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Anatomy & Physiology - Final Exam (respiratory, Renal, & Reproduction)

190 Questions  I  By Seres21e
Anatomy & Physiology - Final Exam (Respiratory, Renal, & Reproduction)
Bob Beregowitz

  
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1.  The male reproductive system is most closely associated with which of the following systems?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
2.  Which of the following factors would increase the amount of oxygen discharged by hemoglobin to peripheral tissues?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
3.  A patient with a connective tissue disease experiences increased pulmonary vascular resistance. Over a period of time you would expect to observe v
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
4.  The paired erectile bodies in the penis are the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
5.  The erectile tissue that surrounds the urethra is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
6.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: What is the relationship between the pressures at label "3
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
7.  The filtration barrier in the renal corpuscle consists of three layers:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
8.  Emission and ejaculation
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
9.  Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: What is produced by the structure labeled "7"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
10.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: What pressure will be present in the space labeled "5"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
11.  The majority of glomeruli are located in the ________ of the kidney.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
12.  The cavity of the kidney that receives urine from the calyces is called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
13.  Renal columns are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
14.  The organ that surrounds the urethra and produces an alkaline secretion is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
15.  If a patient being tested inhales as deeply as possible and then exhales as much as possible, the volume of air expelled would be the patient's
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
16.  Which of the following would be greater?
A.
B.
C.
17.  A sample of a woman's blood is analyzed for reproductive hormone levels. The results indicate a high level of progesterone, relatively high levels of inhibin, and low levels of FSH and LH. The female is most likely experiencing ________ of the uterine cycle.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
18.  The organ that monitors and adjusts the composition of tubular fluid, recycles damaged spermatozoa, and is the site of sperm maturation is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
19.  The termination of the uterine cycle at age 45-55 is called ________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
20.  Which of the following muscles move the testes towards the body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
21.  The spermatic cord is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
22.  Spermatozoa are functionally matured within the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
23.  Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "3."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
24.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term calyx?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
25.  Stimulation of the apneustic center would result in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
26.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: What is the relationship between the pressures at label "8"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
27.  The primary role of FSH in males is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
28.  Which area is sensitive to the hormone ADH?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
29.  Sperm production occurs in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
30.  The primary function of the proximal convoluted tubule is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
31.  A 10 percent increase in the level of carbon dioxide in the blood will
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
32.  The inflation reflex
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
33.  After ovulation, the ovary secretes
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
34.  The uterine phase that develops because of a fall in progesterone levels is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
35.  Antidiuretic hormone
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
36.  Autoregulation of the rate of glomerular filtration has which of the following properties?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
37.  The partial pressure of oxygen in the interstitial space of peripheral tissues is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
38.  Pulmonary ventilation refers to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
39.  For maximum loading of hemoglobin with oxygen at the lungs, the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
40.  Functions of the accessory glands of the male reproductive system include all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
41.  The reproductive system includes
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
42.  Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
43.  Substances secreted by the distal convoluted tubule include
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
44.  What is the function of gonads?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
45.  Which of the following occurs after a spermatogonium completes cell division?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
46.  Approximately ________ liters of glomerular filtrate enter glomerular capsules each day.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
47.  The organ that carries sperm from the epididymis to the urethra is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
48.  Which is the function of the ovaries?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
49.  One mechanism the kidney uses to raise systemic blood pressure is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
50.  This is the structure that ruptures during ovulation.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
51.  At a PO2 of 70 mm Hg and normal temperature and pH, hemoglobin is ________ percent saturated with oxygen.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
52.  For erection to occur
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
53.  The normal rate and depth of breathing is established by the ________ center.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
54.  Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "11."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
55.  The U-shaped segment of the nephron is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
56.  The most important chemical regulator of respiration is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
57.  Which of these age-based changes is false?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
58.  Low pH alters hemoglobin structure so that oxygen binds less strongly to hemoglobin at low PO2. This increases the effectiveness of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
59.  Testosterone is secreted by the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
60.  Identify the structure labeled "6."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
61.  Menstruation is triggered by a drop in the levels of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
62.  During the menses
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
63.  Identify the structure labeled "8."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
64.  The surge in luteinizing hormone that occurs during the middle of the ovarian cycle triggers
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
65.  Which of the following is greater?
A.
B.
C.
66.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: Which muscle(s) produce(s) the movement labeled "1"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
67.  Contraction of the dartos muscle
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
68.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term nephron loop (loop of Henle)?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
69.  The pneumotaxic center of the pons
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
70.  The expanded beginning of the ureter connects to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
71.  The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the interstitial space of peripheral tissues is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
72.  Higher brain centers that alter the activity of the respiratory centers include all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
73.  ________ equals the respiratory rate × (tidal volume - anatomic dead space).
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
74.  On which of the following days would the level of GnRH be highest in a female?
A.
B.
C.
D.
75.  The partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
76.  What percentage of nutrients (glucose, amino acids, etc) are reabsorbed in the PCT?
A.
B.
C.
D.
77.  What physiological process occurs at the structure labeled "2"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
78.  Where does countercurrent multiplication occur?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
79.  The function of pulmonary ventilation is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
80.  Tubular reabsorption involves all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
81.  The mechanism for producing concentrated urine involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
82.  Follicle-stimulating hormone
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
83.  Which of the following is greatest?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
84.  The portion of the nephron that empties into the collecting duct is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
85.  The ________ connect the seminiferous tubules to the epididymis.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
86.  The ability to form concentrated urine depends on the functions of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
87.  The granulosa cells of developing follicles secrete
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
88.  The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in venous blood is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
89.  When there is no air movement, the relationship between the intrapulmonary and atmospheric pressure is that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
90.  Which of the following would be greater?
A.
B.
C.
91.  The organ that delivers semen into the female reproductive tract is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
92.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: Which muscle(s) contract(s) to cause the movement indicated by the arrows labeled "6" and "7"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
93.  During the secretory phase of the uterine cycle
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
94.  ________ is the amount of air that you can inhale above the resting tidal volume.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
95.  In quiet breathing,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
96.  Which of the following formulas will allow you to calculate the net filtration pressure (FP)? (Hint: GHP = glomerular hydrostatic pressure, BCOP = blood colloidal osmotic pressure, CsHP = capsular hydrostatic pressure.)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
97.  The process by which dissolved gases are exchanged between the blood and interstitial fluids is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
98.  The pneumotaxic center
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
99.  Most of the oxygen transported by the blood is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
100.  The pituitary hormone that stimulates the interstitial cells to secrete testosterone is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
101.  The outermost layer of the kidney is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
102.  All of the following provide chemoreceptor input to the respiratory centers of the medulla oblongata, except the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
103.  A mature follicle releases an ovum in response to a surge in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
104.  The process of filtration occurs at
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
105.  The average length of the uterine cycle is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
106.  Carbon dioxide is more soluble in water than oxygen. To get the same amount of oxygen to dissolve in plasma as carbon dioxide, you would have to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
107.  The condition resulting from inadequate production of surfactant and the resultant collapse of alveoli is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
108.  A glomerulus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
109.  Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "4."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
110.  Boyle's Law of Gases states that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
111.  Henry's law states that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
112.  In response to increased levels of aldosterone, the kidneys produce
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
113.  Carbonic anhydrase
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
114.  The unit of measurement for pressure preferred by many respiratory therapists is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
115.  Contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscles result in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
116.  Sperm are moved along the ductus deferens by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
117.  Triangular or conical structures located in the renal medulla are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
118.  Which of the following is greater?
A.
B.
119.  Arrange the four structures listed below into the order in which sperm pass from the testis to the urethral meatus.
  1. ductus deferens
  2. urethra
  3. ejaculatory duct
  4. epididymis
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
120.  Each of the following factors affects the rate of external respiration, except the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
121.  The filtrate first passes from the glomerular capsule to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
122.  The ________ delivers urine to a minor calyx.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
123.  Which of these descriptions best matches the term external intercostal?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
124.  Sperm cannot fertilize an ovum unless it has been in the female reproductive tract for several hours. This enhanced ability of the sperm to fertilize the ovum is called capacitation. In vitro studies indicate that freshly ejaculated sperm can fertilize the ovum if they are first rinsed in salt solution before being introduced to the ovum. These observations suggest that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
125.  ________ is the amount of air that moves into the respiratory system during a single respiratory cycle under resting conditions.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
126.  Which statement about the chloride shift is false?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
127.  A patient excretes a large volume of very dilute urine on a continuing basis. This is may be due to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
128.  Each of the following statements concerning oogenesis is true, except that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
129.  The fold of skin that covers the glans penis is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
130.  When the level of ADH (antidiuretic hormone) decreases,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
131.  The term hypercapnia refers to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
132.  Which of the following statements about the uterine cycle is true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
133.  Increased sympathetic tone can do all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
134.  The obstructive lung disease in which elastic fibers are lost, leading to collapse of alveoli and bronchioles, is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
135.  Identify the structure labeled "10."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
136.  Increasing the alveolar ventilation rate will
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
137.  The principal hormone secreted by the corpus luteum is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
138.  Which of the following can be calculated if the tidal volume and respiratory rate are known?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
139.  Where in the male reproductive system would you expect to find the most mature spermatozoa?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
140.  Secretion of hydrogen ion by the DCT is by the process of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
141.  Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "10."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
142.  Pneumotaxic centers in the pons
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
143.  Which of these components of the nephron is largely confined to the renal medulla?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
144.  The structure known as the juxtaglomerular apparatus is located near the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
145.  Glomerular (Bowman's) capsule and the glomerulus make up the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
146.  Alveolar ventilation refers to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
147.  The small paired structures at the base of the penis that secrete a thick, alkaline mucus are the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
148.  Nurse cells
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
149.  The glomeruli are best described as being tufts of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
150.  Identify the structure labeled "9."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
151.  Boyle's law states that gas volume is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
152.  Identify the structure labeled "5."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
153.  Major calyces are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
154.  Under normal conditions, glomerular filtration depends on three main pressures. Which of those pressures is a pressure that favors the filtration pressure?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
155.  Blocking afferent action potentials from the chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies would interfere with the brain's ability to regulate breathing in response to
A.
B.
C.
D.
156.  Most of the carbon dioxide in the blood is transported as
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
157.  Each of the following is a normal constituent of urine, except .
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
158.  Substances larger than ________ do not pass through the filtration membrane.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
159.  Prolonged deep inspirations can result from stimulating the ________ center.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
160.  The dense layer of connective tissue that surrounds the testis is called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
161.  Chloride ion is reabsorbed in the thick ascending limb by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
162.  Dalton's law states that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
163.  The apneustic centers of the pons
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
164.  A rise in the blood levels of follicle-stimulating hormone at the beginning of the ovarian cycle is responsible for
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
165.  In emphysema, which of these occur?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
166.  When the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
167.  The external marking of the boundary between the two testes is the
A.
B.