Stems, Roots, Leaves Quiz

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1.  A minute opening bordered by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems through which gases pass.
2.  The pattern of venation in which the principal veins of the leaf are parallel or nearly so; characteristic of monocots.
3.  A tissue composed of a single cell type; parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma are examples.
4.  The two lateral meristems are the ____ cambium and the _____ cambium. (separate with comma)
5.  A long, slender sieve element with relatively unspecialized sieve areas and with tapering end walls that lack sieve plates; found in the phloem of gymnosperms.
6.  In most vascular plants, what is the principle organ of photosynthesis?
7.  The meristem at the tip of the root or shoot in a vascular plant.
8.  A leaf tissue composed of columnar chloroplast-bearing cells.
9.  Upper angle between the leaf and the stem.
10.  A wood in which the pores, or vessels, of the early wood are distinctly larger than those of the late wood, forming a well-defined ring in cross sections of the wood.
11.  One of the component cells of a sieve-tube; found primarily in flowering plants and typically associated with a companion cell.
12.  A group of similar cells organized into a structural and functional unit.
13.  The tissue from which lateral or branch roots originate
14.  A root that arises from another, older root; also called a branch root, or secondary root, if the older root is a primary root.
15.  Name one of the two root systems associated with monocots or eudicots in vascular plants.
16.  The lateral meristem that forms the periderm, producing cork toward the surface of the plant and phelloderm toward the inside.
17.  Vascular bundles that contain the two vascular tissues, xylem and phloem.
18.  A portion of the sieve element wall containing clusters of pores through which the protoplasts of adjacent sieve elements are interconnected.
19.  Main axis of a spike; the axis of a fern leaf, from which the pinnae arise; in compound leaves, the extension of the petiole corresponding to the midrib of an entire leaf.
20.  Outer protective tissue that replaces epidermis when it is destroyed during secondary growth; includes cork, cork cambium, and phelloderm.
21.  The phylum that includes the angiosperms
22.  Responsible for all primary or lateral growth in the tips of the roots and shoots in vascular plants.
23.  The stem and leaf are collectively referred to as the
24.  The part of the wall of sieve-tube elements bearing one or more highly differentiated sieve areas.
25.  A developmental process by which relatively unspecialized cell undergoes a progressive change to a more specialized cell; the specialization of cells and tissues for particular functions during development.
26.  Tissue region between vascular bundles in a stem.
27.  A structure at the base of the embryo in many vascular plants. In some plants, it pushes the embryo into nutrient-rich tissue of the female gametophyte.
28.  A tissue derived from the apical meristem; of three kinds protoderm, procambium, and ground meristem.
29.  The meristem that produces the periderm/cork
30.  Growth that occurs within the lateral meristems.
31.  An elongated, thick-walled conducting and supporting cell of xylem. It has tapering ends and pitted walls without perforations, as contrasted with a vessel element.
32.  Tubular outgrowths of epidermal cells of the root; greatly increase the absorbing surface of the root.
33.  An elongated, tapering, generally thick walled sclerenchyma cell of vascular plants; its walls may or may not be lignified; it may or may not have a living protoplast at maturity.
34.  The part of the vascular bundle extending from the base of the leaf to its connection with a vascular bundle in the stem.
35.  The palisade and spongy parenchyma.
36.  A name commonly applied to the wood of a magnolid or eudicot tree.
37.  The last part of the growth increment formed in the growing season; it contains smaller cells and is denser than early wood, replaces the term "summer wood".
38.  A specialized parenchyma cell associated with a sieve-tube element in angiosperm phloem and arising from the same mother cell as the sieve-tube element.
39.  A simple term for secondary xylem is
40.  A fruit is a mature _________.
41.  Produces secondary xylem to the inside of the vascular cylinder.
42.  The arrangement of veins in the leaf blade that resembles a net; characteristic of the leaves of angiosperms except for monocots.
43.  A tissue characteristic of roots that is bounded externally by the endodermis and internally by the phloem.
44.  The first-formed wood of a growth increment, it contains larger cells and is less dense than the subsequently formed late wood; replaces the term "spring wood".
45.  The wide gap, or region of ground tissue, found in the vascular cylinder where the leaf trace diverges toward the leaf.
46.  Consists of a hollow cylinder one cell thick and makes up 90% of the secondary tissue produced.
47.  Primary meristematic tissue that gives rise to vascular tissue.
48.  The part of a stem where one or more leaves are attached.
49.  A series of sieve-tube elements arranged end to end and interconnected by sieve plates.
50.  The region of the stem between two successive nodes.
51.  What is the name of the modified stem from which all flower parts develop?
52.  Embryonic tissue regions, primarily concerned with formation of new cells.
53.  What is the name given to the ovary wall? This structure thickens and becomes differentiated into distinct layers.
54.  Pairs of specialized epidermal cells surrounding a pore, or stoma.
55.  Class of angiosperms which is the smaller class that contains 90,000 species.
56.  The general term for a water-conducting cell in vascular plants; tracheids and vessel elements.
57.  A wood in which the pores, or vessels, are fairly uniformly distributed throughout the growth layers or in which the size of pores changes only slightly from early wood to late wood.
58.  A tissue or group of tissues organized into a structural or functional unit in a plant or plant organ.
59.  Portion of the ground tissue between the epidermis and the vascular bundles.
60.  In plants, growth derived from secondary or lateral meristems, the vascular cambium and cork cambium; results in an increase in girth.
61.  The first root of the plant, developing in continuation of the root tip or radicle of the embryo; the taproot.
62.  The primary root of a plant formed in direct continuation with the root tip or radicle of the embryo; forms a stout, tapering main root from which arise smaller, lateral roots.
63.  A leaf tissue composed of loosely arranged, chloroplast-bearing cells.
64.  The primary meristem that gives rise to the ground tissue.
65.  A scar left on a twig when a leaf falls, formed by the protective layer on the surface of the stem and the leaf is abscised.
66.  In wood, the growth layer formed during a single year.
67.  Elongated living cell with unevenly thickened, nonlignified primary cell wall.
68.  Nonliving and commonly dark-colored wood in which no water transport occurs; it is surrounded by sapwood.
69.  The stalk of the ovule.
70.  The protective tissues formed outside by the cork cambium.
71.  Ground tissue in the center of the stem.
72.  A tissue formed inwardly by the cork cambium, opposite the cork; inner part of the periderm.
73.  A name commonly applied to the wood of a conifer.
74.  Name a principle function of the stem.
75.  Name one of the three primary meristems which are precursors of the tissue systems in the root.
76.  A thimblelike mass of cells that covers and protects the growing tip of a root.
77.  A secondary tissue produced by a cork cambium; made up of polygonal cells, nonliving at maturity, with suberized cell walls, which are resistant to the passage of gases and water vapor; the outer part of the periderm.
78.  Primary meristematic tissue that gives rise to epidermal tissue.
79.  Class of angiosperms which is the largest with at least 200,000 species.
80.  An undivided leaf as opposed to a compound leaf.
81.  Cell of variable form and size with more or less thick, often lignified, secondary walls; may or may not be living at maturity; includes fibers and schlereids.
82.  The outermost primary permanent tissue in the root.
83.  The part of the plant body arising from the apical meristems and their derivative meristematic tissues; composed entiredly of primary tissues.
84.  A sclerenchyma cell with a thick, lignified secondary wall having many pits. Variable in form but typically not very long; may or may not be living at maturity.
85.  Root hiars form in which growth region of the root?
86.  How many pounds of pressure do the xylem cells exert?
87.  A growth layer in the secondary xylem or secondary phloem, as seen in transverse section, may be called a growth increment, especially where seen in other than transverse section.
88.  A leaf whose blade is divided into several distinct leaflets.
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