1994 Ap U.S. Govt. & Politics

53 Questions  I  By Ravin.netty
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 1994 ap U.S. govt. & politics
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  • 1. 
    All of the following statements pertaining to the presidential veto are true EXCEPT
    • A. 

      Congress overrides fewer than ten percent of presidential vetoes

    • B. 

      A vetoed bill is often revised and passed in another form

    • C. 

      Presidents often threaten to veto bills to increase their leverage with Congress

    • D. 

      A President may veto part of a bill

    • E. 

      Congress often places provisions the President wants into a bill the President dislikes to amek a veto less likely


  • 2. 
    Which of the following is a correct statement about political action committees (PAC's)?
    • A. 

      The number of PAC's has remained stable over the past decade

    • B. 

      Most PAC money is distributed to challengers in an effort to unseat hostile incumbents

    • C. 

      The amount of money that PAC's can contribute directly to an individual candidate is limited by law

    • D. 

      PAC's a illegal in most states

    • E. 

      PAC's rarely attempt to influence legislation though lobbying activities


  • 3. 
    A "cloture motion" passed in Senate does which of the following?
    • A. 

      Returns a bill to committee

    • B. 

      Cuts off debate on a bill

    • C. 

      Criticizes a senator guilty of improprieties

    • D. 

      Removes a President who has been impeached by the House

    • E. 

      Brings a bill directly to a vote without formal committee approval


  • 4. 
    The use of direct primaries instead of the convention system in selecting presidential candidates results in which of the following? I. A weakening of partly control over nominations.II. A reduction in the costs of election campaigns.III. An increase in the number of people involved in the choice of candidates.IV. An increase in voter turnout in midterm elections.
    • A. 

      I and III only

    • B. 

      II and IV only

    • C. 

      III and IV only

    • D. 

      I, II, and III only

    • E. 

      I, II, III, and IV


  • 5. 
    Which of the following factors best accounts for the rise of interest groups and the decline of political parties in recent years?
    • A. 

      National parties have become too closely identified with controversial issues

    • B. 

      Court decisions have restricted the political parties' abilities to recruit new members

    • C. 

      It is less expensive to join an interest group than to join a political party

    • D. 

      Interest groups have been more successful in avoiding negative press coverage than have political parties

    • E. 

      Interest groups are better able to articulate specific policy positions than are political parties


  • 6. 
    Which of the following best characterizes the influence of the news media on public opinion in the United States?
    • A. 

      They alter the public's views on issues

    • B. 

      They affect which issues the public thinks are important

    • C. 

      They determine how citizens will vote

    • D. 

      Hey are most able to influence people with the highest level of education

    • E. 

      Htey are most able to influence the urban sectors of society


  • 7. 
    Of the following, which group voted most heavily Democratic in presidential elections between 1964 and 1992?
    • A. 

      Mexican Americans

    • B. 

      Chinese Americans

    • C. 

      Jewish Americans

    • D. 

      Black Americans

    • E. 

      Roman Catholic Americans


  • 8. 
    To enforce the Fourteenth Amendment more clearly, Congress passed the
    • A. 

      Civil Rights Act of 1964

    • B. 

      Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act

    • C. 

      Social Security Act

    • D. 

      Twenty-sixth Amendment

    • E. 

      War Powers Resolution


  • 9. 
    In the United States, most criminal cases end in
    • A. 

      A plea bargain negotiated by the defense and prosecution

    • B. 

      An appeal to the United States Court of Appeals

    • C. 

      An appeal to a state court of appeals

    • D. 

      A trial by judge

    • E. 

      A trial by jury


  • 10. 
    "The Congress shall have power...to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof." -clause from the Constitution.Interpretations of this clause have been central to attempts to define the nature of which of the following aspects of the United States political system?
    • A. 

      Republicanism

    • B. 

      Pluralism

    • C. 

      Due process of law

    • D. 

      Federalism

    • E. 

      Judicial review


  • 11. 
    "The Congress shall have power...to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof." -excerpt from the Constitution.The practical effect of this clause has been to
    • A. 

      Make the legislature the most powerful branch of the national government

    • B. 

      Allow the national government to extend its powers beyond those enumerated in the Constitution

    • C. 

      Allow state governments to nullify federal laws with their borders

    • D. 

      Give the President uncontested powers in the area of foreign policy

    • E. 

      Ensure that any powers not delegated by the Constitution to the United States government are reserved to the states and the people


  • 12. 
    Those who believe that the Supreme Court in its rulings should defer to the elective institutions of government are advocating
    • A. 

      "Social Darwinism"

    • B. 

      "judicial activism"

    • C. 

      "judicial restraint"

    • D. 

      "incorporation"

    • E. 

      "nullification"


  • 13. 
    In general, Congress is most likely to defer to the President
    • A. 

      In the area of foreign policy

    • B. 

      In the area of fiscal policy

    • C. 

      In the area of social policy

    • D. 

      Late in the President's term

    • E. 

      When the economy is strong


  • 14. 
    In trying to influence legislation, the President is generally more successful than congressional leaders in
    • A. 

      Using the legislative schedule to political advantage

    • B. 

      Enforcing the party discipline

    • C. 

      Satisfying interest group demands for access to the policy process

    • D. 

      Effectively using formal parliamentary powers rather than persuasion

    • E. 

      Using the media to set the policy agenda


  • 15. 
    Supporters of granting the President a line-item veto would most likely argue that this power would increase a President's ability to
    • A. 

      Work effectively with the cabinet

    • B. 

      Negotiate understandings with foreign heads of government

    • C. 

      Control federal spending

    • D. 

      Avoid costly disputes with the judiciary

    • E. 

      Provide effectively for national defense


  • 16. 
    Which of the following is true of an executive agreement made between a United States President and another head of state?
    • A. 

      It does not require Senate approval, but may require congressional allocation of funds for implementation

    • B. 

      It does not require congressional funding because the president can use the power fo the purse to raise implementation funds

    • C. 

      It has more legal force than a treaty

    • D. 

      It is binding on all succeeding Presidents and Congresses

    • E. 

      It has been used extensively to end armed conflicts


  • 17. 
    Over the past 20 years, reforms of teh presidential nomination process have had which of teh following effects?
    • A. 

      The nomination process in both parties has become less democratic and open

    • B. 

      The number of Black delegates at Republican national conventions has grown substantially

    • C. 

      The number of candidates willing and able to seek the nomination has decreased dramatically

    • D. 

      The number of female delegates and minority-group delegates at Democratic national conventions has grown substantially

    • E. 

      State and local party organizations have increased their control over the process


  • 18. 
    All of the following are reasons incumbents in the House of Representatives enjoy an electoral advantage over challengers EXCEPT that incumbents
    • A. 

      Get substantial financial support from their party's national committee

    • B. 

      Are better known to voters than are challengers

    • C. 

      Find it much easier to raise campaign funds than do challengers

    • D. 

      Can use staff members to do constituent service

    • E. 

      Often serve on committees that enable them to help the constituency


  • 19. 
    The Office of Management and Budget has the primary responsibility for doing which of the following?
    • A. 

      Implementing federal unemployment policy

    • B. 

      Preparing the budget

    • C. 

      Auditing the budget

    • D. 

      Appropriating funds for the budget

    • E. 

      Approving the budget


  • 20. 
    The boundary lines of congressional districts are drawn by
    • A. 

      The United States House of Representatives

    • B. 

      The United States Senate

    • C. 

      United States district courts

    • D. 

      State governors

    • E. 

      State legislatures


  • 21. 
    The most common form of political activity undertaken by United States citizens is
    • A. 

      Lobbying to influence decisions by public officials

    • B. 

      Campaigning for candidates for office

    • C. 

      Contributing money to a political party

    • D. 

      Voting in local elections

    • E. 

      Voting in presidential elections


  • 22. 
    Which of the following statements best describes how United States citizens regard the rights of free speech and assembly?
    • A. 

      A majority agrees in principle with these rights, but in practice many people are often intolerant of views they do not support

    • B. 

      A majority actively supports these rights without any reservations

    • C. 

      A majority opposes these rights in principle

    • D. 

      The average citizen is more supportive fo these rights than are members of the elite

    • E. 

      Conservatives have traditionally been more supportive of these rights than have liberals


  • 23. 
    The Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution has been interpreted by the Supreme Court to
    • A. 

      Expand presidential power

    • B. 

      Restrict the application of judicial review

    • C. 

      Make most rights contained in the Bill of Rights applicable to the states

    • D. 

      Prevent states from taxing agencies of the federal government

    • E. 

      Limit the use of the legislative veto


  • 24. 
    The legislative process at the national level reflects the intent of the framers of the Constitution to create a legislature that would
    • A. 

      Be less powerful than executive

    • B. 

      Be cautious and deliberate

    • C. 

      Involve as many citizens as possible

    • D. 

      Ensure that all groups be equally represented

    • E. 

      Allow majorities virtually unlimited control over policy


  • 25. 
    All of the following are consequences of the federal system in the United States EXCEPT
    • A. 

      Inequality in government services across subnational entities

    • B. 

      Opportunities for experimentation in government programs

    • C. 

      Multiple points of access for interest groups

    • D. 

      Decentralization of political conflict

    • E. 

      A strict division of power among levels of government


  • 26. 
    Which of the following is true about divided party control of the presidency and Congress?
    • A. 

      It is a natural occurrence due to the constitutional system of checks and balances

    • B. 

      It rarely occurs in United States elections, because of straight-ticket voting

    • C. 

      It promotes quick action by the President and Congress on such issues as the federal budget

    • D. 

      It reflects a frequent election pattern over the past three decades

    • E. 

      It results from the reapportionment of House seats after the decennial census


  • 27. 
    The Freedom of Information Act was designed primarily to give
    • A. 

      Congress access to information from citizens

    • B. 

      Police access to information from criminal suspects

    • C. 

      The courts access to information from reporters

    • D. 

      Citizens access to information from the executive branch

    • E. 

      Congress access to information from the executive branch


  • 28. 
    Which of the following is true of the electoral college system?
    • A. 

      It encourages the emergence of third parties

    • B. 

      It encourages candidates to concentrate their campaigns in competitive, populous states

    • C. 

      It ensures that the votes of all citizens count equally in selecting the President

    • D. 

      It requires that a candidate win a minimum of 26 states to obtain a majority in the college

    • E. 

      It tends to make presidential elections appear closer than they really are


  • 29. 
    The congressional system of standing committees is significant because it
    • A. 

      Fosters the development of expertise by members

    • B. 

      Helps Congress reduce staff costs

    • C. 

      Insulates decision-making from the influence of special interests

    • D. 

      Weakens Congress in its dealings with the President

    • E. 

      Prevents Congress from effectively processing its large legislative workload


  • 30. 
    Elections for the House of Representatives provide
    • A. 

      Approximately equal representation for every voter

    • B. 

      An equal chance of getting elected for both incumbents and challengers

    • C. 

      A system in which only those candidates who receive a majority of the votes cast win on the first ballot

    • D. 

      Proportional representation based on the percentage of votes cast for each party

    • E. 

      Proportional representation of racial and ethnic minorities


  • 31. 
    In contrast to revenue sharing, categorical grants-in-aid provide state and local governments with
    • A. 

      Substantial discretion in deciding how to use the grants to solve their problems

    • B. 

      Aid that reflects tax base and population

    • C. 

      The power to impose regressive taxes

    • D. 

      Funds sufficient to support a high level of local service

    • E. 

      Funds to administer programs clearly specified by the federal government


  • 32. 
    Which of the following is empowered to create new federal courts and specify the number of judges who will sit on them?
    • A. 

      The Supreme Court

    • B. 

      Congress

    • C. 

      The President

    • D. 

      The Department of Justice

    • E. 

      The attorney general


  • 33. 
    The war Powers Resolution (1973) was designed to
    • A. 

      Allow the Joint Chief of Staff to advise the President during periods of conflict

    • B. 

      Allow Congress to suspend certain civil liberties during times of war

    • C. 

      Require a congressional declaration of war before allowing military forces to be used overseas

    • D. 

      Assure congressional involvement in decisions committing military forces in hostile situations overseas

    • E. 

      Ensure funding for military operations lasting more than 60 days


  • 34. 
    The primary reason for the current existence of only two major political parties in the United States is that
    • A. 

      The Constitution puts severe restrictions on other parties

    • B. 

      Third parties are usually far to the right or left, and Americans are moderates

    • C. 

      A winner0take-all electoral system makes it difficult for new parties to emerge and survive

    • D. 

      Voters naturally think of themselves as either liberals or conservatives

    • E. 

      Presidential electors can vote for only two candidates


  • 35. 
    An interest group would likely have the greatest influence on policy matters involving
    • A. 

      Narrow issues, only a few interest groups, and technical information

    • B. 

      Broad, highly visible national issues

    • C. 

      Broad foreign policy issues

    • D. 

      Major constitutional questions about civil rights and liberties

    • E. 

      Areas in which members of Congress have considerable expertise and commitment


  • 36. 
    Which of the following has the most influence on the outcome of a congressional election?
    • A. 

      Local performance of a candidate's party in the presidential race

    • B. 

      A candidate's incumbency status

    • C. 

      The amount of a candidate's campaign spending relative to that of his or her opponent

    • D. 

      The level of support from local party leaders

    • E. 

      The level of voter turnout


  • 37. 
    Which of the following is an accurate statement about the voter turnout rate in the United States?
    • A. 

      It is high because of the large numbers of elective offices

    • B. 

      It is significantly higher among men than among women

    • C. 

      It is lower than in most other Western democracies

    • D. 

      It increased sharply when eighteen year olds were given the right to vote

    • E. 

      It has been steady over the last 30 years


  • 38. 
    Which of the following is an accurate statement that could be used to refute the argument that a realignment took place in the 1980's?
    • A. 

      Although the Republicans had success in national elections, they did not attract members of traditionally Democratic groups

    • B. 

      Republican identifiers where less likely to vote their partisanship than were Democratic identifiers

    • C. 

      The Republicans had been the dominant party since the late 1960's

    • D. 

      They decline in voter turnout slowed steadily

    • E. 

      Republican dominance in presidential elections did not extend to congressional, state, and local elections


  • 39. 
    Compared to voters in general election, voters in presidential primary elections are
    • A. 

      Less likely to be members of political parties

    • B. 

      Less likely to be well educated

    • C. 

      Likely to be a larger percentage of the voting-age population

    • D. 

      More likely to be members of ethnic or racial minority groups

    • E. 

      More likely to be affluent


  • 40. 
    Which of the following was an argument used by the Supreme Court in upholding federal statutes outlawing segregation in public accommodations?
    • A. 

      Such segregation affected interstate commerce, and Congress therefore had the authority to outlaw it

    • B. 

      Such segregation was wrong in principle, and Congress had moral authority to outlaw it even though the statutes lacked a strict constitutional basis

    • C. 

      Such segregation violated the First Amendment's protection of the right to free assembly, and Congress therefore had the authority to outlaw it

    • D. 

      Such segregation violated the Tenth Amendment's reservation of power to state governments, and Congress therefore had the authority to outlaw it

    • E. 

      Since such segregation affected citizens of different states, it fell under the original jurisdiction of the federal courts and could therefore be outlawed by Congress


  • 41. 
    The clear-and-resent-danger test devised by the Supreme Court was designed to define the conditions under which public authorities could
    • A. 

      Ban obscene materials

    • B. 

      Suspend habeas corpus protections

    • C. 

      Mobilize the National Guard

    • D. 

      Limit free speech

    • E. 

      Commit troops to situations of potential foreign combat


  • 42. 
    As originally ratified, the United States Constitution included provisions designed to
    • A. 

      Limit the importation of foreign manufactured goods

    • B. 

      Increase the economic importance of the agrarian sector relative to that of the manufacturing sector

    • C. 

      Increase the economic powers of the central government

    • D. 

      Expand the states' powers to regulate their own commerce with foreign countries

    • E. 

      Guarantee the states a greater role in economic policy-making


  • 43. 
    Which of the following accurately characterizes the main difference between elite theories and pluralist theories of politics in the United States?
    • A. 

      Elite theories concentrate on the role of interest groups; pluralist theories emphasize the role of individuals

    • B. 

      Elite theories argue that a single minority dominates politics in all policy areas; pluralist theories argue that many minorities compete for power in different policy areas

    • C. 

      Elite theories argue that social status is the major source of political power; pluralist theories argue that wealth is the major source

    • D. 

      Elite theories emphasize the multiple access points that interest groups have to public officials; pluralist theories stress the limits in the number and effectiveness of such access points

    • E. 

      Elite theories view government as efficient; pluralist theories view it as slow and wasteful


  • 44. 
    A committee chair in the House of Representatives is always
    • A. 

      The member with the longest service on the committee

    • B. 

      The memeber with the longest services in the House

    • C. 

      A representative of the Speaker

    • D. 

      A member of the majority party in the chamber

    • E. 

      A trusted ally of the President


  • 45. 
    Which of the following is true of independent regulatory agencies?
    • A. 

      They tend to have larger budgets than cabinet departments

    • B. 

      They are directly supervised by cabinet departments

    • C. 

      They provide a product or service directly to the public

    • D. 

      They are insulated from contact with interest groups

    • E. 

      They tend to be freer from presidential control than are cabinet departments


  • 46. 
    Which of the following are differences between the legislative process in the House of Representatives and that in the Senate? I. Debate is more restricted on the House floor than on the Senate floor.II. The amendment process is more restricted in the House than in the Senate.III. Bills are more likely to bypass committee consideration in the House than in the Senate.IV. A Rules Committee sets the guidelines for floor debate in the House but not in the Senate.
    • A. 

      III only

    • B. 

      I and II only

    • C. 

      II and IV only

    • D. 

      I, II, and IV only

    • E. 

      I, II, III, and IV


  • 47. 
    Communication between congressional representatives and constituents occurs mainly through
    • A. 

      Committee hearings

    • B. 

      The media

    • C. 

      The personal staffs of representatives

    • D. 

      The federal bureaucracy

    • E. 

      Staff members of congressional committees


  • 48. 
    The Supreme Court's decision about abortion in Roe v. Wade was based on
    • A. 

      The right to privacy implied in the Bill of Rights

    • B. 

      Guarantees of freedom of religion contained in the First Amendment

    • C. 

      The due process clause in the Fifth Amendment

    • D. 

      The equal protection clause in the Fourteenth Amendment

    • E. 

      A federal statute legalizing abortion


  • 49. 
    Which of the following trends was evident in presidential elections in the 1980's?
    • A. 

      The decline of Republican party strength among Black northerners

    • B. 

      The decline of Democratic party strength among White southerners

    • C. 

      The gradual decline of Democratic party strength among suburban voters

    • D. 

      A Democratic majority in partisan self-identification

    • E. 

      A gender gab, with women's support of Republicans sharply declining


  • 50. 
    Which of the following statements about incumbent senators running for reelection is correct?
    • A. 

      The senators with the best chances of reelection are those who have served the longest

    • B. 

      The amount of money spent by a challenger has little bearing on an incumbent's reelection chances

    • C. 

      Incumbent senators are less likely to be reelected than are incumbent members of the House of Representatives

    • D. 

      An incumbent senator is equally likely to be reelected or defeated

    • E. 

      The most important factor influencing the reelection chances of senators is whether they belong to the President's party


  • 51. 
    An important change in political culture since 1950 is that United States citizens have become
    • A. 

      More likely to believe that their actions can influence government policy

    • B. 

      More trusting of nongovernmental institutions and leaders

    • C. 

      Less trusting of governmental institutions and leaders

    • D. 

      Less supportive of school integration

    • E. 

      Less likely to think of themselves as ideologically moderate


  • 52. 
    The most common criterion that people use when voting for a presidential candidate is the candidate's
    • A. 

      Views on specific issues

    • B. 

      Party identification

    • C. 

      Ideological position

    • D. 

      Personal appearance

    • E. 

      Fiscal policy


  • 53. 
    Protection of the legal rights of women has been facilitated by the passage of which of the following? I. The Equal Rights AmendmentII. The Equal Pay Act of 1963III. The Civil Rights Act of 1964IV. The Education Amendments Act of 1972
    • A. 

      II only

    • B. 

      I and III only

    • C. 

      I and IV only

    • D. 

      II, III, and IV only

    • E. 

      I, II, III, and IV


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