Anatomy & Physiology - Final Exam (respiratory, Renal, & Reproduction)

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Anatomy & Physiology - Final Exam (Respiratory, Renal, & Reproduction)
Bob Beregowitz

  
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1.  The partial pressure of oxygen in the interstitial space of peripheral tissues is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
2.  The pneumotaxic center of the pons
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
3.  Pulmonary ventilation refers to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
4.  A patient excretes a large volume of very dilute urine on a continuing basis. This is may be due to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
5.  Spermatozoa are functionally matured within the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
6.  In quiet breathing,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
7.  When there is no air movement, the relationship between the intrapulmonary and atmospheric pressure is that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
8.  Autoregulation of the rate of glomerular filtration has which of the following properties?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
9.  The average length of the uterine cycle is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
10.  Carbonic anhydrase
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
11.  The male reproductive system is most closely associated with which of the following systems?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
12.  The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the interstitial space of peripheral tissues is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
13.  The most important chemical regulator of respiration is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
14.  The primary function of the proximal convoluted tubule is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
15.  Henry's law states that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
16.  Each of the following factors affects the rate of external respiration, except the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
17.  The partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
18.  The erectile tissue that surrounds the urethra is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
19.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term nephron loop (loop of Henle)?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
20.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term endometrium?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
21.  The expanded beginning of the ureter connects to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
22.  The obstructive lung disease in which elastic fibers are lost, leading to collapse of alveoli and bronchioles, is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
23.  Contraction of the dartos muscle
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
24.  If a patient being tested inhales as deeply as possible and then exhales as much as possible, the volume of air expelled would be the patient's
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
25.  This is the structure that ruptures during ovulation.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
26.  The reproductive system includes
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
27. 
Identify the structure labeled "6."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
28.  Which of the following would be greater?
A.
B.
C.
29.  The condition resulting from inadequate production of surfactant and the resultant collapse of alveoli is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
30.  Which of the following muscles might be recruited to increase inspired volume?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
31.  Menstruation is triggered by a drop in the levels of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
32.  The cavity of the kidney that receives urine from the calyces is called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
33.  Which of the following is greater?
A.
B.
34.  Sperm production occurs in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
35.  The paired erectile bodies in the penis are the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
36.  Glomerular (Bowman's) capsule and the glomerulus make up the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
37.  The U-shaped segment of the nephron is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
38.  The primary role of FSH in males is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
39.  Triangular or conical structures located in the renal medulla are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
40.  Secondary sexual characteristics
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
41. 
Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: What pressure will be present in the space labeled "5"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
42.  External respiration involves the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
43.  A 10 percent increase in the level of carbon dioxide in the blood will
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
44.  At a PO2 of 70 mm Hg and normal temperature and pH, hemoglobin is ________ percent saturated with oxygen.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
45.  The external marking of the boundary between the two testes is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
46.  The ________ delivers urine to a minor calyx.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
47.  During the menses
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
48.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term renal papilla?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
49.  The dense layer of connective tissue that surrounds the testis is called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
50. 
Identify the structure labeled "8."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
51.  The process of filtration is driven by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
52. 
Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: What is produced by the structure labeled "7"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
53.  The portion of the nephron that empties into the collecting duct is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
54.  Dalton's law states that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
55.  A male bodybuilder starts taking injections of testosterone (an anabolic steroid) on a daily basis. After 3 weeks, which of the following would you expect to observe?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
56.  Testosterone is secreted by the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
57.  Asthma is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
58.  Antidiuretic hormone
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
59.  When the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
60.  The process by which dissolved gases are exchanged between the blood and interstitial fluids is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
61.  Arrange the four structures listed below into the order in which sperm pass from the testis to the urethral meatus.
  1. ductus deferens
  2. urethra
  3. ejaculatory duct
  4. epididymis
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
62.  One mechanism the kidney uses to raise systemic blood pressure is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
63.  Tubular reabsorption involves all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
64.  Which of the following is greater?
A.
B.
C.
65.  All of the following provide chemoreceptor input to the respiratory centers of the medulla oblongata, except the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
66.  The pituitary hormone that stimulates the interstitial cells to secrete testosterone is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
67.  What percentage of nutrients (glucose, amino acids, etc) are reabsorbed in the PCT?
A.
B.
C.
D.
68.  A rise in the blood levels of follicle-stimulating hormone at the beginning of the ovarian cycle is responsible for
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
69.  Pneumotaxic centers in the pons
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
70.  ________ is the amount of air that you can inhale above the resting tidal volume.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
71.  The spermatic cord is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
72. 
Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "3."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
73.  The majority of glomeruli are located in the ________ of the kidney.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
74.  The normal rate and depth of breathing is established by the ________ center.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
75.  Boyle's law states that gas volume is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
76.  Which of the following is greatest?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
77. 
Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "4."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
78.  During the secretory phase of the uterine cycle
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
79.  Which of the following is greater?
A.
B.
80.  Which of the following would be greater?
A.
B.
C.
81.  The unit of measurement for pressure preferred by many respiratory therapists is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
82.  The inflation reflex
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
83.  Substances larger than ________ do not pass through the filtration membrane.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
84.  Alveolar ventilation refers to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
85.  A glomerulus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
86.  Prolonged deep inspirations can result from stimulating the ________ center.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
87.  After ovulation, the ovary secretes
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
88.  Low pH alters hemoglobin structure so that oxygen binds less strongly to hemoglobin at low PO2. This increases the effectiveness of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
89.  Each of the following statements concerning oogenesis is true, except that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
90.  Which of these components of the nephron is largely confined to the renal medulla?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
91.  Which statement about the chloride shift is false?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
92.  Each of the following is a normal constituent of urine, except .
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
93.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term calyx?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
94. 
Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: What is the relationship between the pressures at label "8"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
95.  Each 100 ml of blood leaving the alveolar capillaries carries away roughly ________ ml of oxygen.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
96. 
Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: What is the relationship between the pressures at label "3
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
97.  Which of the following statements about the uterine cycle is true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
98.  A boy has a genetic mutation such that FSH is not produced, but LH is normal. After the boy grows to maturity, it is likely he will
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
99.  The organ that is posterior to the urinary bladder is (are) the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
100.  When the level of ADH (antidiuretic hormone) decreases,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
101. 
What physiological process occurs at the structure labeled "2"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
102.  Emission and ejaculation
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
103.  Renal columns are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
104.  Expiratory movements are produced by contraction of the ________ muscle(s).
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
105.  Which of these age-based changes is false?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
106.  Increased sympathetic tone can do all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
107.  Contraction of the cremaster muscles
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
108.  The organ that carries sperm from the epididymis to the urethra is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
109.  The ability to form concentrated urine depends on the functions of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
110.  The organ that delivers semen into the female reproductive tract is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
111.  The filtration barrier in the renal corpuscle consists of three layers:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
112.  The term hypercapnia refers to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
113.  Which is the function of the ovaries?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
114.  The ________ connect the seminiferous tubules to the epididymis.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
115.  The pneumotaxic center
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
116.  ________ is the amount of air that moves into the respiratory system during a single respiratory cycle under resting conditions.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
117.  The apneustic centers of the pons
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
118.  A patient with a connective tissue disease experiences increased pulmonary vascular resistance. Over a period of time you would expect to observe v
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
119.  The structure known as the juxtaglomerular apparatus is located near the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
120. 
Identify the structure labeled "9."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
121.  The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in venous blood is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
122.  Approximately ________ liters of glomerular filtrate enter glomerular capsules each day.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
123.  Substances secreted by the distal convoluted tubule include
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
124. 
Where does countercurrent multiplication occur?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
125.  Contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscles result in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
126.  Chloride ion is reabsorbed in the thick ascending limb by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
127.  The renal sinus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
128.  A sample of a woman's blood is analyzed for reproductive hormone levels. The results indicate a high level of progesterone, relatively high levels of inhibin, and low levels of FSH and LH. The female is most likely experiencing ________ of the uterine cycle.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
129.  Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
130.  The filtrate first passes from the glomerular capsule to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
131.  For erection to occur
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
132.  Which of the following can be calculated if the tidal volume and respiratory rate are known?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
133.  Higher brain centers that alter the activity of the respiratory centers include all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
134. 
Where does most nutrient reabsorption occur?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
135.  The surge in luteinizing hormone that occurs during the middle of the ovarian cycle triggers
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
136.  Carbon dioxide is more soluble in water than oxygen. To get the same amount of oxygen to dissolve in plasma as carbon dioxide, you would have to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
137.  The fold of skin that covers the glans penis is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
138. 
Which area is sensitive to the hormone ADH?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
139.  The organ that surrounds the urethra and produces an alkaline secretion is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
140.  The organ that monitors and adjusts the composition of tubular fluid, recycles damaged spermatozoa, and is the site of sperm maturation is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
141. 
Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: Which muscle(s) produce(s) the movement labeled "1"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
142.  Secretion of hydrogen ion by the DCT is by the process of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
143.  The mechanism for producing concentrated urine involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
144.  What is the function of gonads?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
145.  Boyle's Law of Gases states that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
146.  Sperm cannot fertilize an ovum unless it has been in the female reproductive tract for several hours. This enhanced ability of the sperm to fertilize the ovum is called capacitation. In vitro studies indicate that freshly ejaculated sperm can fertilize the ovum if they are first rinsed in salt solution before being introduced to the ovum. These observations suggest that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
147.  The small paired structures at the base of the penis that secrete a thick, alkaline mucus are the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
148.  In response to increased levels of aldosterone, the kidneys produce
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
149.  As the filtrate passes through the renal tubules, approximately what percentage is reabsorbed and returned to the circulation?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
150. 
Identify the structure labeled "10."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
151. 
Identify the structure labeled "5."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
152.  Increasing the alveolar ventilation rate will
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
153. 
Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: Which muscle(s) contract(s) to cause the movement indicated by the arrows labeled "6" and "7"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
154.  Most of the oxygen transported by the blood is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
155.  On which of the following days would the level of GnRH be highest in a female?
A.
B.
C.
D.
156.  ________ equals the respiratory rate × (tidal volume - anatomic dead space).
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
157. 
Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "11."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
158.  Blocking afferent action potentials from the chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies would interfere with the brain's ability to regulate breathing in response to
A.
B.
C.
D.
159.  A mature follicle releases an ovum in response to a surge in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
160.  Which of the following factors would increase the amount of oxygen discharged by hemoglobin to peripheral tissues?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
161.  The outermost layer of the kidney is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
162.  Which of the following occurs after a spermatogonium completes cell division?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
163.  During the proliferative phase of the uterine cycle,