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Anatomy & Physiology - Final Exam (respiratory, Renal, & Reproduction)

190 Questions  I  By Seres21e
Anatomy & Physiology - Final Exam (Respiratory, Renal, & Reproduction)
Bob Beregowitz

  
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1.  Arrange the four structures listed below into the order in which sperm pass from the testis to the urethral meatus.
  1. ductus deferens
  2. urethra
  3. ejaculatory duct
  4. epididymis
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
2.  Spermatozoa are functionally matured within the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
3.  For erection to occur
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
4.  A rise in the blood levels of follicle-stimulating hormone at the beginning of the ovarian cycle is responsible for
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
5.  Under quiet conditions, blood returning to the heart retains about ________ of its oxygen content when it leaves the lungs.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
6.  The unit of measurement for pressure preferred by many respiratory therapists is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
7.  At a PO2 of 70 mm Hg and normal temperature and pH, hemoglobin is ________ percent saturated with oxygen.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
8.  When the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
9.  The process of filtration occurs at
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
10.  Dalton's law states that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
11.  Identify the structure labeled "6."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
12.  Stimulation of the apneustic center would result in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
13.  The cavity of the kidney that receives urine from the calyces is called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
14.  The termination of the uterine cycle at age 45-55 is called ________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
15.  During the secretory phase of the uterine cycle
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
16.  Which of these descriptions best matches the term external intercostal?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
17.  Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
18.  What is the function of gonads?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
19.  The organ that delivers semen into the female reproductive tract is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
20.  Which statement about the chloride shift is false?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
21.  Autoregulation of the rate of glomerular filtration has which of the following properties?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
22.  When the level of ADH (antidiuretic hormone) decreases,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
23.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: What is the relationship between the pressures at label "3
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
24.  Where does most nutrient reabsorption occur?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
25.  Each of the following statements concerning oogenesis is true, except that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
26.  A male bodybuilder starts taking injections of testosterone (an anabolic steroid) on a daily basis. After 3 weeks, which of the following would you expect to observe?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
27.  If a patient being tested inhales as deeply as possible and then exhales as much as possible, the volume of air expelled would be the patient's
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
28.  The male reproductive system is most closely associated with which of the following systems?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
29.  The pituitary hormone that stimulates the interstitial cells to secrete testosterone is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
30.  A 10 percent increase in the level of carbon dioxide in the blood will
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
31.  The function of pulmonary ventilation is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
32.  The small paired structures at the base of the penis that secrete a thick, alkaline mucus are the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
33.  Triangular or conical structures located in the renal medulla are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
34.  Identify the structure labeled "9."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
35.  During the menses
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
36.  All of the following provide chemoreceptor input to the respiratory centers of the medulla oblongata, except the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
37.  Which area is sensitive to the hormone ADH?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
38.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term calyx?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
39.  Which is the function of the ovaries?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
40.  The organ that monitors and adjusts the composition of tubular fluid, recycles damaged spermatozoa, and is the site of sperm maturation is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
41.  Nurse cells
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
42.  A mature follicle releases an ovum in response to a surge in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
43.  Substances larger than ________ do not pass through the filtration membrane.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
44.  The paired erectile bodies in the penis are the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
45.  Functions of the accessory glands of the male reproductive system include all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
46.  Carbon dioxide is more soluble in water than oxygen. To get the same amount of oxygen to dissolve in plasma as carbon dioxide, you would have to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
47.  During the proliferative phase of the uterine cycle,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
48.  The process of filtration is driven by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
49.  Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "10."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
50.  Approximately ________ liters of glomerular filtrate enter glomerular capsules each day.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
51.  Which of the following is greater?
A.
B.
C.
52.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: Which muscle(s) produce(s) the movement labeled "1"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
53.  Pulmonary ventilation refers to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
54.  Substances secreted by the distal convoluted tubule include
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
55.  If the dorsal respiratory group of neurons in the medulla oblongata were destroyed bilaterally,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
56.  The structure known as the juxtaglomerular apparatus is located near the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
57.  Prolonged deep inspirations can result from stimulating the ________ center.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
58.  What physiological process occurs at the structure labeled "2"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
59.  Identify the structure labeled "10."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
60.  Identify the structure labeled "8."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
61.  Sperm cannot fertilize an ovum unless it has been in the female reproductive tract for several hours. This enhanced ability of the sperm to fertilize the ovum is called capacitation. In vitro studies indicate that freshly ejaculated sperm can fertilize the ovum if they are first rinsed in salt solution before being introduced to the ovum. These observations suggest that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
62.  The pneumotaxic center
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
63.  The most important chemical regulator of respiration is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
64.  A glomerulus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
65.  Carbonic anhydrase
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
66.  Most of the oxygen transported by the blood is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
67.  ________ is the amount of air that moves into the respiratory system during a single respiratory cycle under resting conditions.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
68.  Which of the following formulas will allow you to calculate the net filtration pressure (FP)? (Hint: GHP = glomerular hydrostatic pressure, BCOP = blood colloidal osmotic pressure, CsHP = capsular hydrostatic pressure.)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
69.  Antidiuretic hormone
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
70.  Alveolar ventilation refers to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
71.  Sperm production occurs in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
72.  The ________ connect the seminiferous tubules to the epididymis.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
73.  One mechanism the kidney uses to raise systemic blood pressure is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
74.  For maximum loading of hemoglobin with oxygen at the lungs, the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
75.  Glomerular (Bowman's) capsule and the glomerulus make up the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
76.  Low pH alters hemoglobin structure so that oxygen binds less strongly to hemoglobin at low PO2. This increases the effectiveness of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
77.  Follicle-stimulating hormone
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
78.  The organ that surrounds the urethra and produces an alkaline secretion is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
79.  The condition resulting from inadequate production of surfactant and the resultant collapse of alveoli is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
80.  In quiet breathing,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
81.  The external marking of the boundary between the two testes is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
82.  Higher brain centers that alter the activity of the respiratory centers include all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
83.  The primary function of the proximal convoluted tubule is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
84.  The primary follicle develops from the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
85.  Emission and ejaculation
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
86.  The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the interstitial space of peripheral tissues is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
87.  The obstructive lung disease in which elastic fibers are lost, leading to collapse of alveoli and bronchioles, is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
88.  After ovulation, the ovary secretes
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
89.  The renal sinus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
90.  The average length of the uterine cycle is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
91.  Which of the following is greatest?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
92.  Menstruation is triggered by a drop in the levels of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
93.  Secretion of hydrogen ion by the DCT is by the process of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
94.  A boy has a genetic mutation such that FSH is not produced, but LH is normal. After the boy grows to maturity, it is likely he will
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
95.  The filtrate first passes from the glomerular capsule to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
96.  Which of the following would be greater?
A.
B.
C.
97.  The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in venous blood is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
98.  Which of the following is greater?
A.
B.
99.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: Which muscle(s) contract(s) to cause the movement indicated by the arrows labeled "6" and "7"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
100.  Which of the following muscles move the testes towards the body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
101.  The fold of skin that covers the glans penis is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
102.  Identify the structure labeled "5."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
103.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: What is the relationship between the pressures at label "8"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
104.  The erectile tissue that surrounds the urethra is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
105.  The process by which dissolved gases are exchanged between the blood and interstitial fluids is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
106.  Which of these components of the nephron is largely confined to the renal medulla?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
107.  As the filtrate passes through the renal tubules, approximately what percentage is reabsorbed and returned to the circulation?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
108.  The principal hormone secreted by the corpus luteum is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
109.  Increasing the alveolar ventilation rate will
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
110.  The partial pressure of oxygen in the interstitial space of peripheral tissues is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
111.  Which of these age-based changes is false?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
112.  The spermatic cord is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
113.  Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "11."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
114.  Under normal conditions, glomerular filtration depends on three main pressures. Which of those pressures is a pressure that favors the filtration pressure?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
115.  The expanded beginning of the ureter connects to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
116.  A patient with a connective tissue disease experiences increased pulmonary vascular resistance. Over a period of time you would expect to observe v
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
117.  The granulosa cells of developing follicles secrete
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
118.  The term hypercapnia refers to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
119.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term renal papilla?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
120.  The glomeruli are best described as being tufts of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
121.  The apneustic centers of the pons
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
122.  Contraction of the dartos muscle
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
123.  Expiratory movements are produced by contraction of the ________ muscle(s).
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
124.  Which of the following can be calculated if the tidal volume and respiratory rate are known?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
125.  The portion of the nephron that empties into the collecting duct is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
126.  Major calyces are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
127.  The outermost layer of the kidney is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
128.  The primary role of FSH in males is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
129.  ________ is the amount of air that you can inhale above the resting tidal volume.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
130.  Testosterone is secreted by the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
131.  The partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
132.  Which of the following factors would increase the amount of oxygen discharged by hemoglobin to peripheral tissues?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
133.  Tubular reabsorption involves all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
134.  The ability to form concentrated urine depends on the functions of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
135.  Which of the following statements about the uterine cycle is true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
136.  External respiration involves the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
137.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term endometrium?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
138.  Increased sympathetic tone can do all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
139.  In emphysema, which of these occur?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
140.  Boyle's law states that gas volume is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
141.  Which of the following is greater?
A.
B.
142.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: What pressure will be present in the space labeled "5"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
143.  Where in the male reproductive system would you expect to find the most mature spermatozoa?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
144.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term nephron loop (loop of Henle)?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
145.  Boyle's Law of Gases states that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
146.  The reproductive system includes
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
147.  Secondary sexual characteristics
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
148.  The filtration barrier in the renal corpuscle consists of three layers:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
149.  Which of the following occurs after a spermatogonium completes cell division?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
150.  On which of the following days would the level of GnRH be highest in a female?
A.
B.
C.
D.
151.  The dense layer of connective tissue that surrounds the testis is called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
152.  Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "4."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
153.  Which of the following would be greater?
A.
B.
C.
154.  Inward projections of the tunica albuginea, known as septa, divide the testis into
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
155.  Where does countercurrent multiplication occur?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
156.  When there is no air movement, the relationship between the intrapulmonary and atmospheric pressure is that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
157.  Each 100 ml of blood leaving the alveolar capillaries carries away roughly ________ ml of oxygen.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
158.  The mechanism for producing concentrated urine involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
159.  Which of the following muscles might be recruited to increase inspired volume?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
160.  Henry's law states that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
161.  Blocking afferent action potentials from the chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies would interfere with the brain's ability to regulate breathing in response to
A.
B.
C.
D.
162.  Each of the following is a normal constituent of urine, except .
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
163.  The inflation reflex
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
164.  The uterine phase that develops because of a fall in progesterone levels is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
165.  Renal columns are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
166.  The majority of glomeruli are located in the ________ of the kidney.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
167.  Each of the following factors affects the rate of external respiration, except the
A.
B.