stem and leaf are collectively referred to as the
Name a principle function of the stem.
In most vascular plants, what is the principle organ of photosynthesis?
The outermost primary permanent tissue in the root.
Growth that occurs within the lateral meristems.
A root that arises from another, older root; also called a branch root, or secondary root, if the older root is a primary root.
The protective tissues formed outside by the cork cambium.
The meristem that produces the periderm/cork
Consists of a hollow cylinder one cell thick and makes up 90% of the secondary tissue produced.
Produces secondary xylem to the inside of the vascular cylinder.
How many pounds of pressure do the xylem cells exert?
Name one of the two root systems associated with monocots or eudicots in vascular plants.
The tissue from which lateral or branch roots originate
Responsible for all primary or lateral growth in the tips of the roots and shoots in vascular plants.
Root hiars form in which growth region of the root?
Name one of the three primary meristems which are precursors of the tissue systems in the root.
The phylum that includes the angiosperms
Class of angiosperms which is the largest with at least 200,000 species.
Class of angiosperms which is the smaller class that contains 90,000 species.
A fruit is a mature _________.
What is the name given to the ovary wall? This structure thickens and becomes differentiated into distinct layers.
What is the name of the modified stem from which all flower parts develop?
The two lateral meristems are the ____ cambium and the _____ cambium. (separate with comma)
A simple term for secondary xylem is
Outer protective tissue that replaces epidermis when it is destroyed during secondary growth; includes cork, cork cambium, and phelloderm.
Primary meristematic tissue that gives rise to epidermal tissue.
Primary meristematic tissue that gives rise to vascular tissue.
The meristem at the tip of the root or shoot in a vascular plant.
The primary meristem that gives rise to the ground tissue.
The part of a stem where one or more leaves are attached.
The part of the vascular bundle extending from the base of the leaf to its connection with a vascular bundle in the stem.
The region of the stem between two successive nodes.
The wide gap, or region of ground tissue, found in the vascular cylinder where the leaf trace diverges toward the leaf.
An undivided leaf as opposed to a compound leaf.
A leaf whose blade is divided into several distinct leaflets.
Vascular bundles that contain the two vascular tissues, xylem and phloem.
A leaf tissue composed of columnar chloroplast-bearing cells.
A leaf tissue composed of loosely arranged, chloroplast-bearing cells.
The palisade and spongy parenchyma.
A minute opening bordered by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems through which gases pass.
A scar left on a twig when a leaf falls, formed by the protective layer on the surface of the stem and the leaf is abscised.
The primary root of a plant formed in direct continuation with the root tip or radicle of the embryo; forms a stout, tapering main root from which arise smaller, lateral roots.
A structure at the base of the embryo in many vascular plants. In some plants, it pushes the embryo into nutrient-rich tissue of the female gametophyte.
The first root of the plant, developing in continuation of the root tip or radicle of the embryo; the taproot.
A tissue derived from the apical meristem; of three kinds protoderm, procambium, and ground meristem.
The stalk of the ovule.
A tissue formed inwardly by the cork cambium, opposite the cork; inner part of the periderm.
Embryonic tissue regions, primarily concerned with formation of new cells.
Pairs of specialized epidermal cells surrounding a pore, or stoma.
A developmental process by which relatively unspecialized cell undergoes a progressive change to a more specialized cell; the specialization of cells and tissues for particular functions during development.
A secondary tissue produced by a cork cambium; made up of polygonal cells, nonliving at maturity, with suberized cell walls, which are resistant to the passage of gases and water vapor; the outer part of the periderm.
The lateral meristem that forms the periderm, producing cork toward the surface of the plant and phelloderm toward the inside.
A specialized parenchyma cell associated with a sieve-tube element in angiosperm phloem and arising from the same mother cell as the sieve-tube element.
Elongated living cell with unevenly thickened, nonlignified primary cell wall.
An elongated, thick-walled conducting and supporting cell of xylem. It has tapering ends and pitted walls without perforations, as contrasted with a vessel element.
The general term for a water-conducting cell in vascular plants; tracheids and vessel elements.
A group of similar cells organized into a structural and functional unit.
A tissue or group of tissues organized into a structural or functional unit in a plant or plant organ.
A tissue composed of a single cell type; parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma are examples.
One of the component cells of a sieve-tube; found primarily in flowering plants and typically associated with a companion cell.
A series of sieve-tube elements arranged end to end and interconnected by sieve plates.
The part of the wall of sieve-tube elements bearing one or more highly differentiated sieve areas.
A long, slender sieve element with relatively unspecialized sieve areas and with tapering end walls that lack sieve plates; found in the phloem of gymnosperms.
A portion of the sieve element wall containing clusters of pores through which the protoplasts of adjacent sieve elements are interconnected.
Cell of variable form and size with more or less thick, often lignified, secondary walls; may or may not be living at maturity; includes fibers and schlereids.
A sclerenchyma cell with a thick, lignified secondary wall having many pits. Variable in form but typically not very long; may or may not be living at maturity.
The part of the plant body arising from the apical meristems and their derivative meristematic tissues; composed entiredly of primary tissues.
A thimblelike mass of cells that covers and protects the growing tip of a root.
Tubular outgrowths of epidermal cells of the root; greatly increase the absorbing surface of the root.
A tissue characteristic of roots that is bounded externally by the endodermis and internally by the phloem.
Tissue region between vascular bundles in a stem.
Main axis of a spike; the axis of a fern leaf, from which the pinnae arise; in compound leaves, the extension of the petiole corresponding to the midrib of an entire leaf.
The pattern of venation in which the principal veins of the leaf are parallel or nearly so; characteristic of monocots.
The arrangement of veins in the leaf blade that resembles a net; characteristic of the leaves of angiosperms except for monocots.
The last part of the growth increment formed in the growing season; it contains smaller cells and is denser than early wood, replaces the term "summer wood".
Nonliving and commonly dark-colored wood in which no water transport occurs; it is surrounded by sapwood.
A name commonly applied to the wood of a magnolid or eudicot tree.
A growth layer in the secondary xylem or secondary phloem, as seen in transverse section, may be called a growth increment, especially where seen in other than transverse section.
The first-formed wood of a growth increment, it contains larger cells and is less dense than the subsequently formed late wood; replaces the term "spring wood".
A wood in which the pores, or vessels, are fairly uniformly distributed throughout the growth layers or in which the size of pores changes only slightly from early wood to late wood.
In wood, the growth layer formed during a single year.
A name commonly applied to the wood of a conifer.
In plants, growth derived from secondary or lateral meristems, the vascular cambium and cork cambium; results in an increase in girth.
A wood in which the pores, or vessels, of the early wood are distinctly larger than those of the late wood, forming a well-defined ring in cross sections of the wood.
An elongated, tapering, generally thick walled sclerenchyma cell of vascular plants; its walls may or may not be lignified; it may or may not have a living protoplast at maturity.
Ground tissue in the center of the stem.
Portion of the ground tissue between the epidermis and the vascular bundles.