Anatomy & Physiology - Final Exam (respiratory, Renal, & Reproduction)

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 Anatomy & Physiology - Final Exam (respiratory, Renal, & Reproduction)
Bob Beregowitz

  
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1.  The term hypercapnia refers to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
2.  Increased sympathetic tone can do all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
3.  Which of the following is greater?
A.
B.
C.
4.  The primary role of FSH in males is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
5.  Testosterone is secreted by the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
6.  The organ that surrounds the urethra and produces an alkaline secretion is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
7.  Each of the following factors affects the rate of external respiration, except the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
8.  Higher brain centers that alter the activity of the respiratory centers include all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
9.  Which of the following occurs after a spermatogonium completes cell division?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
10.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term calyx?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
11.  Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "10."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
12.  During the secretory phase of the uterine cycle
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
13.  The unit of measurement for pressure preferred by many respiratory therapists is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
14.  The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in venous blood is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
15.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: What pressure will be present in the space labeled "5"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
16.  Menstruation is triggered by a drop in the levels of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
17.  A sample of a woman's blood is analyzed for reproductive hormone levels. The results indicate a high level of progesterone, relatively high levels of inhibin, and low levels of FSH and LH. The female is most likely experiencing ________ of the uterine cycle.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
18.  The primary follicle develops from the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
19.  Which of the following is greatest?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
20.  Glomerular (Bowman's) capsule and the glomerulus make up the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
21.  Where in the male reproductive system would you expect to find the most mature spermatozoa?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
22.  The mechanism for producing concentrated urine involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
23.  Carbonic anhydrase
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
24.  Which of these components of the nephron is largely confined to the renal medulla?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
25.  Expiratory movements are produced by contraction of the ________ muscle(s).
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
26.  ________ is the amount of air that you can inhale above the resting tidal volume.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
27.  Which of the following statements about the uterine cycle is true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
28.  The structure known as the juxtaglomerular apparatus is located near the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
29.  Identify the structure labeled "6."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
30.  Which of the following would be greater?
A.
B.
C.
31.  Blocking afferent action potentials from the chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies would interfere with the brain's ability to regulate breathing in response to
A.
B.
C.
D.
32.  Follicle-stimulating hormone
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
33.  A glomerulus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
34.  Sperm are moved along the ductus deferens by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
35.  For maximum loading of hemoglobin with oxygen at the lungs, the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
36.  Secretion of hydrogen ion by the DCT is by the process of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
37.  The majority of glomeruli are located in the ________ of the kidney.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
38.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term endometrium?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
39.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: What is the relationship between the pressures at label "3
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
40.  The dense layer of connective tissue that surrounds the testis is called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
41.  The function of pulmonary ventilation is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
42.  The glomeruli are best described as being tufts of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
43.  For erection to occur
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
44.  Low pH alters hemoglobin structure so that oxygen binds less strongly to hemoglobin at low PO2. This increases the effectiveness of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
45.  A rise in the blood levels of follicle-stimulating hormone at the beginning of the ovarian cycle is responsible for
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
46.  Carbon dioxide is more soluble in water than oxygen. To get the same amount of oxygen to dissolve in plasma as carbon dioxide, you would have to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
47.  Dalton's law states that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
48.  In quiet breathing,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
49.  The organ that is posterior to the urinary bladder is (are) the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
50.  This is the structure that ruptures during ovulation.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
51.  The renal sinus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
52.  The organ that monitors and adjusts the composition of tubular fluid, recycles damaged spermatozoa, and is the site of sperm maturation is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
53.  Which of the following can be calculated if the tidal volume and respiratory rate are known?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
54.  A boy has a genetic mutation such that FSH is not produced, but LH is normal. After the boy grows to maturity, it is likely he will
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
55.  On which of the following days would the level of GnRH be highest in a female?
A.
B.
C.
D.
56.  The partial pressure of oxygen in the interstitial space of peripheral tissues is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
57.  The ability to form concentrated urine depends on the functions of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
58.  The termination of the uterine cycle at age 45-55 is called ________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
59.  Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "11."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
60.  Pulmonary ventilation refers to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
61.  Boyle's Law of Gases states that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
62.  The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the interstitial space of peripheral tissues is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
63.  During the menses
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
64.  What is the function of gonads?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
65.  The partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
66.  If the dorsal respiratory group of neurons in the medulla oblongata were destroyed bilaterally,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
67.  Identify the structure labeled "10."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
68.  Asthma is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
69.  Interstitial cells produce
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
70.  Each of the following is a normal constituent of urine, except .
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
71.  Prolonged deep inspirations can result from stimulating the ________ center.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
72.  In emphysema, which of these occur?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
73.  The spermatic cord is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
74.  Substances larger than ________ do not pass through the filtration membrane.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
75.  Each 100 ml of blood leaving the alveolar capillaries carries away roughly ________ ml of oxygen.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
76.  Which of the following muscles might be recruited to increase inspired volume?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
77.  Stimulation of the apneustic center would result in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
78.  When the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
79.  The organ that carries sperm from the epididymis to the urethra is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
80.  The pneumotaxic center of the pons
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
81.  The expanded beginning of the ureter connects to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
82.  In response to increased levels of aldosterone, the kidneys produce
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
83.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term nephron loop (loop of Henle)?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
84.  The filtrate first passes from the glomerular capsule to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
85.  Most of the oxygen transported by the blood is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
86.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term renal papilla?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
87.  ________ is the amount of air that moves into the respiratory system during a single respiratory cycle under resting conditions.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
88.  What percentage of nutrients (glucose, amino acids, etc) are reabsorbed in the PCT?
A.
B.
C.
D.
89.  Boyle's law states that gas volume is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
90.  Secondary sexual characteristics
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
91.  The most important chemical regulator of respiration is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
92.  The surge in luteinizing hormone that occurs during the middle of the ovarian cycle triggers
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
93.  Approximately ________ liters of glomerular filtrate enter glomerular capsules each day.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
94.  The normal rate and depth of breathing is established by the ________ center.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
95.  The inflation reflex
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
96.  Where does countercurrent multiplication occur?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
97.  The outermost layer of the kidney is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
98.  Substances secreted by the distal convoluted tubule include
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
99.  The ________ connect the seminiferous tubules to the epididymis.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
100.  Sperm cannot fertilize an ovum unless it has been in the female reproductive tract for several hours. This enhanced ability of the sperm to fertilize the ovum is called capacitation. In vitro studies indicate that freshly ejaculated sperm can fertilize the ovum if they are first rinsed in salt solution before being introduced to the ovum. These observations suggest that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
101.  Nurse cells
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
102.  The small paired structures at the base of the penis that secrete a thick, alkaline mucus are the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
103.  The pneumotaxic center
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
104.  The obstructive lung disease in which elastic fibers are lost, leading to collapse of alveoli and bronchioles, is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
105.  Identify the structure labeled "5."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
106.  Which of the following is greater?
A.
B.
107.  Inward projections of the tunica albuginea, known as septa, divide the testis into
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
108.  Identify the structure labeled "8."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
109.  What physiological process occurs at the structure labeled "2"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
110.  The external marking of the boundary between the two testes is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
111.  The uterine phase that develops because of a fall in progesterone levels is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
112.  Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
113.  Antidiuretic hormone
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
114.  Henry's law states that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
115.  The process of filtration occurs at
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
116.  Contraction of the dartos muscle
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
117.  The process of filtration is driven by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
118.  ________ equals the respiratory rate × (tidal volume - anatomic dead space).
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
119.  At a PO2 of 70 mm Hg and normal temperature and pH, hemoglobin is ________ percent saturated with oxygen.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
120.  All of the following provide chemoreceptor input to the respiratory centers of the medulla oblongata, except the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
121.  Which of these age-based changes is false?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
122.  When there is no air movement, the relationship between the intrapulmonary and atmospheric pressure is that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
123.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: Which muscle(s) produce(s) the movement labeled "1"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
124.  Arrange the four structures listed below into the order in which sperm pass from the testis to the urethral meatus.
  1. ductus deferens
  2. urethra
  3. ejaculatory duct
  4. epididymis
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
125.  After ovulation, the ovary secretes
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
126.  When the level of ADH (antidiuretic hormone) decreases,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
127.  A male bodybuilder starts taking injections of testosterone (an anabolic steroid) on a daily basis. After 3 weeks, which of the following would you expect to observe?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
128.  Under quiet conditions, blood returning to the heart retains about ________ of its oxygen content when it leaves the lungs.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
129.  Which is the function of the ovaries?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
130.  Functions of the accessory glands of the male reproductive system include all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
131.  Which of the following is greater?
A.
B.
132.  Contraction of the cremaster muscles
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
133.  Alveolar ventilation refers to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
134.  The average length of the uterine cycle is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
135.  Which of the following would be greater?
A.
B.
C.
136.  A patient excretes a large volume of very dilute urine on a continuing basis. This is may be due to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
137.  Sperm production occurs in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
138.  Contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscles result in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
139.  A mature follicle releases an ovum in response to a surge in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
140.  Tubular reabsorption involves all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
141.  As the filtrate passes through the renal tubules, approximately what percentage is reabsorbed and returned to the circulation?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
142.  Which of these descriptions best matches the term external intercostal?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
143.  Emission and ejaculation
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
144.  The primary function of the proximal convoluted tubule is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
145.  One mechanism the kidney uses to raise systemic blood pressure is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
146.  The filtration barrier in the renal corpuscle consists of three layers:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
147.  Chloride ion is reabsorbed in the thick ascending limb by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
148.  Major calyces are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
149.  The condition resulting from inadequate production of surfactant and the resultant collapse of alveoli is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
150.  Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "4."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
151.  The granulosa cells of developing follicles secrete
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
152.  The ________ delivers urine to a minor calyx.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
153.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: Which muscle(s) contract(s) to cause the movement indicated by the arrows labeled "6" and "7"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
154.  The pituitary hormone that stimulates the interstitial cells to secrete testosterone is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
155.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: What is the relationship between the pressures at label "8"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
156.  Which statement about the chloride shift is false?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
157.  The process by which dissolved gases are exchanged between the blood and interstitial fluids is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
158.  A patient with a connective tissue disease experiences increased pulmonary vascular resistance. Over a period of time you would expect to observe v
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
159.  The male reproductive system is most closely associated with which of the following systems?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
160.  Renal columns are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
161.  The portion of the nephron that empties into the collecting duct is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
162.