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Anatomy & Physiology - Final Exam (respiratory, Renal, & Reproduction)

190 Questions  I  By Seres21e
Bob Beregowitz

  
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1.  The pneumotaxic center of the pons
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
2.  Which of the following is greater?
A.
B.
3.  The function of pulmonary ventilation is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
4.  Which of the following statements about the uterine cycle is true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
5.  Henry's law states that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
6.  Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "3."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
7.  The mechanism for producing concentrated urine involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
8.  Where in the male reproductive system would you expect to find the most mature spermatozoa?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
9.  The term hypercapnia refers to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
10.  Sperm cannot fertilize an ovum unless it has been in the female reproductive tract for several hours. This enhanced ability of the sperm to fertilize the ovum is called capacitation. In vitro studies indicate that freshly ejaculated sperm can fertilize the ovum if they are first rinsed in salt solution before being introduced to the ovum. These observations suggest that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
11.  Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "4."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
12.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: Which muscle(s) produce(s) the movement labeled "1"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
13.  Carbon dioxide is more soluble in water than oxygen. To get the same amount of oxygen to dissolve in plasma as carbon dioxide, you would have to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
14.  Which of the following factors would increase the amount of oxygen discharged by hemoglobin to peripheral tissues?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
15.  Pneumotaxic centers in the pons
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
16.  What is the function of gonads?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
17.  Nurse cells
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
18.  Stimulation of the apneustic center would result in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
19.  The condition resulting from inadequate production of surfactant and the resultant collapse of alveoli is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
20.  Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: What is produced by the structure labeled "7"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
21.  In response to increased levels of aldosterone, the kidneys produce
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
22.  For erection to occur
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
23.  The process of filtration is driven by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
24.  When there is no air movement, the relationship between the intrapulmonary and atmospheric pressure is that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
25.  The most important chemical regulator of respiration is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
26.  Which of the following would be greater?
A.
B.
C.
27.  ________ is the amount of air that you can inhale above the resting tidal volume.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
28.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: What is the relationship between the pressures at label "8"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
29.  In emphysema, which of these occur?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
30.  Which is the function of the ovaries?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
31.  The portion of the nephron that empties into the collecting duct is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
32.  The filtration barrier in the renal corpuscle consists of three layers:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
33.  Inward projections of the tunica albuginea, known as septa, divide the testis into
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
34.  Dalton's law states that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
35.  A mature follicle releases an ovum in response to a surge in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
36.  The primary role of FSH in males is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
37.  The normal rate and depth of breathing is established by the ________ center.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
38.  A patient with a connective tissue disease experiences increased pulmonary vascular resistance. Over a period of time you would expect to observe v
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
39.  The pituitary hormone that stimulates the interstitial cells to secrete testosterone is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
40.  The small paired structures at the base of the penis that secrete a thick, alkaline mucus are the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
41.  Boyle's Law of Gases states that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
42.  The organ that monitors and adjusts the composition of tubular fluid, recycles damaged spermatozoa, and is the site of sperm maturation is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
43.  One mechanism the kidney uses to raise systemic blood pressure is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
44.  Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
45.  Which of these age-based changes is false?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
46.  Sperm are moved along the ductus deferens by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
47.  Which of these components of the nephron is largely confined to the renal medulla?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
48.  Each 100 ml of blood leaving the alveolar capillaries carries away roughly ________ ml of oxygen.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
49.  The fold of skin that covers the glans penis is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
50.  If a patient being tested inhales as deeply as possible and then exhales as much as possible, the volume of air expelled would be the patient's
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
51.  Antidiuretic hormone
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
52.  The process of filtration occurs at
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
53.  During the proliferative phase of the uterine cycle,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
54.  Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "10."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
55.  The cavity of the kidney that receives urine from the calyces is called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
56.  The organ that surrounds the urethra and produces an alkaline secretion is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
57.  The ________ connect the seminiferous tubules to the epididymis.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
58.  The organ that carries sperm from the epididymis to the urethra is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
59.  The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the interstitial space of peripheral tissues is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
60.  The apneustic centers of the pons
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
61.  The average length of the uterine cycle is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
62.  The renal sinus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
63.  As the filtrate passes through the renal tubules, approximately what percentage is reabsorbed and returned to the circulation?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
64.  What physiological process occurs at the structure labeled "2"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
65.  The termination of the uterine cycle at age 45-55 is called ________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
66.  A boy has a genetic mutation such that FSH is not produced, but LH is normal. After the boy grows to maturity, it is likely he will
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
67.  The ________ delivers urine to a minor calyx.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
68.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term calyx?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
69.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: Which muscle(s) contract(s) to cause the movement indicated by the arrows labeled "6" and "7"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
70.  Which of the following muscles move the testes towards the body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
71.  On which of the following days would the level of GnRH be highest in a female?
A.
B.
C.
D.
72.  Low pH alters hemoglobin structure so that oxygen binds less strongly to hemoglobin at low PO2. This increases the effectiveness of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
73.  During the secretory phase of the uterine cycle
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
74.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term nephron loop (loop of Henle)?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
75.  Contraction of the dartos muscle
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
76.  The filtrate first passes from the glomerular capsule to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
77.  Menstruation is triggered by a drop in the levels of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
78.  A 10 percent increase in the level of carbon dioxide in the blood will
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
79.  Under quiet conditions, blood returning to the heart retains about ________ of its oxygen content when it leaves the lungs.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
80.  Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions: Identify the structure labeled "11."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
81.  Spermatozoa are functionally matured within the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
82.  Each of the following statements concerning oogenesis is true, except that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
83.  For maximum loading of hemoglobin with oxygen at the lungs, the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
84.  The ability to form concentrated urine depends on the functions of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
85.  ________ equals the respiratory rate × (tidal volume - anatomic dead space).
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
86.  The primary function of the proximal convoluted tubule is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
87.  Renal columns are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
88.  Which of the following descriptions best matches the term endometrium?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
89.  Testosterone is secreted by the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
90.  Blocking afferent action potentials from the chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies would interfere with the brain's ability to regulate breathing in response to
A.
B.
C.
D.
91.  Which of the following formulas will allow you to calculate the net filtration pressure (FP)? (Hint: GHP = glomerular hydrostatic pressure, BCOP = blood colloidal osmotic pressure, CsHP = capsular hydrostatic pressure.)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
92.  The structure known as the juxtaglomerular apparatus is located near the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
93.  A patient excretes a large volume of very dilute urine on a continuing basis. This is may be due to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
94.  Glomerular (Bowman's) capsule and the glomerulus make up the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
95.  Higher brain centers that alter the activity of the respiratory centers include all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
96.  The erectile tissue that surrounds the urethra is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
97.  Increasing the alveolar ventilation rate will
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
98.  The primary follicle develops from the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
99.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: What pressure will be present in the space labeled "5"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
100.  Which area is sensitive to the hormone ADH?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
101.  Pulmonary ventilation refers to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
102.  After ovulation, the ovary secretes
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
103.  Autoregulation of the rate of glomerular filtration has which of the following properties?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
104.  Each of the following is a normal constituent of urine, except .
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
105.  Expiratory movements are produced by contraction of the ________ muscle(s).
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
106.  Which of these descriptions best matches the term external intercostal?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
107.  Prolonged deep inspirations can result from stimulating the ________ center.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
108.  A male bodybuilder starts taking injections of testosterone (an anabolic steroid) on a daily basis. After 3 weeks, which of the following would you expect to observe?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
109.  External respiration involves the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
110.  The surge in luteinizing hormone that occurs during the middle of the ovarian cycle triggers
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
111.  Which of the following is greater?
A.
B.
C.
112.  Major calyces are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
113.  Sperm production occurs in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
114.  In quiet breathing,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
115.  This is the structure that ruptures during ovulation.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
116.  A glomerulus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
117.  A rise in the blood levels of follicle-stimulating hormone at the beginning of the ovarian cycle is responsible for
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
118.  Which of the following would be greater?
A.
B.
C.
119.  The process by which dissolved gases are exchanged between the blood and interstitial fluids is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
120.  Substances secreted by the distal convoluted tubule include
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
121.  The expanded beginning of the ureter connects to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
122.  Which statement about the chloride shift is false?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
123.  Under normal conditions, glomerular filtration depends on three main pressures. Which of those pressures is a pressure that favors the filtration pressure?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
124.  Carbonic anhydrase
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
125.  Follicle-stimulating hormone
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
126.  Contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscles result in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
127.  The reproductive system includes
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
128.  The majority of glomeruli are located in the ________ of the kidney.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
129.  Which of the following occurs after a spermatogonium completes cell division?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
130.  Increased sympathetic tone can do all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
131.  When the level of ADH (antidiuretic hormone) decreases,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
132.  Emission and ejaculation
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
133.  The paired erectile bodies in the penis are the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
134.  When the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
135.  The unit of measurement for pressure preferred by many respiratory therapists is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
136.  All of the following provide chemoreceptor input to the respiratory centers of the medulla oblongata, except the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
137.  Approximately ________ liters of glomerular filtrate enter glomerular capsules each day.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
138.  If the dorsal respiratory group of neurons in the medulla oblongata were destroyed bilaterally,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
139.  Secretion of hydrogen ion by the DCT is by the process of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
140.  The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in venous blood is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
141.  Identify the structure labeled "10."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
142.  The partial pressure of oxygen in the interstitial space of peripheral tissues is approximately
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
143.  Alveolar ventilation refers to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
144.  Which of the following can be calculated if the tidal volume and respiratory rate are known?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
145.  The male reproductive system is most closely associated with which of the following systems?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
146.  Substances larger than ________ do not pass through the filtration membrane.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
147.  The dense layer of connective tissue that surrounds the testis is called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
148.  The glomeruli are best described as being tufts of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
149.  Identify the structure labeled "9."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
150.  Contraction of the cremaster muscles
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
151.  ________ is the amount of air that moves into the respiratory system during a single respiratory cycle under resting conditions.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
152.  Where does most nutrient reabsorption occur?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
153.  Where does countercurrent multiplication occur?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
154.  Which of the following is greater?
A.
B.
155.  Chloride ion is reabsorbed in the thick ascending limb by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
156.  Use Figure 20-2 to answer the following questions: What is the relationship between the pressures at label "3
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
157.  The granulosa cells of developing follicles secrete
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
158.  Most of the carbon dioxide in the blood is transported as
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
159.  The principal hormone secreted by the corpus luteum is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
160.  During the menses
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
161.  The organ that is posterior to the urinary bladder is (are) the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
162.  The U-shaped segment of the nephron is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
163.  Tubular reabsorption involves all of the following, except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
164.  The pneumotaxic center
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
165.  Boyle's law states that gas volume is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
166.  The uterine phase that develops because of a fall in progesterone levels is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
167.  Secondary sexual characteristics
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
168.  The partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood is approximately