Anatomy & Physiology - Final Exam (respiratory, Renal, & Reproduction)

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 Anatomy & Physiology - Final Exam (respiratory, Renal, & Reproduction)
Bob Beregowitz

  
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1.  Boyle's law states that gas volume is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
2.  Pulmonary ventilation refers to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
3.  The function of pulmonary ventilation is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
4.  The unit of measurement for pressure preferred by many respiratory therapists is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
5.  Which of the following is greater?
A.
B.
6.  Boyle's Law of Gases states that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
7.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: Which muscle(s) produce(s) the movement labeled "1"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
8.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: What is the relationship between the pressures at label "3
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
9.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: What pressure will be present in the space labeled "5"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
10.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: What is the relationship between the pressures at label "8"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
11.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: Which muscle(s) contract(s) to cause the movement indicated by the arrows labeled "6" and "7"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
12.  Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
13.  When there is no air movement, the relationship between the intrapulmonary and atmospheric pressure is that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
14.  Which of the following muscles might be recruited to increase inspired volume?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
15.  Expiratory movements are produced by contraction of the ________ muscle(s).
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
16.  When the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
17.  Which of these descriptions best matches the term external intercostal?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
18.  ________ is the amount of air that moves into the respiratory system during a single respiratory cycle under resting conditions.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
19.  ________ is the amount of air that you can inhale above the resting tidal volume.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
20.  In quiet breathing,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
21.  If a patient being tested inhales as deeply as possible and then exhales as much as possible, the volume of air expelled would be the patient's
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
22.  Alveolar ventilation refers to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
23.  Increasing the alveolar ventilation rate will
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
24.  ________ equals the respiratory rate × (tidal volume - anatomic dead space).
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
25.  Which of the following can be calculated if the tidal volume and respiratory rate are known?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
26.  Henry's law states that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
27.  Dalton's law states that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
28.  The partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
29.  The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in venous blood is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
30.  The partial pressure of oxygen in the interstitial space of peripheral tissues is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
31.  The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the interstitial space of peripheral tissues is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
32.  The process by which dissolved gases are exchanged between the blood and interstitial fluids is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
33.  Which of the following is greatest?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
34.  Each of the following factors affects the rate of external respiration, except the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
35.  External respiration involves the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
36.  Carbon dioxide is more soluble in water than oxygen. To get the same amount of oxygen to dissolve in plasma as carbon dioxide, you would have to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
37.  At a PO2 of 70 mm Hg and normal temperature and pH, hemoglobin is ________ percent saturated with oxygen.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
38.  Most of the oxygen transported by the blood is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
39.  Each 100 ml of blood leaving the alveolar capillaries carries away roughly ________ ml of oxygen.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
40.  Under quiet conditions, blood returning to the heart retains about ________ of its oxygen content when it leaves the lungs.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
41.  Which of the following would be greater?
A.
B.
C.
42.  Which of the following would be greater?
A.
B.
C.
43.  Low pH alters hemoglobin structure so that oxygen binds less strongly to hemoglobin at low PO2. This increases the effectiveness of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
44.  Which of the following factors would increase the amount of oxygen discharged by hemoglobin to peripheral tissues?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
45.  For maximum loading of hemoglobin with oxygen at the lungs, the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
46.  Most of the carbon dioxide in the blood is transported as
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
47.  Carbonic anhydrase
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
48.  Which statement about the chloride shift is false?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
49.  The condition resulting from inadequate production of surfactant and the resultant collapse of alveoli is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
50.  Asthma is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
51.  The obstructive lung disease in which elastic fibers are lost, leading to collapse of alveoli and bronchioles, is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
52.  A patient with a connective tissue disease experiences increased pulmonary vascular resistance. Over a period of time you would expect to observe v
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
53.  In emphysema, which of these occur?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
54.  The normal rate and depth of breathing is established by the ________ center.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
55.  Prolonged deep inspirations can result from stimulating the ________ center.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
56.  The pneumotaxic center of the pons
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
57.  Higher brain centers that alter the activity of the respiratory centers include all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
58.  The apneustic centers of the pons
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
59.  Stimulation of the apneustic center would result in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
60.  If the dorsal respiratory group of neurons in the medulla oblongata were destroyed bilaterally,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
61.  The pneumotaxic center
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
62.  Pneumotaxic centers in the pons
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
63.  The most important chemical regulator of respiration is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
64.  A 10 percent increase in the level of carbon dioxide in the blood will
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
65.  Blocking afferent action potentials from the chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies would interfere with the brain's ability to regulate breathing in response to
A.
B.
C.
D.
66.  The term hypercapnia refers to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
67.  The inflation reflex
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
68.  All of the following provide chemoreceptor input to the respiratory centers of the medulla oblongata, except the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
69.  Which of these age-based changes is false?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
70.  The renal sinus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
71.  The outermost layer of the kidney is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
72.  The cavity of the kidney that receives urine from the calyces is called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
73.  Triangular or conical structures located in the renal medulla are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
74.  Renal columns are
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B.
C.
D.
E.
75.  The expanded beginning of the ureter connects to the
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B.
C.
D.
E.
76.  Major calyces are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
77.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term renal papilla?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
78.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term calyx?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
79.  Identify the structure labeled "9."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
80.  Identify the structure labeled "10."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
81.  Identify the structure labeled "6."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
82.  Identify the structure labeled "8."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
83.  Identify the structure labeled "5."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
84.  The majority of glomeruli are located in the ________ of the kidney.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
85.  Which of these components of the nephron is largely confined to the renal medulla?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
86.  Glomerular (Bowman's) capsule and the glomerulus make up the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
87.  A glomerulus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
88.  The filtrate first passes from the glomerular capsule to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
89.  The portion of the nephron that empties into the collecting duct is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
90.  The U-shaped segment of the nephron is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
91.  The primary function of the proximal convoluted tubule is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
92.  The glomeruli are best described as being tufts of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
93.  The ________ delivers urine to a minor calyx.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
94.  Each of the following is a normal constituent of urine, except .
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
95.  Substances secreted by the distal convoluted tubule include
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
96.  The process of filtration occurs at
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
97.  Approximately ________ liters of glomerular filtrate enter glomerular capsules each day.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
98.  What physiological process occurs at the structure labeled "2"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
99.  Where does countercurrent multiplication occur?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
100.  Where does most nutrient reabsorption occur?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
101.  Which area is sensitive to the hormone ADH?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
102.  The filtration barrier in the renal corpuscle consists of three layers:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
103.  The structure known as the juxtaglomerular apparatus is located near the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
104.  Substances larger than ________ do not pass through the filtration membrane.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
105.  The process of filtration is driven by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
106.  Under normal conditions, glomerular filtration depends on three main pressures. Which of those pressures is a pressure that favors the filtration pressure?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
107.  Which of the following formulas will allow you to calculate the net filtration pressure (FP)? (Hint: GHP = glomerular hydrostatic pressure, BCOP = blood colloidal osmotic pressure, CsHP = capsular hydrostatic pressure.)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
108.  Autoregulation of the rate of glomerular filtration has which of the following properties?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
109.  One mechanism the kidney uses to raise systemic blood pressure is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
110.  Increased sympathetic tone can do all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
111.  As the filtrate passes through the renal tubules, approximately what percentage is reabsorbed and returned to the circulation?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
112.  Tubular reabsorption involves all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
113.  What percentage of nutrients (glucose, amino acids, etc) are reabsorbed in the PCT?
A.
B.
C.
D.
114.  Secretion of hydrogen ion by the DCT is by the process of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
115.  In response to increased levels of aldosterone, the kidneys produce
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
116.  Chloride ion is reabsorbed in the thick ascending limb by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
117.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term nephron loop (loop of Henle)?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
118.  Which of the following is greater?
A.
B.
C.
119.  When the level of ADH (antidiuretic hormone) decreases,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
120.  The ability to form concentrated urine depends on the functions of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
121.  Antidiuretic hormone
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
122.  The mechanism for producing concentrated urine involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
123.  A patient excretes a large volume of very dilute urine on a continuing basis. This is may be due to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
124.  What is the function of gonads?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
125.  Inward projections of the tunica albuginea, known as septa, divide the testis into
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
126.  The reproductive system includes
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
127.  Which of the following muscles move the testes towards the body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
128.  The external marking of the boundary between the two testes is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
129.  The spermatic cord is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
130.  The dense layer of connective tissue that surrounds the testis is called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
131.  The male reproductive system is most closely associated with which of the following systems?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
132.  The ________ connect the seminiferous tubules to the epididymis.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
133.  Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "11."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
134.  Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "3."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
135.  Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "4."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
136.  Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "10."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
137.  Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: What is produced by the structure labeled "7"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
138.  Contraction of the cremaster muscles
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
139.  Contraction of the dartos muscle
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
140.  Which of the following occurs after a spermatogonium completes cell division?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
141.  Interstitial cells produce
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
142.  Sperm production occurs in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
143.  Nurse cells
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
144.  Arrange the four structures listed below into the order in which sperm pass from the testis to the urethral meatus.
  1. ductus deferens
  2. urethra
  3. ejaculatory duct
  4. epididymis
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
145.  The small paired structures at the base of the penis that secrete a thick, alkaline mucus are the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
146.  Spermatozoa are functionally matured within the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
147.  The organ that surrounds the urethra and produces an alkaline secretion is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
148.  The organ that monitors and adjusts the composition of tubular fluid, recycles damaged spermatozoa, and is the site of sperm maturation is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
149.  The organ that carries sperm from the epididymis to the urethra is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
150.  The organ that is posterior to the urinary bladder is (are) the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
151.  Where in the male reproductive system would you expect to find the most mature spermatozoa?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
152.  Functions of the accessory glands of the male reproductive system include all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
153.  Sperm are moved along the ductus deferens by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
154.  Contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscles result in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
155.  For erection to occur
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
156.  The organ that delivers semen into the female reproductive tract is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
157.  The fold of skin that covers the glans penis is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
158.  The erectile tissue that surrounds the urethra is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
159.  The paired erectile bodies in the penis are the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
160.  Emission and ejaculation
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
161.  The primary role of FSH in males is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
162.  The pituitary hormone that stimulates the interstitial cells to secrete testosterone is
A.
B.
C.
D.