Anatomy & Physiology - Final Exam (respiratory, Renal, & Reproduction)

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 Anatomy & Physiology - Final Exam (respiratory, Renal, & Reproduction)
Bob Beregowitz

  
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1.  Pulmonary ventilation refers to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
2.  This is the structure that ruptures during ovulation.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
3.  Chloride ion is reabsorbed in the thick ascending limb by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
4.  The process of filtration is driven by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
5.  The U-shaped segment of the nephron is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
6.  One mechanism the kidney uses to raise systemic blood pressure is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
7.  Arrange the four structures listed below into the order in which sperm pass from the testis to the urethral meatus.
  1. ductus deferens
  2. urethra
  3. ejaculatory duct
  4. epididymis
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
8.  Where does most nutrient reabsorption occur?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
9.  In response to increased levels of aldosterone, the kidneys produce
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
10.  Which area is sensitive to the hormone ADH?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
11.  Which of the following muscles might be recruited to increase inspired volume?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
12.  Approximately ________ liters of glomerular filtrate enter glomerular capsules each day.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
13.  The inflation reflex
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
14.  Increasing the alveolar ventilation rate will
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
15.  If a patient being tested inhales as deeply as possible and then exhales as much as possible, the volume of air expelled would be the patient's
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
16.  The most important chemical regulator of respiration is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
17.  The normal rate and depth of breathing is established by the ________ center.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
18.  Higher brain centers that alter the activity of the respiratory centers include all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
19.  Secretion of hydrogen ion by the DCT is by the process of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
20.  Identify the structure labeled "8."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
21.  A mature follicle releases an ovum in response to a surge in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
22.  The majority of glomeruli are located in the ________ of the kidney.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
23.  Testosterone is secreted by the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
24.  The reproductive system includes
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
25.  The filtration barrier in the renal corpuscle consists of three layers:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
26.  Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
27.  A boy has a genetic mutation such that FSH is not produced, but LH is normal. After the boy grows to maturity, it is likely he will
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
28.  Glomerular (Bowman's) capsule and the glomerulus make up the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
29.  Henry's law states that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
30.  All of the following provide chemoreceptor input to the respiratory centers of the medulla oblongata, except the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
31.  The expanded beginning of the ureter connects to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
32.  If the dorsal respiratory group of neurons in the medulla oblongata were destroyed bilaterally,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
33.  Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "11."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
34.  When the level of ADH (antidiuretic hormone) decreases,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
35.  What is the function of gonads?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
36.  A rise in the blood levels of follicle-stimulating hormone at the beginning of the ovarian cycle is responsible for
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
37.  As the filtrate passes through the renal tubules, approximately what percentage is reabsorbed and returned to the circulation?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
38.  During the secretory phase of the uterine cycle
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
39.  Emission and ejaculation
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
40.  After ovulation, the ovary secretes
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
41.  Under quiet conditions, blood returning to the heart retains about ________ of its oxygen content when it leaves the lungs.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
42.  Identify the structure labeled "6."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
43.  A glomerulus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
44.  Increased sympathetic tone can do all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
45.  Pneumotaxic centers in the pons
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
46.  Which of the following formulas will allow you to calculate the net filtration pressure (FP)? (Hint: GHP = glomerular hydrostatic pressure, BCOP = blood colloidal osmotic pressure, CsHP = capsular hydrostatic pressure.)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
47.  Which of the following is greater?
A.
B.
48.  Tubular reabsorption involves all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
49.  For erection to occur
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
50.  The erectile tissue that surrounds the urethra is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
51.  The obstructive lung disease in which elastic fibers are lost, leading to collapse of alveoli and bronchioles, is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
52.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term endometrium?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
53.  What physiological process occurs at the structure labeled "2"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
54.  Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "4."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
55.  In emphysema, which of these occur?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
56.  Each of the following is a normal constituent of urine, except .
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
57.  The process of filtration occurs at
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
58.  ________ is the amount of air that moves into the respiratory system during a single respiratory cycle under resting conditions.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
59.  Inward projections of the tunica albuginea, known as septa, divide the testis into
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
60.  Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: What is produced by the structure labeled "7"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
61.  Which of the following is greater?
A.
B.
C.
62.  During the proliferative phase of the uterine cycle,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
63.  Which of these descriptions best matches the term external intercostal?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
64.  The cavity of the kidney that receives urine from the calyces is called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
65.  The partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
66.  The male reproductive system is most closely associated with which of the following systems?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
67.  The condition resulting from inadequate production of surfactant and the resultant collapse of alveoli is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
68.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: What pressure will be present in the space labeled "5"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
69.  The term hypercapnia refers to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
70.  Which of the following occurs after a spermatogonium completes cell division?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
71.  The granulosa cells of developing follicles secrete
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
72.  Identify the structure labeled "10."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
73.  Where does countercurrent multiplication occur?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
74.  The dense layer of connective tissue that surrounds the testis is called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
75.  Prolonged deep inspirations can result from stimulating the ________ center.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
76.  The termination of the uterine cycle at age 45-55 is called ________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
77.  The external marking of the boundary between the two testes is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
78.  The structure known as the juxtaglomerular apparatus is located near the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
79.  Alveolar ventilation refers to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
80.  Renal columns are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
81.  Under normal conditions, glomerular filtration depends on three main pressures. Which of those pressures is a pressure that favors the filtration pressure?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
82.  The uterine phase that develops because of a fall in progesterone levels is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
83.  External respiration involves the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
84.  Major calyces are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
85.  At a PO2 of 70 mm Hg and normal temperature and pH, hemoglobin is ________ percent saturated with oxygen.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
86.  The organ that delivers semen into the female reproductive tract is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
87.  Which of the following is greatest?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
88.  Which of these components of the nephron is largely confined to the renal medulla?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
89.  The portion of the nephron that empties into the collecting duct is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
90.  Which of the following is greater?
A.
B.
91.  Most of the carbon dioxide in the blood is transported as
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
92.  The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the interstitial space of peripheral tissues is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
93.  The organ that monitors and adjusts the composition of tubular fluid, recycles damaged spermatozoa, and is the site of sperm maturation is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
94.  Nurse cells
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
95.  The spermatic cord is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
96.  The fold of skin that covers the glans penis is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
97.  Sperm production occurs in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
98.  Functions of the accessory glands of the male reproductive system include all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
99.  A patient excretes a large volume of very dilute urine on a continuing basis. This is may be due to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
100.  Which of the following muscles move the testes towards the body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
101.  The small paired structures at the base of the penis that secrete a thick, alkaline mucus are the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
102.  A 10 percent increase in the level of carbon dioxide in the blood will
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
103.  Identify the structure labeled "9."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
104.  Which of the following statements about the uterine cycle is true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
105.  Carbon dioxide is more soluble in water than oxygen. To get the same amount of oxygen to dissolve in plasma as carbon dioxide, you would have to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
106.  Each of the following factors affects the rate of external respiration, except the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
107.  The ________ delivers urine to a minor calyx.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
108.  The primary function of the proximal convoluted tubule is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
109.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: Which muscle(s) contract(s) to cause the movement indicated by the arrows labeled "6" and "7"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
110.  ________ is the amount of air that you can inhale above the resting tidal volume.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
111.  Expiratory movements are produced by contraction of the ________ muscle(s).
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
112.  Which of the following factors would increase the amount of oxygen discharged by hemoglobin to peripheral tissues?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
113.  Which of the following can be calculated if the tidal volume and respiratory rate are known?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
114.  Sperm cannot fertilize an ovum unless it has been in the female reproductive tract for several hours. This enhanced ability of the sperm to fertilize the ovum is called capacitation. In vitro studies indicate that freshly ejaculated sperm can fertilize the ovum if they are first rinsed in salt solution before being introduced to the ovum. These observations suggest that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
115.  The pituitary hormone that stimulates the interstitial cells to secrete testosterone is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
116.  The process by which dissolved gases are exchanged between the blood and interstitial fluids is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
117.  Blocking afferent action potentials from the chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies would interfere with the brain's ability to regulate breathing in response to
A.
B.
C.
D.
118.  Each of the following statements concerning oogenesis is true, except that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
119.  Which of these age-based changes is false?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
120.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: What is the relationship between the pressures at label "3
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
121.  The organ that is posterior to the urinary bladder is (are) the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
122.  Carbonic anhydrase
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
123.  Most of the oxygen transported by the blood is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
124.  Contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscles result in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
125.  The primary role of FSH in males is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
126.  Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "10."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
127.  Sperm are moved along the ductus deferens by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
128.  The ________ connect the seminiferous tubules to the epididymis.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
129.  Which statement about the chloride shift is false?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
130.  For maximum loading of hemoglobin with oxygen at the lungs, the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
131.  Identify the structure labeled "5."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
132.  Follicle-stimulating hormone
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
133.  The partial pressure of oxygen in the interstitial space of peripheral tissues is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
134.  A male bodybuilder starts taking injections of testosterone (an anabolic steroid) on a daily basis. After 3 weeks, which of the following would you expect to observe?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
135.  Where in the male reproductive system would you expect to find the most mature spermatozoa?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
136.  Which of the following would be greater?
A.
B.
C.
137.  Stimulation of the apneustic center would result in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
138.  Boyle's Law of Gases states that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
139.  The outermost layer of the kidney is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
140.  Triangular or conical structures located in the renal medulla are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
141.  On which of the following days would the level of GnRH be highest in a female?
A.
B.
C.
D.
142.  Spermatozoa are functionally matured within the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
143.  Contraction of the dartos muscle
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
144.  The renal sinus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
145.  Boyle's law states that gas volume is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
146.  Which is the function of the ovaries?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
147.  Interstitial cells produce
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
148.  Contraction of the cremaster muscles
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
149.  The surge in luteinizing hormone that occurs during the middle of the ovarian cycle triggers
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
150.  The pneumotaxic center
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
151.  Which of the following would be greater?
A.
B.
C.
152.  The apneustic centers of the pons
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
153.  What percentage of nutrients (glucose, amino acids, etc) are reabsorbed in the PCT?
A.
B.
C.
D.
154.  Low pH alters hemoglobin structure so that oxygen binds less strongly to hemoglobin at low PO2. This increases the effectiveness of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
155.  The function of pulmonary ventilation is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
156.  The paired erectile bodies in the penis are the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
157.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term calyx?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
158.  During the menses
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
159.  When the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract,
A.