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Anatomy & Physiology - Final Exam (respiratory, Renal, & Reproduction)

190 Questions  I  By Seres21e
Anatomy & Physiology - Final Exam (Respiratory, Renal, & Reproduction)
Bob Beregowitz

  
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1.  Glomerular (Bowman's) capsule and the glomerulus make up the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
2.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term calyx?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
3.  Most of the oxygen transported by the blood is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
4.  Identify the structure labeled "8."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
5.  Increasing the alveolar ventilation rate will
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
6.  The external marking of the boundary between the two testes is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
7.  The principal hormone secreted by the corpus luteum is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
8.  Blocking afferent action potentials from the chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies would interfere with the brain's ability to regulate breathing in response to
A.
B.
C.
D.
9.  ________ is the amount of air that you can inhale above the resting tidal volume.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
10.  If the dorsal respiratory group of neurons in the medulla oblongata were destroyed bilaterally,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
11.  In emphysema, which of these occur?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
12.  The granulosa cells of developing follicles secrete
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
13.  The organ that monitors and adjusts the composition of tubular fluid, recycles damaged spermatozoa, and is the site of sperm maturation is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
14.  Which of these components of the nephron is largely confined to the renal medulla?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
15.  Boyle's Law of Gases states that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
16.  When the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
17.  The glomeruli are best described as being tufts of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
18.  The expanded beginning of the ureter connects to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
19.  For maximum loading of hemoglobin with oxygen at the lungs, the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
20.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term renal papilla?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
21.  ________ equals the respiratory rate × (tidal volume - anatomic dead space).
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
22.  Which of these descriptions best matches the term external intercostal?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
23.  The small paired structures at the base of the penis that secrete a thick, alkaline mucus are the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
24.  In response to increased levels of aldosterone, the kidneys produce
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
25.  Secretion of hydrogen ion by the DCT is by the process of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
26.  The filtrate first passes from the glomerular capsule to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
27.  Sperm cannot fertilize an ovum unless it has been in the female reproductive tract for several hours. This enhanced ability of the sperm to fertilize the ovum is called capacitation. In vitro studies indicate that freshly ejaculated sperm can fertilize the ovum if they are first rinsed in salt solution before being introduced to the ovum. These observations suggest that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
28.  Carbonic anhydrase
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
29.  The portion of the nephron that empties into the collecting duct is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
30.  As the filtrate passes through the renal tubules, approximately what percentage is reabsorbed and returned to the circulation?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
31.  Identify the structure labeled "6."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
32.  Low pH alters hemoglobin structure so that oxygen binds less strongly to hemoglobin at low PO2. This increases the effectiveness of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
33.  Triangular or conical structures located in the renal medulla are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
34.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term endometrium?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
35.  The partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
36.  The apneustic centers of the pons
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
37.  The primary function of the proximal convoluted tubule is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
38.  Pneumotaxic centers in the pons
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
39.  Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: What is produced by the structure labeled "7"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
40.  Chloride ion is reabsorbed in the thick ascending limb by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
41.  During the menses
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
42.  A patient with a connective tissue disease experiences increased pulmonary vascular resistance. Over a period of time you would expect to observe v
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
43.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: What pressure will be present in the space labeled "5"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
44.  Which statement about the chloride shift is false?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
45.  Each of the following factors affects the rate of external respiration, except the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
46.  Henry's law states that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
47.  ________ is the amount of air that moves into the respiratory system during a single respiratory cycle under resting conditions.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
48.  Autoregulation of the rate of glomerular filtration has which of the following properties?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
49.  The organ that delivers semen into the female reproductive tract is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
50.  The function of pulmonary ventilation is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
51.  Each of the following statements concerning oogenesis is true, except that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
52.  Which of the following would be greater?
A.
B.
C.
53.  Which of the following can be calculated if the tidal volume and respiratory rate are known?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
54.  The outermost layer of the kidney is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
55.  Which of the following factors would increase the amount of oxygen discharged by hemoglobin to peripheral tissues?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
56.  Renal columns are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
57.  Follicle-stimulating hormone
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
58.  The organ that is posterior to the urinary bladder is (are) the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
59.  The U-shaped segment of the nephron is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
60.  Which of the following muscles might be recruited to increase inspired volume?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
61.  Each of the following is a normal constituent of urine, except .
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
62.  The pneumotaxic center of the pons
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
63.  Inward projections of the tunica albuginea, known as septa, divide the testis into
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
64.  The inflation reflex
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
65.  Alveolar ventilation refers to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
66.  Which of the following is greater?
A.
B.
67.  Which of the following is greater?
A.
B.
C.
68.  This is the structure that ruptures during ovulation.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
69.  Prolonged deep inspirations can result from stimulating the ________ center.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
70.  Testosterone is secreted by the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
71.  When the level of ADH (antidiuretic hormone) decreases,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
72.  Under normal conditions, glomerular filtration depends on three main pressures. Which of those pressures is a pressure that favors the filtration pressure?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
73.  The termination of the uterine cycle at age 45-55 is called ________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
74.  Dalton's law states that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
75.  Each 100 ml of blood leaving the alveolar capillaries carries away roughly ________ ml of oxygen.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
76.  Which of these age-based changes is false?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
77.  The primary role of FSH in males is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
78.  In quiet breathing,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
79.  Expiratory movements are produced by contraction of the ________ muscle(s).
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
80.  When there is no air movement, the relationship between the intrapulmonary and atmospheric pressure is that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
81.  What is the function of gonads?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
82.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: Which muscle(s) produce(s) the movement labeled "1"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
83.  A rise in the blood levels of follicle-stimulating hormone at the beginning of the ovarian cycle is responsible for
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
84.  The surge in luteinizing hormone that occurs during the middle of the ovarian cycle triggers
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
85.  Approximately ________ liters of glomerular filtrate enter glomerular capsules each day.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
86.  The majority of glomeruli are located in the ________ of the kidney.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
87.  Asthma is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
88.  A sample of a woman's blood is analyzed for reproductive hormone levels. The results indicate a high level of progesterone, relatively high levels of inhibin, and low levels of FSH and LH. The female is most likely experiencing ________ of the uterine cycle.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
89.  During the proliferative phase of the uterine cycle,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
90.  A boy has a genetic mutation such that FSH is not produced, but LH is normal. After the boy grows to maturity, it is likely he will
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
91.  Major calyces are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
92.  The pneumotaxic center
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
93.  The paired erectile bodies in the penis are the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
94.  External respiration involves the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
95.  Most of the carbon dioxide in the blood is transported as
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
96.  During the secretory phase of the uterine cycle
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
97.  What percentage of nutrients (glucose, amino acids, etc) are reabsorbed in the PCT?
A.
B.
C.
D.
98.  The normal rate and depth of breathing is established by the ________ center.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
99.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: What is the relationship between the pressures at label "8"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
100.  The reproductive system includes
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
101.  Which of the following muscles move the testes towards the body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
102.  Contraction of the cremaster muscles
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
103.  Secondary sexual characteristics
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
104.  At a PO2 of 70 mm Hg and normal temperature and pH, hemoglobin is ________ percent saturated with oxygen.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
105.  Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "3."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
106.  Substances secreted by the distal convoluted tubule include
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
107.  After ovulation, the ovary secretes
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
108.  The process by which dissolved gases are exchanged between the blood and interstitial fluids is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
109.  Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
110.  A patient excretes a large volume of very dilute urine on a continuing basis. This is may be due to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
111.  Pulmonary ventilation refers to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
112.  Nurse cells
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
113.  Carbon dioxide is more soluble in water than oxygen. To get the same amount of oxygen to dissolve in plasma as carbon dioxide, you would have to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
114.  Which of the following is greatest?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
115.  The spermatic cord is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
116.  Contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscles result in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
117.  Spermatozoa are functionally matured within the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
118.  Which of the following is greater?
A.
B.
119.  Sperm production occurs in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
120.  Increased sympathetic tone can do all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
121.  The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in venous blood is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
122.  Higher brain centers that alter the activity of the respiratory centers include all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
123.  What physiological process occurs at the structure labeled "2"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
124.  The process of filtration is driven by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
125.  One mechanism the kidney uses to raise systemic blood pressure is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
126.  All of the following provide chemoreceptor input to the respiratory centers of the medulla oblongata, except the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
127.  The primary follicle develops from the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
128.  The term hypercapnia refers to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
129.  The most important chemical regulator of respiration is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
130.  The unit of measurement for pressure preferred by many respiratory therapists is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
131.  Identify the structure labeled "5."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
132.  The average length of the uterine cycle is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
133.  Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "11."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
134.  The ________ delivers urine to a minor calyx.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
135.  Functions of the accessory glands of the male reproductive system include all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
136.  A male bodybuilder starts taking injections of testosterone (an anabolic steroid) on a daily basis. After 3 weeks, which of the following would you expect to observe?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
137.  The pituitary hormone that stimulates the interstitial cells to secrete testosterone is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
138.  Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "4."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
139.  The obstructive lung disease in which elastic fibers are lost, leading to collapse of alveoli and bronchioles, is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
140.  The partial pressure of oxygen in the interstitial space of peripheral tissues is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
141.  The male reproductive system is most closely associated with which of the following systems?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
142.  The uterine phase that develops because of a fall in progesterone levels is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
143.  Sperm are moved along the ductus deferens by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
144.  The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the interstitial space of peripheral tissues is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
145.  Emission and ejaculation
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
146.  The structure known as the juxtaglomerular apparatus is located near the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
147.  Identify the structure labeled "9."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
148.  The organ that surrounds the urethra and produces an alkaline secretion is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
149.  Tubular reabsorption involves all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
150.  The ability to form concentrated urine depends on the functions of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
151.  A mature follicle releases an ovum in response to a surge in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
152.  Which of the following would be greater?
A.
B.
C.
153.  The cavity of the kidney that receives urine from the calyces is called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
154.  Which is the function of the ovaries?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
155.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term nephron loop (loop of Henle)?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
156.  The mechanism for producing concentrated urine involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
157.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: Which muscle(s) contract(s) to cause the movement indicated by the arrows labeled "6" and "7"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
158.  A 10 percent increase in the level of carbon dioxide in the blood will
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
159.  A glomerulus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
160.  For erection to occur
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
161.  The process of filtration occurs at
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
162.  The condition resulting from inadequate production of surfactant and the resultant collapse of alveoli is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
163.  Antidiuretic hormone
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
164.  The erectile tissue that surrounds the urethra is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
165.  Which of the following statements about the uterine cycle is true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
166.  Boyle's law states that gas volume is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
167.  Interstitial cells produce
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
168.  Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "10."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
169.  Which of the following formulas will allow you to calculate the net filtration pressure (FP)? (Hint: GHP = glomerular hydrostatic pressure, BCOP = blood colloidal osmotic pressure, CsHP = capsular hydrostatic pressure.)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
170.  Under quiet conditions, blood returning to the heart retains about ________ of its oxygen content when it leaves the lungs.
A.
B.
C.
D. <