Indian companies usually use the terms ADR and GDR to raise their funds from the foreign and international capital market. ADR or American Depository Receipt is an instrument issued by a US bank that can be negotiated between them and Indian companies to trade in the US stock exchange. This is issued in the domestic capital market in the United States. Onerous is required to file disclosure, and the negotiations are done in America only.
GDR, on the other hand, is Global Depository Receipt that is also a negotiable instrument but issued by the international depository bank. The country’s stock market can trade to any foreign companies aside from the US stock market. This is issued in the European capital market and can be negotiated all over the world. The disclosure requirement of GDR is less onerous compared to ADR.
TNC stands for transnational companies. These are very similar to multinational companies. They both operate in different countries, but this is where the difference becomes evident. Multinational companies usually have investments in other countries, but they do not coordinate their product offerings.
Transnational companies make it a point to offer similar products to people to ensure that the company will offer the items that people can expect. There are some companies that are considered to be multinational companies like McDonald's. This is based in one country, but it can offer its products and services to other countries all over the world.
NASDAQ is the short form of National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations, while NYSE is the short form of the New York Stock Exchange. Both NASDAQ and NYSE share some similarities because they are both into the trading and offering of many sophisticated and expensive services. They are both into stock exchange services.
However, there are some differences between them. NASDAQ is an organization of companies that are providing, technology, electronics, and internet-based services. NYSE, on the other hand, is an organization of both old and big companies with a lot of industries. Another difference is their approach to business.
NASDAQ is operating a dealer's market, and this means the buyer and seller will not have any contact with each other, and NASDAQ is just acting as the middle man. NYSE, on the other hand, allows a kind of direct transaction between a potential buyer and a seller. Volatility is another factor; NASDAQ stocks are more volatile compared to NYSE stocks.
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The area below the price and above the supply curve measures the producer surplus. I can see that you said above and below, but that is only true for consumer surplus using the demand curve