased levels of aldosterone, the kidneys produce
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
73.  This is the structure that ruptures during ovulation.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
74.  The ________ connect the seminiferous tubules to the epididymis.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
75.  Which statement about the chloride shift is false?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
76.  In emphysema, which of these occur?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
77.  Substances larger than ________ do not pass through the filtration membrane.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
78.  For erection to occur
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
79.  The filtrate first passes from the glomerular capsule to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
80.  Spermatozoa are functionally matured within the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
81. 
Identify the structure labeled "6."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
82.  For maximum loading of hemoglobin with oxygen at the lungs, the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
83.  The pituitary hormone that stimulates the interstitial cells to secrete testosterone is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
84.  Which of the following is greater?
A.
B.
85.  The portion of the nephron that empties into the collecting duct is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
86.  Arrange the four structures listed below into the order in which sperm pass from the testis to the urethral meatus.
  1. ductus deferens
  2. urethra
  3. ejaculatory duct
  4. epididymis
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
87.  Sperm production occurs in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
88.  The primary follicle develops from the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
89.  Which of the following formulas will allow you to calculate the net filtration pressure (FP)? (Hint: GHP = glomerular hydrostatic pressure, BCOP = blood colloidal osmotic pressure, CsHP = capsular hydrostatic pressure.)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
90.  Each of the following factors affects the rate of external respiration, except the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
91.  The cavity of the kidney that receives urine from the calyces is called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
92. 
Identify the structure labeled "10."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
93.  Chloride ion is reabsorbed in the thick ascending limb by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
94.  Contraction of the dartos muscle
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
95.  A rise in the blood levels of follicle-stimulating hormone at the beginning of the ovarian cycle is responsible for
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
96.  Which is the function of the ovaries?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
97.  Sperm are moved along the ductus deferens by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
98.  Which of the following is greater?
A.
B.
C.
99.  Asthma is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
100.  The condition resulting from inadequate production of surfactant and the resultant collapse of alveoli is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
101.  The small paired structures at the base of the penis that secrete a thick, alkaline mucus are the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
102.  The inflation reflex
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
103.  Under quiet conditions, blood returning to the heart retains about ________ of its oxygen content when it leaves the lungs.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
104.  Nurse cells
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
105.  The partial pressure of oxygen in the interstitial space of peripheral tissues is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
106. 
Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "3."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
107.  The paired erectile bodies in the penis are the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
108.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term calyx?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
109.  The organ that monitors and adjusts the composition of tubular fluid, recycles damaged spermatozoa, and is the site of sperm maturation is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
110.  When there is no air movement, the relationship between the intrapulmonary and atmospheric pressure is that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
111.  Expiratory movements are produced by contraction of the ________ muscle(s).
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
112.  Contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscles result in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
113.  The term hypercapnia refers to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
114.  Secondary sexual characteristics
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
115.  The male reproductive system is most closely associated with which of the following systems?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
116.  Glomerular (Bowman's) capsule and the glomerulus make up the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
117.  Which of the following would be greater?
A.
B.
C.
118.  Which of the following factors would increase the amount of oxygen discharged by hemoglobin to peripheral tissues?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
119.  Triangular or conical structures located in the renal medulla are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
120.  Increased sympathetic tone can do all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
121.  The erectile tissue that surrounds the urethra is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
122.  The surge in luteinizing hormone that occurs during the middle of the ovarian cycle triggers
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
123.  External respiration involves the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
124. 
Identify the structure labeled "9."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
125.  If a patient being tested inhales as deeply as possible and then exhales as much as possible, the volume of air expelled would be the patient's
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
126.  The glomeruli are best described as being tufts of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
127. 
Identify the structure labeled "8."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
128.  Which of the following occurs after a spermatogonium completes cell division?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
129.  In quiet breathing,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
130. 
Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: What is produced by the structure labeled "7"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
131.  The pneumotaxic center of the pons
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
132.  Boyle's law states that gas volume is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
133.  The expanded beginning of the ureter connects to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
134.  Renal columns are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
135.  The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the interstitial space of peripheral tissues is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
136. 
Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: Which muscle(s) contract(s) to cause the movement indicated by the arrows labeled "6" and "7"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
137.  A patient with a connective tissue disease experiences increased pulmonary vascular resistance. Over a period of time you would expect to observe v
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
138.  When the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
139.  The reproductive system includes
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
140.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term renal papilla?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
141.  The primary function of the proximal convoluted tubule is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
142.  The process of filtration occurs at
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
143.  The unit of measurement for pressure preferred by many respiratory therapists is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
144.  Which of the following statements about the uterine cycle is true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
145.  The function of pulmonary ventilation is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
146. 
What physiological process occurs at the structure labeled "2"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
147.  The pneumotaxic center
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
148.  Carbon dioxide is more soluble in water than oxygen. To get the same amount of oxygen to dissolve in plasma as carbon dioxide, you would have to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
149.  A patient excretes a large volume of very dilute urine on a continuing basis. This is may be due to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
150.  As the filtrate passes through the renal tubules, approximately what percentage is reabsorbed and returned to the circulation?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
151.  The normal rate and depth of breathing is established by the ________ center.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
152.  The apneustic centers of the pons
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
153.  The organ that carries sperm from the epididymis to the urethra is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
154.  Carbonic anhydrase
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
155.  Each of the following statements concerning oogenesis is true, except that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
156.  Prolonged deep inspirations can result from stimulating the ________ center.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
157.  The uterine phase that develops because of a fall in progesterone levels is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
158.  During the proliferative phase of the uterine cycle,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
159.  Secretion of hydrogen ion by the DCT is by the process of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
160.  The external marking of the boundary between the two testes is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
161.  The process of filtration is driven by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
162.  A glomerulus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
163.  The fold of skin that covers the glans penis is the
A.