1) In what way did China and Vietnam differ from the other nations of the Third World?
A) The traditional patterns of civilization in China and Vietnam collapsed, whereas most colonized peoples managed to retain much of their pre-colonial cultures.
B) China and Vietnam, unlike most of the other regions of the Third World, were able to establish stable democracies without military interventions.
C) China and Vietnam successfully industrialized in the early decades of the twentieth century, whereas most third world nations were unable to escape economic dependency.
D) China and Vietnam were not part of the European colonial network, although Japanese imperialism was a factor.
E) They never had to deal with the issue of a rapidly expanding population.
2) In China and Vietnam, a combination of external aggression and internal upheavals discredited and destroyed the
A) middle class.
B) previously established patterns of industrialization.
C) Confucian system.
D) Communist influence.
E) parliamentary system
3) The last Manchu emperor abdicated in
A) 1912. B) 1923. C) 1939. D) 1945. E) 1949
4) The best-positioned contenders for power in the aftermath of the abdication of the Qing were the
A) merchants and bankers of coastal cities.
B) warlords or military commanders.
C) university students.
D) secret societies. E) forces of modernization
5) What foreign power played a major factor in Chinese domestic history from the mid-1890s to 1945?
A) United States B) Vietnam C) Britain D) Japan E) USSR
6) The leader of the Revolutionary Alliance, a loose coalition of anti-Qing political groups that spearheaded the 1911 revolt, was
A) Yuan Shikai. B) Chiang Kai-shek. C) Sun Yat-sen. D) Mao Zedong. E) Zhao En-lai
7) What happened to the parliamentary government established in China by the Revolutionary Alliance in 1912?
A) It was overthrown by a Communist insurrection.
B) Sun Yat-sen resigned the presidency in favor of the northern warlord, Yuan Shikai.
C) The parliamentary government under the presidency of Sun Y at-Sen effectively governed northern China from the capital at Beijing for 20 years.
D) The parliamentary government was overthrown by the Boxer rebellion.
E) It remained in power until the Japanese invasion of 1931.
9) The initial goal of the May Fourth movement was
A) Communist insurrection.
B) ridding China of all Western influences.
C) the creation of a liberal democracy along Western lines.
D) Chinese subjection to Japan.
E) ridding China of all Confucian ideas and practices.
10) Most of the members of the early May Fourth movement were
D) intellectuals and students.
E) European nationals.
11) What made Chinese thinkers aware of a possible Marxist solution to China's ills?
A) Russian revolution of 1905
B) Russian revolution of 1917 ]]]]
C) Frederick Engels's visit to China in 1912
D) Japanese example
E) writings of Mao
12) The man who headed the study circle at the University of Beijing and who first gave serious attention to Marxist philosophy was
A) Chiang Kai-shek.
B) Li Bo.
C) Li Dazhao.
D) Yuan Shikai.
E) Sun Yat-sen.
13) How did early Chinese Marxist philosophy differ from Lenin's?
A) Chinese philosophers emphasized the role of the proletariat in the revolution.
B) Chinese thinkers stressed the gradualist approach to political change.
C) Sun Yat-sen taught that the revolution could only occur after the complete industrialization of China.
D) The study circle at the University of Beijing saw the peasants as the vanguard of revolution.
E) Chinese philosophers thought that imperialism was the last stage of capitalism.
14) Early Marxist philosophers in China characterized all ofChina's society as
15) Which 0£ the following organizations and publications was NOT associated with the early Marxist movement in China?
A) New Youth
B) Socialist Youth Corps
C) Communist Youth Corps
E) Marx study clubs
16) The founder of the Communist Youth Corps in Paris in 1920 was
A) Mao Zedong.
B) Zhou Enlai.
C) Sun Yat-sen.
D) Li Dazhao.
E) Chiang Kai-shek.
17) In 1919, Sun Yat-sen returned to China and attempted to unjfy the various political organizations struggling for political influence in China by reorganizing the revolutionary movement under what name?
A) Socialist Youth Corps
B) May Fourth movement
C) Red Army
D) Nationalist Party of China
E) Yuan shi-kai movement
18) Which of the following groups were NOT allied with the Nationalist Party by 1924?
A) United States
B) Urban businessmen and merchants of the southern coastal cities
D) Local warlords and the criminal underworld
E) Green Gang
19) The Chinese Nationalist Party received much of its early foreign assistance from
A) the United States.
C) Soviet Russia.
20) What was Chiang Kai-shek's initial role within the Chinese Nationalist Party?
A) delegate to the League of Nations
B) representative at the Treaty of Versailles
C) family head of the Green Gang
D) head of the Whampoa Military Academy
E) writer for The New Youth
21) The Nationalist Party's greatest failure was its inability to
A) create a military wing of the party.
B) deal with the social and economic crisis of the Chinese peasantry .
C) industrialize China.
D) rid itself of its ties to the Qing dynasty.
E) isolate the Communists.
22) What early Communist leader emphasized the role of the peasantry in revolutionary solutions to Chinese problems?
A) Sun Yat-sen
B) Chiang Kai-shek
C) Mao Zedong
D) Yuan Shikai
23) Early Chinese Communist Party thinking was dominated by thinkers such as Li Lisan who emphasized
A) revolution based on the urban working class.
B) revolution based on the peasantry.
C) gradualist responses to China's economic problems.
D) equitable redistribution of land. E) the teachings of Confucius.
24) Following Sun Yat-sen's death in 1925, what group seized control of the Nationalist Party?
A) urban businessmen and merchants of the southern Chinese coast
C) warlords and military chiefs
E) the middle class
25) Who emerged as the head of the Nationalist party and de facto ruler of China by the late 1920s?
A) Sun Yat-sen
B) Mao Zedong
C) Chiang Kai-shek
D) Li Dizhao
E) Li Lisan
26) Open warfare began between the communists and Nationalist party following
A) the communist assault on Beijing.
B) the intervention of Japan on the side of the Nationalists.
C) the announcement of Soviet Russian support for the Nationalist cause
D) the Nationalist slaughter of their former allies in Shanghai
E) the Japanese invasion of Manchuria.
27) Which of the following groups did NOT initially support the Nationalists in their contest with the Communists for control of China?
A) urban businessmen and merchants
B) urban workers
C) intellectuals and students
D) rural landlords
E) western powers
28) What impact did the Nationalist smashing of the workers' movement have on the development of the Communist Party in China?
A) It destroyed the early communist movement, leaving only small cells of intellectuals and students.
B) The slaughter of the workers in Shanghai had little impact, because the great concentration of workers was in Beijing.
C) It allowed Mao's program of revolutionary activity among the peasants to come to the forefront.
D) It forced the communists to become increasingly dependent on the Soviet Union.
E) It made the Communists less dependent on the USSR.
29) The center of communist operations in the late 1920s was
B) Hunan province.
30) The Long March refers to
A) the humiliating exportation of Chinese prisoners to Japan.
B) the march of 90,000 communists from Hunan to Shaanxi province.
C) the Nationalist Party progression from minor movement to ascendancy in China.
D) Chiang Kai-shek's assault on the communist stronghold in Beijing.
E) a period of civil war during the 19405.
31) The center of the Communist party in China from 1934 to the mid-1940s was
A) Shaanxi province. B) Hunan province. C) Beijing. D) Macao. E) Korea.
32) What interrupted Chiang Kai-shek's destruction of the Chinese Communist Party in the late 1930s?
A) Russian intervention
B) The death of Sun Yat-sen
C) Japanese invasion of the Chinese mainland
D) The intervention of the United States
E) War with Tibet.
33) What was the impact of the Japanese invasion on the relative strengths of the struggle in China between the Nationalist Party and the Communist Party?
A) Chiang's position as commander of the Chinese military was enormously strengthened as a result of the Japanese invasion.
B) The heroic stand by the Nationalist armies at Beijing aided the position of the Nationalists versus the Communists.
C) Communist victories in set-piece battles proved the military superiority of Mao over Chiang.
D) Japanese victories robbed the Nationalists of their supporters in the southern cities and diminished Chiang's military reputation as savior of China.
E) Because the Communists were in the path of invasion they were the first to be crushed by Japan.
34) The Communist victory over the Nationalist forces was achieved following Chiang's withdrawal to Taiwan in
A) 1941. B) 1945. C) 1949. D) 1954. E) 1960.
35) In what way was the Chinese Communist takeover of China different than the Bolshevik seizure of power in Russia?
A) China was already more industrialized than Russia at the time of the communist success.
B) The Russian seizure of power was accomplished without ridding the country of the ruling dynasty.
C) The Chinese Communists claimed a unified country and did not experience years of civil war and foreign intervention.
D) The Chinese Communist leadership was unable to move directly to the tasks of social reform and economic development.
E) The Chinese Communists had the full assistance of another Communist power.
36) Which of the following statements is most accurate?
A) After the civil war that brought the Communists to power, the country was rapidly demilitarized.
B) The Peoples Liberation Army, the source of the Communist rise to power, gained dominance over the Communist Party .
C) Most of China was administered by civilian bureaucrats recruited from the old Confucian scholar-gentry .
D) The army remained clearly subordinate to the Communist Party, with cadre advisors attached to military contingents.
E) Chiang continued to mount effective resistance from Taiwan.
37) Which of the following statements concerning Chinese foreign policy during the 1950s and 1960s is NOT accurate?
A) The Chinese intervened militarily in the conflict between North and South Korea, forcing the United States to settle £or a stalemate a permanent division of the country.
B) The close collaboration between the Soviet Union and China that marked the early years of Mao's rule broke down.
C) China was able to achieve a close alliance with the emerging Third World government in India as a means of uniting the major powers of Asia.
D) China became the first non-industrial nation to explode a nuclear device.
E) Japan ceased to be a major factor in Chinese politics.
38) Which of the following statements concerning Chinese domestic policies during the 1950s and 1960s is most accurate?
A) Despite pledges made during the civil war, the Communist Party £ailed to undertake substantial land redistribution programs.
B) With the introduction of the first five-year plan in 1953, the Communist leadership turned away from the peasantry.
C) Increasingly Mao came to embrace the old Confucian concept of a bureaucratic elite as the means of government.
D) Mao's primary trust came to rest in a group of intellectuals associated with the University of Beijing.
E) Many steps were taken to improve the lives of small farmers
39) Mao's 1958 program of pushing industrialization through small-scale projects integrated into the peasant communes was called
A) the May Fourth program.
B) "Thousand Flowers Bloom."
C) the Great Leap Forward.
D) the Long March.
E) the Five Year Plan.
40) Unlike most third world countries, China responded to its population problem in the mid-1960s by
A) accepting U.N. proposals for birth control programs.
B) limiting urban couples to two children and rural couples to one.
C) refusing to adopt any birth-control programs in order to foster more communist children.
D) allowing unrestricted births among the peasantry , but limiting urban couples to one child.
E) encouraging emigration to the United States.
41) By 1960, Mao lost his position as State Chairman
A) because of the general and catastrophic failure of the Great Leap Forward.
B) when he was assassinated by a disgruntled intellectual.
C) when he proposed the destruction of Buddhist monasteries throughout China.
D) following the defeat of Chinese forces in Vietnam.
E) because of tensions he created between China and the USSR.
42) Which of the following "pragmatists" came to power following Mao's fall in 1960?
A) Li Dizhao
B) Chiang Kai-shek
C) Jiang Qing
D) Zhou Enlai
E) ]iang Zemin
43) Which of the following principles was NOT part of the Chinese Communist party attitudes towards women'?
A) Women should achieve legal equality
B) Career opportunities should be open to women, who should work outside of the household
C) "Virtue was more important for women than learning"
D) "Women hold up half of the heavens" E) Women proved themselves during World War II.
44) Mao's last campaign, launched in 1965, was the
A) Long March.
B) Cultural Revolution.
C) Great Leap Forward.
D) May Fourth movement.
E) Decembrist movement.
45) The "Gang of Four" were
A) the temporarily dismissed "pragrimatists," who sought to remove Mao from power.
B) Britain, Japan, the Soviet Union, and the United States-identified by Mao as China's chief rivals.
C) Jiang Qing and three allies who contested for power with the "pragmatists" on behalf of the aging Mao!
D) university intellectuals identified as "capitalist roaders" during the Cultural Revolution.
E) China, Japan, Singapore, and Hong Kong, the four postwar Asian economic powers.
46) During the 1980s, all of the following were typical of the Chinese government EXCEPT
A) encouragement of private market production for the peasantry.
B) private enterprise within the industrial sector.
C) domination by the "pragmatists."
D) democratic reform.
E) continued oppression of the masses.
47) In which of the following ways were the preconditions for revolution in Vietnam NOT similar to those in China?
A) Possession of a polity based on the Confucian system of China A polity or policy?
B) Failure of imperial government to respond to foreign intervention leading to complete collapse of dynastic system
C) Actual colonization by a European power
D) Radical rather than gradualist solutions to reconstruction
E) Ancient civilization feeling oppressed by the West
48) From the seventeenth century, Vietnam had been part of the colonial system of what European power?
E) The Netherlands
49) The Vietnamese rebellion that toppled both the Trinh and the Nguyen dynasties of the eighteenth century was the
D) Chu Lai.
50) The French intervened in the eighteenth century Vietnamese rebellion and supported
A) the Chu Lai.
B) the Tayson.
D) Hong Trinh.
E) the Boxers.
51) The outcome of the eighteenth century Vietnamese rebellion was
A) the unification of the country under a single emperor at Hue.
B) the expulsion of the French from Vietnam.
C) the victory of the Tayson and the creation of a new dynasty under Chu Lai.
D) the destruction of all rebels by the French and the establishment of direct French administration.
E) Chinese tolerance
52) By what decade did the French manage to achieve control of all of Vietnam?
A) 1810s B) 1840s C) 1870s D) 1890s E) 1770s
53) In what way was the early nationalist organization in Vietnam similar to other Third World nations?
A) It was composed of a Western-educated middle class.
B) It was Marxist, modeled on the Communist Party of Russia.
C) It was drawn almost entirely from the peasantry.
D) Its goals were entirely peaceful.
E) Its leadership was all foreign.
54) By the late 1920s, the leader of the Vietnamese Communist Party was
A) Zhou Enlai.
B) Le Duc Quang.
C) Nguyen Ai Quoc.
D) Ngo Dinh Diem.
E) Madame Nhu.
55) The Communist-dominated nationalist movement in Vietnam during World war II was called the
B) Viet Minh.
C) Viet Cong.
E) Nam Viet.
56) The Vietnamese nationalists in 1954 decisively defeated the French at the battle of
C) Qang Diep.
D) Dien Bien Phu.
57) In order to oppose the communist government of North Vietnam, the United States decided to prop up a pro-US regime in the south under
A) Ho Chi Minh.
B) General Giap.
C) Ngo Dinh Diem.
D) Nguyen Trinh.
E) Le Duc Tho.
58) Communist opposition to the US-supported government in South Vietnam was referred to as the
A) Viet Cong.
B) Viet Minh.
E) Pathet Lao.
59) which of the following statements concerning the U.S. participation in the Second Indochina War is most accurate?
A) The U.S. continued to rely on the Diem government and the South Vietnamese military until 1973.
B) The U.S. only intervened directly in the war in 1975.
C) Effective U.S. military intervention typified by strategic bombing resulted in the consolidation of Vietnam under the rule of the government at Saigon.
D) The American armed forces withdrew in 1975 precipitating the collapse of the unpopular military regime of the south.
E) The US prevented the communist takeover of South Viet Nam.
60) Which of the following characteristics of modern China and Vietnam represents a departure from traditional Chinese culture?
A) Suspicion of commercial and entrepreneurial classes
B) Abandonment of Confucianism
C) Social systems that stress secular, social harmony
D) Sense of cultural superiority
E) Emphasis on ancestral relationships