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AP Biology Questions and Answers (Q&A)

Option B - Food -> NADH -> Electron transport chain -> oxygen is the correct sequence of electron travel during aerobic respiration.

In aerobic respiration (also known as cellular respiration) electrons travel in this sequence: electrons are picked up from the food by NADH and FADH, the electron picked is then transferred to the electron transport chain through a proton pump, the activity of the pump creates an electrochemical gradient, an enzyme called ATP synthase uses the electrochemical gradient produced to generate ATP. The last acceptor of an electron in aerobic respiration is oxygen, an electron is donated to oxygen to produce water.

3 Answers

In the eukaryotic cell, there are many parts. There are lipids and proteins between the membranes of the endomembrane system. The endomembrane system are in the cytoplasm within these cells.

In the system, the parts include organelles, nuclear membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vesicles, endosomes. Each of these parts performs a function in order to allow the entire eukaryotic cell to function. One part is known as the Golgi apparatus.

The function of the Golgi apparatus is in sorting the membrane components. The Golgi apparatus looks like a bunch of sacs. These sacs are called the cisternae. There are also vacuoles. Vacuoles are similar to vesicles and are also sacs located inside the cell. Eukaryotic cells are known as plant cells.

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Starch is present in plants. It is a soft, white, tasteless powder that is insoluble in cold water, alcohol, or other solvents. All starch contains a form of sugar. A solution of starch is sensitive to the temperature at which it is kept. Usually, decomposition reactions require energy input.

The decomposition temperature of starch is not due to water content because water may evaporate from a sample before reaching the decomposition temperature. Answer B is correct. The hydrolysis of starch to sugar is endergonic: endergonic reactions need an input of energy to occur.

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Allosteric inhibition is the progression by which a regulatory molecule attaches to an enzyme in a spot different from the active site for an additional particle, which causes a conformational alteration in the dynamic place for the second molecule, thwarting binding.

This progression is also known as noncompetitive inhibition. A similar method is used in allosteric activation, in which the modification of the binding site increases the binding of the second molecule, which is referred to as noncompetitive initiation.

In a method similar to allosteric inhibition, competitive inhibition is also used to prevent enzymatic activation. In competitive inhibition, the controlling molecule binds to the same site as the other molecule, which hinders binding from occurring.

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Vestigial structures are a structure in an organism that has lost all or at least most of its original function in the course of evolution. This might include things like the human appendix. Vestigial structures have little to no importance to an organism but might be leftover from an ancestor.

Some other examples of vestigial structures in humans are muscles of the ear, wisdom teeth, the tailbone, body hair, and the semilunar fold in the corner of the eye. In 1890 Charles Darwin defined many of these vestigial structures as human attributes that are no longer useful to humans.

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Thylakoids are special stacks that are present within a chloroplast of a plant cell. Chloroplasts are organelles that are responsible for photosynthesis. These thylakoids contain the pigment chlorophyll on their membranes. This pigment absorbs the energy from the sun and allows the chloroplast to use it for photosynthesis.

If the thylakoids are destroyed, the pigment inside them will be lost, ultimately, the chloroplast will not be able to harness the suns energy to energize the electros. The electron transport chain will not proceed and AP will not be formed. This will halt photosynthesis, and the plant will no longer be able to use CO2 from the atmosphere to form glucose.

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The correct answer is not listed in the answers. It’s 32 cells total. It’s not a lot, but that is a lot for the small amount of time that five divisions would take. Six cell divisions would get you the final answer - 64 cells total. When a cell divides, it becomes two cells. First, the DNA replicates. Then, the cell organelles duplicate, and the cell swells as the cytoplasm increases too.

The final thing to happen is the cell membrane grows between the old organelles and the new ones. Once that’s done, the two cells separate as much as they can, and voila. They have two cells where there had been one. The cycle starts again, and continues indefinitely in some cells.

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This question is misleading. Please change it.

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A cell has many chemical reactions occurring simultaneously. The metabolism is always at work and is driven by these chemical reactions. However, in a state of equilibrium the substrates and reactants are in a specific ratio without any changes. In other words it can be said that a chemical reaction in equilibrium is one in which the reactants and products in a metabolic pathway are both used in a metabolic pathway, which is in fact inactive.

Although, in reality this means that the rate of substrate and products interconverting into one another is equal, which gives the impression as if nothing is happening and the pathway is inactive.

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Is "gycerol" (glycerol) purposefully spelled wrong? If yes, then I guess "none" is correct. However, if it was a grammar mistake, and it was indeed meant to be "glycerol" than lipids, in specific phospholipids, include a glycerol molecule.

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