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DNA Questions and Answers (Q&A)

T. Lopez

Let's see how far my knowledge stretches

MRNA and tRNA are types of RNA. Messenger RNA, commonly known as mRNA, is synthesized by RNA polymerase II. mRNA is made from the transcription of DNA. mRNA serves as the link between genes and proteins. It carries the message for the protein to be synthesized. mRNA is produced in the nucleus. It is then transported into the cytosol, where it is translated by ribosomes with help from tRNA to form a protein.

Transfer RNA, commonly referred to as tRNA, is synthesized by RNA polymerase III. tRNA contains about 75 to 90 nucleotides in structure. It carries anticodon (a string of 3 key bases) that matches codons present on mRNA. Each amino acid has its own type of tRNA. It carries specific amino acid (anticodon) into the ribosome for translation. The correct tRNA will bind to its codon on the mRNA.

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DNA fingerprinting is the process that is done to determine the genetic makeup of an individual through he use of bodily fluids such as: saliva, blood and sweat. The hair and other parts of the body can also be used. DNA fingerprinting has many applications. To determine blood relationship: In the case where you are looking for a loved one or you want to confirm the relationship between you are a person, DNA fingerprinting can help to prove blood relation.

Crime investigation: DNA fingerprint also plays a vital role in crime investigation. DNA fetched from a crime scene can be compared with that of a suspect to see if they are guilty of the crime or not. Medicine practice: In medicine, DNA fingerprinting is important in the case of organ donation. It is also used to check for certain disease possibilities in intending couples.

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I think that the DNA will code for a different protein. Because if you switch up one of the Nitrogen bases of the codon it will most likely make a different type of protein.

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The correct answer to this question is option D – Anaphase. Mitosis is the division of a cell nucleus in which the genome is copied and separated into two identical halves. Mitosis is normally followed by the division of the cell. Mitosis is divided into 4 phases. The first phase is prophase, followed by metaphase, then anaphase, and finally, telophase. Anaphase is the 3rd phase in mitosis.

During this phase, the chromosomes separate. The sister chromatids move to opposite poles of the parent cell with the help of spindle fibers that pull them apart. This happens with the shortening of the spindle fibers. One sister chromatid is present on one side of the pole, and the other moves to the opposite side of the pole. As the sister chromatids divide, centromere also divides. At the end of anaphase, each side of the pole has a complete set of chromosomes, making two chromosomes in one cell.

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The correct answer is to this question is sexduction. In molecular recombination, when F plasmid is transferred to an F – cell, it is called considered molecular recombination. The F plasmid is also known as the Fertility factor, or sex factors are used to transfer genes from one bacterium that has the factor to another bacterium that lacks the factor.

Sexduction is a peculiar case of gene transfer from a bacterium (male cell), who is the donor to another bacterium (female cell), also called the recipient. It is a form of bacterial conjugation that involves F- plasmid. In this case, the F factor is released independently with a fragment of the chromosome is transferred to another bacterium. The recipient cell becomes diploid and acquires new characteristics.

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The correct answer to this question is option C – DTTP From the image above, we can see a replication fork. This clearly states that the on-going process is DNA replication and not RNA transcription. DNA replication is a semiconservative process that occurs in 5’ to 3 ‘direction. It involves both leading and lagging strands.

The leading strands start from 5’ direction, and the lagging strand faces the 3’ direction. If adenine is the first nucleoside triphosphate molecule added on the 5’ end, then the precursor molecule that would serve as the substrate that formed the first nucleotide in segment E is DTTP (deoxythymidine triphosphate). Options A and B are wrong because uracil is not a nucleotide present in DNA. Therefore, it cannot be the substrate formed. Only triphosphate nucleosides are added in DNA replication, making other options wrong.

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The correct answer to this question is option B – Strand 2 The DNA strand that served as the template strand (coding strand) in the synthesis of mRNA shown above is DNA strand 2. Complementary base pairing is the basis of RNA transcription. If you take a look at G in DNA strand 2 and C in mRNA, you can tell that they are complementary. Same as T in DNA strand 2 and U in mRNA.

A simple way to identify this is to know that mRNA always looks likes the non-coding strand. This is because both the non-coding strand and are transcribed from the same sequence of coding strand. If you look at the chart carefully, you will see that DNA strand 1 is identical to mRNA aside that thymidine is present in DNA and it is replaced with Uracil in RNA.

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DNA is the acronym for Deoxyribonucleic acid. DNA is the carrier of genetic information in living organisms. DNA has the ability to self-replicate. DNA has four different nucleotide groups, which are made from sugar known as deoxyribose, a phosphate group, and one of four nucleobases (Adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine). DNA is made of two strands that coil around each other to form the double-helical structure.

The two strands are tightly held together by hydrogen bonds. DNA is tightly packed with histones to form a nucleosome. DNA is also arranged into structures known as chromosomes DNA was first identified by Friedrich Miescher in 1869. In 1953, Francis Crick and James Watson identified the molecular structure (double helix) of DNA.

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There are about 7 steps in DNA fingerprinting. These steps include: Extraction of DNA from cell: For DNA fingerprinting to be done, samples of DNA must be obtained. DNA samples can be taken from saliva, blood, semen, muscle, cells and other tissues. The blood and cheek swabs are the most common methods of collecting samples.

Cutting DNA using enzymes: Restriction enzymes are used to cut the very long strands of DNA. At this stage, the restriction enzymes are added to the sample. This step takes a few hours to be completed. Separation of DNA fragment: Gel electrophoresis is used to separate DNA fragments into different sizes. The last four steps are: Transfer of DNA to paper, addition of radioactive probe, setting up X ray film exposure and hybridization oven.

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Yes DNA fingerprinting has the same meaning as DNA profiling. DNA profiling refers to the process of determining a person’s DNA characteristics and other unique traits. This process is done for many reasons. Some of these include Criminal investigation: DNA profiling is done to compare the DNA of a suspect to that recovered from a scene of the crime to check the likelihood of an individual’s involvement in a crime.

Blood relation: DNA profiling can also be done to determine blood relationships between people. Research purpose: DNA profiling is also done for medical and research purposes. It is done to check the likelihood of the development of certain traits and much more. DNA profiling is also done in the study of plants and animals in fields such as agriculture and botany.

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