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Anatomy & Physiology - Final Exam (respiratory, Renal, & Reproduction)

190 Questions  I  By Seres21e
Anatomy & Physiology - Final Exam (Respiratory, Renal, & Reproduction)
Bob Beregowitz

  
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1.  What is the function of gonads?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
2.  Each of the following factors affects the rate of external respiration, except the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
3.  Asthma is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
4.  All of the following provide chemoreceptor input to the respiratory centers of the medulla oblongata, except the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
5.  The average length of the uterine cycle is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
6.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term renal papilla?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
7.  During the menses
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
8.  Testosterone is secreted by the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
9.  Each of the following statements concerning oogenesis is true, except that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
10.  Which of the following is greatest?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
11.  Glomerular (Bowman's) capsule and the glomerulus make up the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
12.  The most important chemical regulator of respiration is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
13.  Identify the structure labeled "8."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
14.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: What pressure will be present in the space labeled "5"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
15.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: Which muscle(s) produce(s) the movement labeled "1"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
16.  The organ that carries sperm from the epididymis to the urethra is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
17.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term endometrium?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
18.  As the filtrate passes through the renal tubules, approximately what percentage is reabsorbed and returned to the circulation?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
19.  Triangular or conical structures located in the renal medulla are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
20.  When the level of ADH (antidiuretic hormone) decreases,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
21.  In emphysema, which of these occur?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
22.  Where does countercurrent multiplication occur?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
23.  A glomerulus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
24.  The condition resulting from inadequate production of surfactant and the resultant collapse of alveoli is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
25.  The spermatic cord is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
26.  Low pH alters hemoglobin structure so that oxygen binds less strongly to hemoglobin at low PO2. This increases the effectiveness of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
27.  The renal sinus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
28.  The termination of the uterine cycle at age 45-55 is called ________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
29.  Inward projections of the tunica albuginea, known as septa, divide the testis into
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
30.  Carbonic anhydrase
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
31.  The normal rate and depth of breathing is established by the ________ center.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
32.  The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in venous blood is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
33.  Which of the following formulas will allow you to calculate the net filtration pressure (FP)? (Hint: GHP = glomerular hydrostatic pressure, BCOP = blood colloidal osmotic pressure, CsHP = capsular hydrostatic pressure.)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
34.  What percentage of nutrients (glucose, amino acids, etc) are reabsorbed in the PCT?
A.
B.
C.
D.
35.  This is the structure that ruptures during ovulation.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
36.  The inflation reflex
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
37.  The structure known as the juxtaglomerular apparatus is located near the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
38.  The pneumotaxic center of the pons
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
39.  Under normal conditions, glomerular filtration depends on three main pressures. Which of those pressures is a pressure that favors the filtration pressure?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
40.  Follicle-stimulating hormone
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
41.  The primary follicle develops from the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
42.  The majority of glomeruli are located in the ________ of the kidney.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
43.  Nurse cells
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
44.  The glomeruli are best described as being tufts of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
45.  The granulosa cells of developing follicles secrete
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
46.  Identify the structure labeled "5."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
47.  Autoregulation of the rate of glomerular filtration has which of the following properties?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
48.  Arrange the four structures listed below into the order in which sperm pass from the testis to the urethral meatus.
  1. ductus deferens
  2. urethra
  3. ejaculatory duct
  4. epididymis
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
49.  The primary role of FSH in males is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
50.  Pulmonary ventilation refers to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
51.  On which of the following days would the level of GnRH be highest in a female?
A.
B.
C.
D.
52.  Boyle's law states that gas volume is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
53.  The male reproductive system is most closely associated with which of the following systems?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
54.  Increased sympathetic tone can do all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
55.  If a patient being tested inhales as deeply as possible and then exhales as much as possible, the volume of air expelled would be the patient's
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
56.  Substances secreted by the distal convoluted tubule include
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
57.  Interstitial cells produce
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
58.  Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "3."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
59.  Which of the following occurs after a spermatogonium completes cell division?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
60.  The term hypercapnia refers to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
61.  The U-shaped segment of the nephron is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
62.  Which of these components of the nephron is largely confined to the renal medulla?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
63.  Emission and ejaculation
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
64.  Sperm are moved along the ductus deferens by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
65.  The apneustic centers of the pons
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
66.  The mechanism for producing concentrated urine involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
67.  Menstruation is triggered by a drop in the levels of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
68.  Major calyces are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
69.  Spermatozoa are functionally matured within the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
70.  The pituitary hormone that stimulates the interstitial cells to secrete testosterone is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
71.  The surge in luteinizing hormone that occurs during the middle of the ovarian cycle triggers
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
72.  ________ equals the respiratory rate × (tidal volume - anatomic dead space).
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
73.  Antidiuretic hormone
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
74.  Higher brain centers that alter the activity of the respiratory centers include all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
75.  Increasing the alveolar ventilation rate will
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
76.  The partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
77.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: Which muscle(s) contract(s) to cause the movement indicated by the arrows labeled "6" and "7"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
78.  During the proliferative phase of the uterine cycle,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
79.  The outermost layer of the kidney is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
80.  Most of the carbon dioxide in the blood is transported as
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
81.  Which area is sensitive to the hormone ADH?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
82.  A patient with a connective tissue disease experiences increased pulmonary vascular resistance. Over a period of time you would expect to observe v
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
83.  Which of these age-based changes is false?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
84.  Renal columns are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
85.  Which of the following would be greater?
A.
B.
C.
86.  Which of the following muscles move the testes towards the body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
87.  The filtrate first passes from the glomerular capsule to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
88.  Secretion of hydrogen ion by the DCT is by the process of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
89.  The paired erectile bodies in the penis are the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
90.  Tubular reabsorption involves all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
91.  During the secretory phase of the uterine cycle
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
92.  The filtration barrier in the renal corpuscle consists of three layers:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
93.  The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the interstitial space of peripheral tissues is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
94.  Under quiet conditions, blood returning to the heart retains about ________ of its oxygen content when it leaves the lungs.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
95.  Substances larger than ________ do not pass through the filtration membrane.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
96.  Contraction of the cremaster muscles
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
97.  The function of pulmonary ventilation is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
98.  Which statement about the chloride shift is false?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
99.  Pneumotaxic centers in the pons
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
100.  At a PO2 of 70 mm Hg and normal temperature and pH, hemoglobin is ________ percent saturated with oxygen.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
101.  The ability to form concentrated urine depends on the functions of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
102.  Which of the following is greater?
A.
B.
103.  Prolonged deep inspirations can result from stimulating the ________ center.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
104.  Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "4."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
105.  Where does most nutrient reabsorption occur?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
106.  When there is no air movement, the relationship between the intrapulmonary and atmospheric pressure is that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
107.  The uterine phase that develops because of a fall in progesterone levels is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
108.  The organ that is posterior to the urinary bladder is (are) the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
109.  The organ that monitors and adjusts the composition of tubular fluid, recycles damaged spermatozoa, and is the site of sperm maturation is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
110.  Henry's law states that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
111.  The process of filtration occurs at
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
112.  A 10 percent increase in the level of carbon dioxide in the blood will
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
113.  For erection to occur
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
114.  The partial pressure of oxygen in the interstitial space of peripheral tissues is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
115.  Stimulation of the apneustic center would result in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
116.  Identify the structure labeled "10."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
117.  Which of the following factors would increase the amount of oxygen discharged by hemoglobin to peripheral tissues?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
118.  A patient excretes a large volume of very dilute urine on a continuing basis. This is may be due to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
119.  Sperm cannot fertilize an ovum unless it has been in the female reproductive tract for several hours. This enhanced ability of the sperm to fertilize the ovum is called capacitation. In vitro studies indicate that freshly ejaculated sperm can fertilize the ovum if they are first rinsed in salt solution before being introduced to the ovum. These observations suggest that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
120.  Dalton's law states that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
121.  Chloride ion is reabsorbed in the thick ascending limb by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
122.  The small paired structures at the base of the penis that secrete a thick, alkaline mucus are the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
123.  Which of the following is greater?
A.
B.
C.
124.  Sperm production occurs in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
125.  For maximum loading of hemoglobin with oxygen at the lungs, the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
126.  Most of the oxygen transported by the blood is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
127.  After ovulation, the ovary secretes
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
128.  Carbon dioxide is more soluble in water than oxygen. To get the same amount of oxygen to dissolve in plasma as carbon dioxide, you would have to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
129.  The cavity of the kidney that receives urine from the calyces is called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
130.  Each of the following is a normal constituent of urine, except .
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
131.  Functions of the accessory glands of the male reproductive system include all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
132.  Where in the male reproductive system would you expect to find the most mature spermatozoa?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
133.  The ________ delivers urine to a minor calyx.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
134.  Identify the structure labeled "9."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
135.  The obstructive lung disease in which elastic fibers are lost, leading to collapse of alveoli and bronchioles, is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
136.  The erectile tissue that surrounds the urethra is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
137.  A boy has a genetic mutation such that FSH is not produced, but LH is normal. After the boy grows to maturity, it is likely he will
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
138.  Which of the following would be greater?
A.
B.
C.
139.  Each 100 ml of blood leaving the alveolar capillaries carries away roughly ________ ml of oxygen.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
140.  Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "11."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
141.  The unit of measurement for pressure preferred by many respiratory therapists is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
142.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term nephron loop (loop of Henle)?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
143.  The process by which dissolved gases are exchanged between the blood and interstitial fluids is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
144.  Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "10."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
145.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: What is the relationship between the pressures at label "8"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
146.  The ________ connect the seminiferous tubules to the epididymis.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
147.  Contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscles result in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
148.  ________ is the amount of air that you can inhale above the resting tidal volume.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
149.  Which of the following can be calculated if the tidal volume and respiratory rate are known?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
150.  The organ that delivers semen into the female reproductive tract is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
151.  Contraction of the dartos muscle
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
152.  A sample of a woman's blood is analyzed for reproductive hormone levels. The results indicate a high level of progesterone, relatively high levels of inhibin, and low levels of FSH and LH. The female is most likely experiencing ________ of the uterine cycle.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
153.  The reproductive system includes
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
154.  A rise in the blood levels of follicle-stimulating hormone at the beginning of the ovarian cycle is responsible for
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
155.  Boyle's Law of Gases states that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
156.  In response to increased levels of aldosterone, the kidneys produce
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
157.  The principal hormone secreted by the corpus luteum is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
158.  Blocking afferent action potentials from the chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies would interfere with the brain's ability to regulate breathing in response to
A.
B.
C.
D.
159.  One mechanism the kidney uses to raise systemic blood pressure is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
160.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: What is the relationship between the pressures at label "3
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
161.  A mature follicle releases an ovum in response to a surge in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
162.  Which is the function of the ovaries?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
163.  The primary function of the proximal convoluted tubule is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
164.  The pneumotaxic center
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
165.  Which of the following statements about the uterine cycle is true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
166.  Alveolar ventilation refers to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
167.  The external marking of the boundary between the two testes is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
168.  In quiet breathing,
A.
B.