Anatomy & Physiology - Final Exam (respiratory, Renal, & Reproduction)

190 Questions  I  By Seres21e
Bob Beregowitz

  
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1.  The process by which dissolved gases are exchanged between the blood and interstitial fluids is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
2.  Which of the following formulas will allow you to calculate the net filtration pressure (FP)? (Hint: GHP = glomerular hydrostatic pressure, BCOP = blood colloidal osmotic pressure, CsHP = capsular hydrostatic pressure.)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
3.  The portion of the nephron that empties into the collecting duct is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
4.  A patient excretes a large volume of very dilute urine on a continuing basis. This is may be due to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
5.  Which of these age-based changes is false?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
6.  Which of the following occurs after a spermatogonium completes cell division?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
7.  The cavity of the kidney that receives urine from the calyces is called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
8.  Where does most nutrient reabsorption occur?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
9.  All of the following provide chemoreceptor input to the respiratory centers of the medulla oblongata, except the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
10.  The organ that is posterior to the urinary bladder is (are) the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
11.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: What is the relationship between the pressures at label "3
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
12.  The small paired structures at the base of the penis that secrete a thick, alkaline mucus are the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
13.  For maximum loading of hemoglobin with oxygen at the lungs, the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
14.  The renal sinus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
15.  The male reproductive system is most closely associated with which of the following systems?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
16.  Boyle's Law of Gases states that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
17.  The ________ delivers urine to a minor calyx.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
18.  Identify the structure labeled "6."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
19.  Spermatozoa are functionally matured within the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
20.  What physiological process occurs at the structure labeled "2"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
21.  When the level of ADH (antidiuretic hormone) decreases,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
22.  In quiet breathing,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
23.  Contraction of the cremaster muscles
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
24.  Identify the structure labeled "9."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
25.  Autoregulation of the rate of glomerular filtration has which of the following properties?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
26.  Substances larger than ________ do not pass through the filtration membrane.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
27.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term renal papilla?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
28.  In emphysema, which of these occur?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
29.  Under quiet conditions, blood returning to the heart retains about ________ of its oxygen content when it leaves the lungs.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
30.  The organ that monitors and adjusts the composition of tubular fluid, recycles damaged spermatozoa, and is the site of sperm maturation is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
31.  Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "11."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
32.  Renal columns are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
33.  The organ that delivers semen into the female reproductive tract is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
34.  External respiration involves the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
35.  The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the interstitial space of peripheral tissues is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
36.  The process of filtration occurs at
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
37.  Which of the following muscles might be recruited to increase inspired volume?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
38.  Low pH alters hemoglobin structure so that oxygen binds less strongly to hemoglobin at low PO2. This increases the effectiveness of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
39.  Which of the following is greater?
A.
B.
C.
40.  The primary function of the proximal convoluted tubule is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
41.  This is the structure that ruptures during ovulation.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
42.  Nurse cells
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
43.  The pneumotaxic center of the pons
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
44.  Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: What is produced by the structure labeled "7"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
45.  Prolonged deep inspirations can result from stimulating the ________ center.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
46.  In response to increased levels of aldosterone, the kidneys produce
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
47.  The U-shaped segment of the nephron is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
48.  The outermost layer of the kidney is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
49.  The obstructive lung disease in which elastic fibers are lost, leading to collapse of alveoli and bronchioles, is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
50.  Which of the following can be calculated if the tidal volume and respiratory rate are known?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
51.  The filtrate first passes from the glomerular capsule to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
52.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: Which muscle(s) produce(s) the movement labeled "1"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
53.  The termination of the uterine cycle at age 45-55 is called ________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
54.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: What is the relationship between the pressures at label "8"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
55.  The organ that surrounds the urethra and produces an alkaline secretion is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
56.  Which is the function of the ovaries?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
57.  The condition resulting from inadequate production of surfactant and the resultant collapse of alveoli is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
58.  Follicle-stimulating hormone
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
59.  The normal rate and depth of breathing is established by the ________ center.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
60.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term nephron loop (loop of Henle)?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
61.  Boyle's law states that gas volume is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
62.  Approximately ________ liters of glomerular filtrate enter glomerular capsules each day.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
63.  The partial pressure of oxygen in the interstitial space of peripheral tissues is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
64.  The glomeruli are best described as being tufts of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
65.  Sperm cannot fertilize an ovum unless it has been in the female reproductive tract for several hours. This enhanced ability of the sperm to fertilize the ovum is called capacitation. In vitro studies indicate that freshly ejaculated sperm can fertilize the ovum if they are first rinsed in salt solution before being introduced to the ovum. These observations suggest that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
66.  What percentage of nutrients (glucose, amino acids, etc) are reabsorbed in the PCT?
A.
B.
C.
D.
67.  Which of the following is greatest?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
68.  The principal hormone secreted by the corpus luteum is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
69.  The process of filtration is driven by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
70.  The mechanism for producing concentrated urine involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
71.  Which of the following is greater?
A.
B.
72.  Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "4."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
73.  The structure known as the juxtaglomerular apparatus is located near the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
74.  A boy has a genetic mutation such that FSH is not produced, but LH is normal. After the boy grows to maturity, it is likely he will
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
75.  Carbonic anhydrase
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
76.  Higher brain centers that alter the activity of the respiratory centers include all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
77.  Dalton's law states that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
78.  Each of the following is a normal constituent of urine, except .
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
79.  Which of the following statements about the uterine cycle is true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
80.  The pneumotaxic center
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
81.  The primary follicle develops from the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
82.  Carbon dioxide is more soluble in water than oxygen. To get the same amount of oxygen to dissolve in plasma as carbon dioxide, you would have to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
83.  A glomerulus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
84.  The apneustic centers of the pons
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
85.  The average length of the uterine cycle is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
86.  Triangular or conical structures located in the renal medulla are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
87.  Expiratory movements are produced by contraction of the ________ muscle(s).
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
88.  If the dorsal respiratory group of neurons in the medulla oblongata were destroyed bilaterally,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
89.  A 10 percent increase in the level of carbon dioxide in the blood will
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
90.  Where does countercurrent multiplication occur?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
91.  Secretion of hydrogen ion by the DCT is by the process of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
92.  The fold of skin that covers the glans penis is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
93.  On which of the following days would the level of GnRH be highest in a female?
A.
B.
C.
D.
94.  Testosterone is secreted by the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
95.  The expanded beginning of the ureter connects to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
96.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: What pressure will be present in the space labeled "5"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
97.  For erection to occur
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
98.  The function of pulmonary ventilation is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
99.  Pulmonary ventilation refers to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
100.  A mature follicle releases an ovum in response to a surge in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
101.  The spermatic cord is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
102.  Which of the following would be greater?
A.
B.
C.
103.  Increased sympathetic tone can do all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
104.  Each of the following statements concerning oogenesis is true, except that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
105.  The primary role of FSH in males is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
106.  The term hypercapnia refers to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
107.  During the secretory phase of the uterine cycle
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
108.  Which of the following factors would increase the amount of oxygen discharged by hemoglobin to peripheral tissues?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
109.  Which of the following is greater?
A.
B.
110.  The granulosa cells of developing follicles secrete
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
111.  A male bodybuilder starts taking injections of testosterone (an anabolic steroid) on a daily basis. After 3 weeks, which of the following would you expect to observe?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
112.  Where in the male reproductive system would you expect to find the most mature spermatozoa?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
113.  One mechanism the kidney uses to raise systemic blood pressure is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
114.  Menstruation is triggered by a drop in the levels of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
115.  Interstitial cells produce
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
116.  During the proliferative phase of the uterine cycle,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
117.  At a PO2 of 70 mm Hg and normal temperature and pH, hemoglobin is ________ percent saturated with oxygen.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
118.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term endometrium?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
119.  The pituitary hormone that stimulates the interstitial cells to secrete testosterone is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
120.  The paired erectile bodies in the penis are the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
121.  The partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
122.  ________ is the amount of air that you can inhale above the resting tidal volume.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
123.  Which of the following muscles move the testes towards the body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
124.  Each 100 ml of blood leaving the alveolar capillaries carries away roughly ________ ml of oxygen.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
125.  Under normal conditions, glomerular filtration depends on three main pressures. Which of those pressures is a pressure that favors the filtration pressure?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
126.  After ovulation, the ovary secretes
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
127.  Glomerular (Bowman's) capsule and the glomerulus make up the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.