Anatomy & Physiology - Final Exam (respiratory, Renal, & Reproduction)

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Anatomy & Physiology - Final Exam (Respiratory, Renal, & Reproduction)
Bob Beregowitz

  
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1.  The ability to form concentrated urine depends on the functions of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
2.  The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the interstitial space of peripheral tissues is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
3. 
Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "3."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
4.  Boyle's Law of Gases states that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
5.  Arrange the four structures listed below into the order in which sperm pass from the testis to the urethral meatus.
  1. ductus deferens
  2. urethra
  3. ejaculatory duct
  4. epididymis
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
6.  On which of the following days would the level of GnRH be highest in a female?
A.
B.
C.
D.
7. 
Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: What is the relationship between the pressures at label "3
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
8. 
Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: What is produced by the structure labeled "7"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
9.  The surge in luteinizing hormone that occurs during the middle of the ovarian cycle triggers
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
10.  The mechanism for producing concentrated urine involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
11.  The reproductive system includes
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
12.  When the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
13.  Carbon dioxide is more soluble in water than oxygen. To get the same amount of oxygen to dissolve in plasma as carbon dioxide, you would have to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
14.  Dalton's law states that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
15.  The majority of glomeruli are located in the ________ of the kidney.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
16. 
Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "11."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
17.  Approximately ________ liters of glomerular filtrate enter glomerular capsules each day.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
18.  Pneumotaxic centers in the pons
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
19.  Most of the oxygen transported by the blood is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
20.  The obstructive lung disease in which elastic fibers are lost, leading to collapse of alveoli and bronchioles, is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
21. 
Where does most nutrient reabsorption occur?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
22.  The apneustic centers of the pons
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
23.  Increased sympathetic tone can do all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
24.  Boyle's law states that gas volume is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
25.  In response to increased levels of aldosterone, the kidneys produce
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
26.  This is the structure that ruptures during ovulation.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
27.  The dense layer of connective tissue that surrounds the testis is called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
28.  Most of the carbon dioxide in the blood is transported as
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
29.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term calyx?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
30.  The outermost layer of the kidney is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
31.  Renal columns are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
32.  Stimulation of the apneustic center would result in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
33. 
Where does countercurrent multiplication occur?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
34.  Where in the male reproductive system would you expect to find the most mature spermatozoa?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
35.  A sample of a woman's blood is analyzed for reproductive hormone levels. The results indicate a high level of progesterone, relatively high levels of inhibin, and low levels of FSH and LH. The female is most likely experiencing ________ of the uterine cycle.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
36.  Follicle-stimulating hormone
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
37.  Contraction of the cremaster muscles
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
38.  Prolonged deep inspirations can result from stimulating the ________ center.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
39.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term renal papilla?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
40.  The renal sinus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
41.  Sperm are moved along the ductus deferens by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
42.  A male bodybuilder starts taking injections of testosterone (an anabolic steroid) on a daily basis. After 3 weeks, which of the following would you expect to observe?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
43.  Emission and ejaculation
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
44.  As the filtrate passes through the renal tubules, approximately what percentage is reabsorbed and returned to the circulation?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
45.  Each of the following is a normal constituent of urine, except .
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
46.  The organ that delivers semen into the female reproductive tract is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
47. 
Identify the structure labeled "6."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
48.  Each of the following statements concerning oogenesis is true, except that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
49.  Which of the following formulas will allow you to calculate the net filtration pressure (FP)? (Hint: GHP = glomerular hydrostatic pressure, BCOP = blood colloidal osmotic pressure, CsHP = capsular hydrostatic pressure.)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
50. 
Identify the structure labeled "8."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
51.  Major calyces are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
52.  The pituitary hormone that stimulates the interstitial cells to secrete testosterone is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
53.  Which of these age-based changes is false?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
54.  The condition resulting from inadequate production of surfactant and the resultant collapse of alveoli is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
55.  The most important chemical regulator of respiration is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
56.  If a patient being tested inhales as deeply as possible and then exhales as much as possible, the volume of air expelled would be the patient's
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
57.  For maximum loading of hemoglobin with oxygen at the lungs, the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
58.  Increasing the alveolar ventilation rate will
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
59. 
Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "10."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
60.  The male reproductive system is most closely associated with which of the following systems?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
61.  A patient excretes a large volume of very dilute urine on a continuing basis. This is may be due to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
62.  Which of the following can be calculated if the tidal volume and respiratory rate are known?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
63.  The organ that carries sperm from the epididymis to the urethra is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
64.  A 10 percent increase in the level of carbon dioxide in the blood will
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
65.  Each 100 ml of blood leaving the alveolar capillaries carries away roughly ________ ml of oxygen.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
66.  One mechanism the kidney uses to raise systemic blood pressure is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
67.  If the dorsal respiratory group of neurons in the medulla oblongata were destroyed bilaterally,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
68.  The organ that monitors and adjusts the composition of tubular fluid, recycles damaged spermatozoa, and is the site of sperm maturation is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
69.  Testosterone is secreted by the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
70.  Higher brain centers that alter the activity of the respiratory centers include all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
71. 
Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: Which muscle(s) produce(s) the movement labeled "1"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
72.  Expiratory movements are produced by contraction of the ________ muscle(s).
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
73.  The ________ connect the seminiferous tubules to the epididymis.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
74.  Inward projections of the tunica albuginea, known as septa, divide the testis into
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
75.  Substances secreted by the distal convoluted tubule include
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
76.  The function of pulmonary ventilation is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
77.  The erectile tissue that surrounds the urethra is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
78.  Spermatozoa are functionally matured within the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
79.  The process of filtration occurs at
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
80.  Which of the following occurs after a spermatogonium completes cell division?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
81.  Which of the following factors would increase the amount of oxygen discharged by hemoglobin to peripheral tissues?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
82.  The external marking of the boundary between the two testes is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
83.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term nephron loop (loop of Henle)?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
84.  External respiration involves the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
85. 
Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: What is the relationship between the pressures at label "8"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
86.  Pulmonary ventilation refers to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
87.  The principal hormone secreted by the corpus luteum is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
88.  The glomeruli are best described as being tufts of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
89.  Which of the following is greater?
A.
B.
90.  Sperm production occurs in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
91.  Sperm cannot fertilize an ovum unless it has been in the female reproductive tract for several hours. This enhanced ability of the sperm to fertilize the ovum is called capacitation. In vitro studies indicate that freshly ejaculated sperm can fertilize the ovum if they are first rinsed in salt solution before being introduced to the ovum. These observations suggest that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
92.  The filtration barrier in the renal corpuscle consists of three layers:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
93.  The organ that surrounds the urethra and produces an alkaline secretion is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
94.  Which of these components of the nephron is largely confined to the renal medulla?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
95. 
Identify the structure labeled "5."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
96.  The granulosa cells of developing follicles secrete
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
97.  The unit of measurement for pressure preferred by many respiratory therapists is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
98.  The ________ delivers urine to a minor calyx.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
99.  A patient with a connective tissue disease experiences increased pulmonary vascular resistance. Over a period of time you would expect to observe v
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
100.  A glomerulus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
101.  Asthma is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
102.  Carbonic anhydrase
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
103.  Which of the following would be greater?
A.
B.
C.
104.  The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in venous blood is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
105.  Which of the following is greatest?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
106.  Antidiuretic hormone
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
107.  Which statement about the chloride shift is false?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
108.  Triangular or conical structures located in the renal medulla are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
109.  Autoregulation of the rate of glomerular filtration has which of the following properties?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
110.  The normal rate and depth of breathing is established by the ________ center.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
111.  At a PO2 of 70 mm Hg and normal temperature and pH, hemoglobin is ________ percent saturated with oxygen.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
112. 
Identify the structure labeled "10."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
113.  Which of the following statements about the uterine cycle is true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
114.  The termination of the uterine cycle at age 45-55 is called ________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
115.  Glomerular (Bowman's) capsule and the glomerulus make up the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
116.  The organ that is posterior to the urinary bladder is (are) the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
117.  The pneumotaxic center
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
118.  Alveolar ventilation refers to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
119.  When there is no air movement, the relationship between the intrapulmonary and atmospheric pressure is that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
120.  The uterine phase that develops because of a fall in progesterone levels is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
121.  Which of the following is greater?
A.
B.
C.
122.  Which of the following is greater?
A.
B.
123.  ________ equals the respiratory rate × (tidal volume - anatomic dead space).
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
124.  In emphysema, which of these occur?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
125.  The U-shaped segment of the nephron is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
126.  Which of the following muscles might be recruited to increase inspired volume?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
127.  What percentage of nutrients (glucose, amino acids, etc) are reabsorbed in the PCT?
A.
B.
C.
D.
128.  Which of the following would be greater?
A.
B.
C.
129.  What is the function of gonads?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
130.  The paired erectile bodies in the penis are the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
131.  The process of filtration is driven by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
132.  The primary function of the proximal convoluted tubule is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
133.  During the proliferative phase of the uterine cycle,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
134.  Low pH alters hemoglobin structure so that oxygen binds less strongly to hemoglobin at low PO2. This increases the effectiveness of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
135.  The spermatic cord is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
136.  The process by which dissolved gases are exchanged between the blood and interstitial fluids is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
137.  The expanded beginning of the ureter connects to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
138.  Functions of the accessory glands of the male reproductive system include all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
139.  Menstruation is triggered by a drop in the levels of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
140.  Nurse cells
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
141.  All of the following provide chemoreceptor input to the respiratory centers of the medulla oblongata, except the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
142.  The term hypercapnia refers to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
143.  Which is the function of the ovaries?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
144.  The partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
145.  Under quiet conditions, blood returning to the heart retains about ________ of its oxygen content when it leaves the lungs.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
146.  ________ is the amount of air that moves into the respiratory system during a single respiratory cycle under resting conditions.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
147.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term endometrium?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
148.  The partial pressure of oxygen in the interstitial space of peripheral tissues is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
149.  For erection to occur
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
150.  The primary follicle develops from the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
151.  The inflation reflex
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
152.  When the level of ADH (antidiuretic hormone) decreases,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
153.  Contraction of the dartos muscle
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
154.  The fold of skin that covers the glans penis is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
155.  Henry's law states that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
156.  Secretion of hydrogen ion by the DCT is by the process of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
157.  A mature follicle releases an ovum in response to a surge in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
158.  A boy has a genetic mutation such that FSH is not produced, but LH is normal. After the boy grows to maturity, it is likely he will
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
159.  ________ is the amount of air that you can inhale above the resting tidal volume.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
160. 
What physiological process occurs at the structure labeled "2"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
161. 
Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "4."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
162.  Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
163.  Each of the following factors affects the rate of external respiration, except the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
164.  Tubular reabsorption involves all of the following, except
A.