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Anatomy & Physiology - Final Exam (respiratory, Renal, & Reproduction)

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Anatomy & Physiology - Final Exam (Respiratory, Renal, & Reproduction)
Bob beregowitz

  
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1.  Low pH alters hemoglobin structure so that oxygen binds less strongly to hemoglobin at low PO2. This increases the effectiveness of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
2.  Approximately ________ liters of glomerular filtrate enter glomerular capsules each day.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
3.  Which of these descriptions best matches the term external intercostal?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
4.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term nephron loop (loop of Henle)?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
5.  Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "4."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
6.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: Which muscle(s) contract(s) to cause the movement indicated by the arrows labeled "6" and "7"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
7.  The organ that surrounds the urethra and produces an alkaline secretion is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
8.  What physiological process occurs at the structure labeled "2"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
9.  The average length of the uterine cycle is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
10.  The ability to form concentrated urine depends on the functions of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
11.  The majority of glomeruli are located in the ________ of the kidney.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
12.  A male bodybuilder starts taking injections of testosterone (an anabolic steroid) on a daily basis. After 3 weeks, which of the following would you expect to observe?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
13.  The male reproductive system is most closely associated with which of the following systems?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
14.  Secretion of hydrogen ion by the DCT is by the process of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
15.  The structure known as the juxtaglomerular apparatus is located near the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
16.  The partial pressure of oxygen in the interstitial space of peripheral tissues is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
17.  Boyle's Law of Gases states that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
18.  The glomeruli are best described as being tufts of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
19.  Which of the following factors would increase the amount of oxygen discharged by hemoglobin to peripheral tissues?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
20.  Blocking afferent action potentials from the chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies would interfere with the brain's ability to regulate breathing in response to
A.
B.
C.
D.
21.  Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "3."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
22.  During the proliferative phase of the uterine cycle,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
23.  At a PO2 of 70 mm Hg and normal temperature and pH, hemoglobin is ________ percent saturated with oxygen.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
24.  Identify the structure labeled "5."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
25.  The expanded beginning of the ureter connects to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
26.  This is the structure that ruptures during ovulation.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
27.  The normal rate and depth of breathing is established by the ________ center.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
28.  The fold of skin that covers the glans penis is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
29.  Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "11."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
30.  A boy has a genetic mutation such that FSH is not produced, but LH is normal. After the boy grows to maturity, it is likely he will
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
31.  Carbonic anhydrase
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
32.  The dense layer of connective tissue that surrounds the testis is called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
33.  The mechanism for producing concentrated urine involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
34.  Where does countercurrent multiplication occur?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
35.  Which of the following can be calculated if the tidal volume and respiratory rate are known?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
36.  The inflation reflex
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
37.  Which of these age-based changes is false?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
38.  Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
39.  Each of the following is a normal constituent of urine, except .
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
40.  Henry's law states that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
41.  The condition resulting from inadequate production of surfactant and the resultant collapse of alveoli is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
42.  The external marking of the boundary between the two testes is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
43.  Most of the oxygen transported by the blood is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
44.  Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: What is produced by the structure labeled "7"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
45.  Which of the following is greater?
A.
B.
C.
46.  Inward projections of the tunica albuginea, known as septa, divide the testis into
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
47.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: Which muscle(s) produce(s) the movement labeled "1"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
48.  Autoregulation of the rate of glomerular filtration has which of the following properties?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
49.  One mechanism the kidney uses to raise systemic blood pressure is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
50.  Prolonged deep inspirations can result from stimulating the ________ center.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
51.  Each of the following statements concerning oogenesis is true, except that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
52.  A sample of a woman's blood is analyzed for reproductive hormone levels. The results indicate a high level of progesterone, relatively high levels of inhibin, and low levels of FSH and LH. The female is most likely experiencing ________ of the uterine cycle.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
53.  What is the function of gonads?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
54.  External respiration involves the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
55.  The pituitary hormone that stimulates the interstitial cells to secrete testosterone is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
56.  Which of the following formulas will allow you to calculate the net filtration pressure (FP)? (Hint: GHP = glomerular hydrostatic pressure, BCOP = blood colloidal osmotic pressure, CsHP = capsular hydrostatic pressure.)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
57.  Spermatozoa are functionally matured within the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
58.  Which of the following occurs after a spermatogonium completes cell division?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
59.  Secondary sexual characteristics
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
60.  The reproductive system includes
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
61.  The termination of the uterine cycle at age 45-55 is called ________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
62.  Functions of the accessory glands of the male reproductive system include all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
63.  Chloride ion is reabsorbed in the thick ascending limb by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
64.  A 10 percent increase in the level of carbon dioxide in the blood will
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
65.  The organ that monitors and adjusts the composition of tubular fluid, recycles damaged spermatozoa, and is the site of sperm maturation is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
66.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term endometrium?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
67.  All of the following provide chemoreceptor input to the respiratory centers of the medulla oblongata, except the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
68.  The primary role of FSH in males is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
69.  Sperm are moved along the ductus deferens by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
70.  A patient excretes a large volume of very dilute urine on a continuing basis. This is may be due to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
71.  ________ is the amount of air that moves into the respiratory system during a single respiratory cycle under resting conditions.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
72.  The U-shaped segment of the nephron is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
73.  Testosterone is secreted by the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
74.  For maximum loading of hemoglobin with oxygen at the lungs, the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
75.  Pneumotaxic centers in the pons
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
76.  Which of the following is greater?
A.
B.
77.  Substances larger than ________ do not pass through the filtration membrane.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
78.  In quiet breathing,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
79.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: What pressure will be present in the space labeled "5"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
80.  Contraction of the cremaster muscles
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
81.  The filtrate first passes from the glomerular capsule to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
82.  The organ that is posterior to the urinary bladder is (are) the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
83.  Dalton's law states that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
84.  Which is the function of the ovaries?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
85.  The obstructive lung disease in which elastic fibers are lost, leading to collapse of alveoli and bronchioles, is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
86.  A rise in the blood levels of follicle-stimulating hormone at the beginning of the ovarian cycle is responsible for
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
87.  Substances secreted by the distal convoluted tubule include
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
88.  Increased sympathetic tone can do all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
89.  Which of the following muscles might be recruited to increase inspired volume?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
90.  Antidiuretic hormone
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
91.  The pneumotaxic center
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
92.  The organ that carries sperm from the epididymis to the urethra is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
93.  In emphysema, which of these occur?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
94.  The term hypercapnia refers to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
95.  The ________ delivers urine to a minor calyx.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
96.  The most important chemical regulator of respiration is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
97.  Sperm production occurs in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
98.  In response to increased levels of aldosterone, the kidneys produce
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
99.  The unit of measurement for pressure preferred by many respiratory therapists is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
100.  Each of the following factors affects the rate of external respiration, except the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
101.  Boyle's law states that gas volume is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
102.  Contraction of the dartos muscle
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
103.  During the secretory phase of the uterine cycle
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
104.  Identify the structure labeled "10."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
105.  The principal hormone secreted by the corpus luteum is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
106.  Glomerular (Bowman's) capsule and the glomerulus make up the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
107.  ________ equals the respiratory rate × (tidal volume - anatomic dead space).
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
108.  Sperm cannot fertilize an ovum unless it has been in the female reproductive tract for several hours. This enhanced ability of the sperm to fertilize the ovum is called capacitation. In vitro studies indicate that freshly ejaculated sperm can fertilize the ovum if they are first rinsed in salt solution before being introduced to the ovum. These observations suggest that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
109.  Tubular reabsorption involves all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
110.  Which of the following statements about the uterine cycle is true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
111.  Alveolar ventilation refers to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
112.  The spermatic cord is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
113.  The granulosa cells of developing follicles secrete
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
114.  As the filtrate passes through the renal tubules, approximately what percentage is reabsorbed and returned to the circulation?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
115.  The surge in luteinizing hormone that occurs during the middle of the ovarian cycle triggers
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
116.  Renal columns are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
117.  The function of pulmonary ventilation is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
118.  Stimulation of the apneustic center would result in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
119.  The partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
120.  Where does most nutrient reabsorption occur?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
121.  Which of the following would be greater?
A.
B.
C.
122.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term renal papilla?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
123.  The primary function of the proximal convoluted tubule is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
124.  The filtration barrier in the renal corpuscle consists of three layers:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
125.  If the dorsal respiratory group of neurons in the medulla oblongata were destroyed bilaterally,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
126.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: What is the relationship between the pressures at label "8"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
127.  Most of the carbon dioxide in the blood is transported as
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
128.  Each 100 ml of blood leaving the alveolar capillaries carries away roughly ________ ml of oxygen.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
129.  The process of filtration occurs at
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
130.  Identify the structure labeled "6."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
131.  The pneumotaxic center of the pons
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
132.  ________ is the amount of air that you can inhale above the resting tidal volume.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
133.  During the menses
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
134.  Which area is sensitive to the hormone ADH?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
135.  The cavity of the kidney that receives urine from the calyces is called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
136.  Which of the following is greater?
A.
B.
137.  Where in the male reproductive system would you expect to find the most mature spermatozoa?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
138.  Follicle-stimulating hormone
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
139.  Which statement about the chloride shift is false?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
140.  Under quiet conditions, blood returning to the heart retains about ________ of its oxygen content when it leaves the lungs.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
141.  Under normal conditions, glomerular filtration depends on three main pressures. Which of those pressures is a pressure that favors the filtration pressure?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
142.  The portion of the nephron that empties into the collecting duct is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
143.  On which of the following days would the level of GnRH be highest in a female?
A.
B.
C.
D.
144.  The process by which dissolved gases are exchanged between the blood and interstitial fluids is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
145.  Which of the following is greatest?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
146.  A patient with a connective tissue disease experiences increased pulmonary vascular resistance. Over a period of time you would expect to observe v
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
147.  Higher brain centers that alter the activity of the respiratory centers include all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
148.  Contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscles result in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
149.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term calyx?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
150.  Carbon dioxide is more soluble in water than oxygen. To get the same amount of oxygen to dissolve in plasma as carbon dioxide, you would have to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
151.  The apneustic centers of the pons
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
152.  The process of filtration is driven by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
153.  The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in venous blood is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
154.  The small paired structures at the base of the penis that secrete a thick, alkaline mucus are the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
155.  Emission and ejaculation
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
156.  Major calyces are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
157.  When there is no air movement, the relationship between the intrapulmonary and atmospheric pressure is that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
158.  A glomerulus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
159.  Asthma is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
160.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: What is the relationship between the pressures at label "3
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
161.  Which of the following muscles move the testes towards the body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
162.  Pulmonary ventilation refers to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
163.  Identify the structure labeled "8."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
164.  Menstruation is triggered by a drop in the levels of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
165.  Increasing the alveolar ventilation rate will
A.
B.
C.
D.