Anatomy & Physiology - Final Exam (respiratory, Renal, & Reproduction)

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Anatomy & Physiology - Final Exam (Respiratory, Renal, & Reproduction)
Bob Beregowitz

  
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1.  Secretion of hydrogen ion by the DCT is by the process of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
2. 
Identify the structure labeled "6."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
3.  Most of the oxygen transported by the blood is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
4. 
Identify the structure labeled "8."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
5.  Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
6.  The filtration barrier in the renal corpuscle consists of three layers:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
7.  If a patient being tested inhales as deeply as possible and then exhales as much as possible, the volume of air expelled would be the patient's
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
8.  The fold of skin that covers the glans penis is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
9. 
Identify the structure labeled "5."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
10.  The average length of the uterine cycle is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
11.  Testosterone is secreted by the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
12.  Spermatozoa are functionally matured within the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
13.  The apneustic centers of the pons
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
14.  External respiration involves the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
15.  Interstitial cells produce
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
16.  The pneumotaxic center of the pons
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
17.  Expiratory movements are produced by contraction of the ________ muscle(s).
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
18.  A patient with a connective tissue disease experiences increased pulmonary vascular resistance. Over a period of time you would expect to observe v
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
19.  The erectile tissue that surrounds the urethra is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
20.  Contraction of the cremaster muscles
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
21.  The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the interstitial space of peripheral tissues is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
22.  The process by which dissolved gases are exchanged between the blood and interstitial fluids is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
23.  Which of the following statements about the uterine cycle is true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
24.  The U-shaped segment of the nephron is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
25.  A 10 percent increase in the level of carbon dioxide in the blood will
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
26.  For maximum loading of hemoglobin with oxygen at the lungs, the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
27.  On which of the following days would the level of GnRH be highest in a female?
A.
B.
C.
D.
28.  Carbon dioxide is more soluble in water than oxygen. To get the same amount of oxygen to dissolve in plasma as carbon dioxide, you would have to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
29.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term calyx?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
30. 
Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "10."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
31.  Inward projections of the tunica albuginea, known as septa, divide the testis into
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
32.  This is the structure that ruptures during ovulation.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
33.  ________ is the amount of air that moves into the respiratory system during a single respiratory cycle under resting conditions.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
34.  The organ that carries sperm from the epididymis to the urethra is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
35.  Prolonged deep inspirations can result from stimulating the ________ center.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
36.  The spermatic cord is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
37.  Which statement about the chloride shift is false?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
38. 
Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: What is the relationship between the pressures at label "3
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
39.  The small paired structures at the base of the penis that secrete a thick, alkaline mucus are the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
40.  The obstructive lung disease in which elastic fibers are lost, leading to collapse of alveoli and bronchioles, is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
41.  Which of the following is greatest?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
42.  The primary follicle develops from the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
43.  A boy has a genetic mutation such that FSH is not produced, but LH is normal. After the boy grows to maturity, it is likely he will
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
44.  Which of these components of the nephron is largely confined to the renal medulla?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
45. 
Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: Which muscle(s) produce(s) the movement labeled "1"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
46.  Which of the following would be greater?
A.
B.
C.
47.  One mechanism the kidney uses to raise systemic blood pressure is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
48.  In response to increased levels of aldosterone, the kidneys produce
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
49.  The filtrate first passes from the glomerular capsule to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
50.  The primary function of the proximal convoluted tubule is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
51.  Major calyces are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
52.  The unit of measurement for pressure preferred by many respiratory therapists is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
53.  Contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscles result in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
54.  The surge in luteinizing hormone that occurs during the middle of the ovarian cycle triggers
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
55.  Chloride ion is reabsorbed in the thick ascending limb by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
56.  The majority of glomeruli are located in the ________ of the kidney.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
57.  A male bodybuilder starts taking injections of testosterone (an anabolic steroid) on a daily basis. After 3 weeks, which of the following would you expect to observe?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
58.  Sperm cannot fertilize an ovum unless it has been in the female reproductive tract for several hours. This enhanced ability of the sperm to fertilize the ovum is called capacitation. In vitro studies indicate that freshly ejaculated sperm can fertilize the ovum if they are first rinsed in salt solution before being introduced to the ovum. These observations suggest that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
59.  Which of the following muscles might be recruited to increase inspired volume?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
60. 
Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: What pressure will be present in the space labeled "5"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
61.  Autoregulation of the rate of glomerular filtration has which of the following properties?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
62.  Glomerular (Bowman's) capsule and the glomerulus make up the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
63.  Asthma is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
64.  Increased sympathetic tone can do all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
65. 
Identify the structure labeled "10."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
66.  The paired erectile bodies in the penis are the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
67.  Which of the following is greater?
A.
B.
C.
68.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term endometrium?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
69.  Which of these descriptions best matches the term external intercostal?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
70.  Which of the following muscles move the testes towards the body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
71.  The pituitary hormone that stimulates the interstitial cells to secrete testosterone is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
72.  The process of filtration occurs at
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
73.  A sample of a woman's blood is analyzed for reproductive hormone levels. The results indicate a high level of progesterone, relatively high levels of inhibin, and low levels of FSH and LH. The female is most likely experiencing ________ of the uterine cycle.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
74.  Pulmonary ventilation refers to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
75.  Emission and ejaculation
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
76.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term renal papilla?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
77.  Secondary sexual characteristics
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
78.  The dense layer of connective tissue that surrounds the testis is called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
79. 
Which area is sensitive to the hormone ADH?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
80.  The male reproductive system is most closely associated with which of the following systems?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
81.  The uterine phase that develops because of a fall in progesterone levels is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
82.  All of the following provide chemoreceptor input to the respiratory centers of the medulla oblongata, except the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
83.  The renal sinus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
84.  Substances larger than ________ do not pass through the filtration membrane.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
85.  The mechanism for producing concentrated urine involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
86.  When there is no air movement, the relationship between the intrapulmonary and atmospheric pressure is that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
87.  The organ that is posterior to the urinary bladder is (are) the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
88.  Antidiuretic hormone
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
89.  The organ that monitors and adjusts the composition of tubular fluid, recycles damaged spermatozoa, and is the site of sperm maturation is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
90.  At a PO2 of 70 mm Hg and normal temperature and pH, hemoglobin is ________ percent saturated with oxygen.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
91.  Under normal conditions, glomerular filtration depends on three main pressures. Which of those pressures is a pressure that favors the filtration pressure?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
92.  For erection to occur
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
93. 
Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: What is produced by the structure labeled "7"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
94.  When the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
95.  Tubular reabsorption involves all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
96.  Triangular or conical structures located in the renal medulla are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
97. 
Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: Which muscle(s) contract(s) to cause the movement indicated by the arrows labeled "6" and "7"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
98.  Which of the following is greater?
A.
B.
99.  A mature follicle releases an ovum in response to a surge in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
100.  Which of these age-based changes is false?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
101. 
Identify the structure labeled "9."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
102.  Each 100 ml of blood leaving the alveolar capillaries carries away roughly ________ ml of oxygen.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
103.  The process of filtration is driven by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
104.  Sperm production occurs in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
105.  The termination of the uterine cycle at age 45-55 is called ________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
106.  If the dorsal respiratory group of neurons in the medulla oblongata were destroyed bilaterally,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
107.  Which of the following can be calculated if the tidal volume and respiratory rate are known?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
108.  Pneumotaxic centers in the pons
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
109.  Substances secreted by the distal convoluted tubule include
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
110.  The outermost layer of the kidney is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
111.  Functions of the accessory glands of the male reproductive system include all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
112.  Which of the following occurs after a spermatogonium completes cell division?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
113.  Sperm are moved along the ductus deferens by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
114.  Which of the following factors would increase the amount of oxygen discharged by hemoglobin to peripheral tissues?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
115.  The principal hormone secreted by the corpus luteum is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
116.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term nephron loop (loop of Henle)?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
117.  The expanded beginning of the ureter connects to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
118.  The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in venous blood is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
119.  Renal columns are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
120.  Which is the function of the ovaries?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
121.  Arrange the four structures listed below into the order in which sperm pass from the testis to the urethral meatus.
  1. ductus deferens
  2. urethra
  3. ejaculatory duct
  4. epididymis
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
122.  Low pH alters hemoglobin structure so that oxygen binds less strongly to hemoglobin at low PO2. This increases the effectiveness of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
123.  Boyle's Law of Gases states that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
124.  The cavity of the kidney that receives urine from the calyces is called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
125.  Blocking afferent action potentials from the chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies would interfere with the brain's ability to regulate breathing in response to
A.
B.
C.
D.
126.  The pneumotaxic center
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
127.  Nurse cells
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
128.  Which of the following is greater?
A.
B.
129.  During the proliferative phase of the uterine cycle,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
130.  The organ that delivers semen into the female reproductive tract is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
131.  In quiet breathing,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
132.  Henry's law states that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
133.  Increasing the alveolar ventilation rate will
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
134.  Carbonic anhydrase
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
135.  The organ that surrounds the urethra and produces an alkaline secretion is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
136.  Each of the following factors affects the rate of external respiration, except the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
137. 
What physiological process occurs at the structure labeled "2"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
138.  Each of the following statements concerning oogenesis is true, except that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
139. 
Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "4."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
140.  ________ equals the respiratory rate × (tidal volume - anatomic dead space).
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
141.  Which of the following formulas will allow you to calculate the net filtration pressure (FP)? (Hint: GHP = glomerular hydrostatic pressure, BCOP = blood colloidal osmotic pressure, CsHP = capsular hydrostatic pressure.)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
142.  Stimulation of the apneustic center would result in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
143.  The portion of the nephron that empties into the collecting duct is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
144.  The condition resulting from inadequate production of surfactant and the resultant collapse of alveoli is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
145.  Under quiet conditions, blood returning to the heart retains about ________ of its oxygen content when it leaves the lungs.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
146.  Dalton's law states that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
147.  After ovulation, the ovary secretes
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
148.  When the level of ADH (antidiuretic hormone) decreases,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
149.  The partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
150.  Where in the male reproductive system would you expect to find the most mature spermatozoa?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
151.  The partial pressure of oxygen in the interstitial space of peripheral tissues is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
152.  The ________ connect the seminiferous tubules to the epididymis.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
153.  Menstruation is triggered by a drop in the levels of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
154.  Most of the carbon dioxide in the blood is transported as
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
155.  A glomerulus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
156.  During the menses
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
157.  In emphysema, which of these occur?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
158. 
Where does countercurrent multiplication occur?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
159.  The external marking of the boundary between the two testes is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
160.  ________ is the amount of air that you can inhale above the resting tidal volume.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
161. 
Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "11."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
162.  Follicle-stimulating hormone
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
163.  Higher brain centers that alter the activity of the respiratory centers include all of the following, except
A.
B.