Stems, Roots, Leaves Quiz

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Botany Quizzes & Trivia
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1.  A long, slender sieve element with relatively unspecialized sieve areas and with tapering end walls that lack sieve plates; found in the phloem of gymnosperms.
2.  The phylum that includes the angiosperms
3.  What is the name of the modified stem from which all flower parts develop?
4.  Vascular bundles that contain the two vascular tissues, xylem and phloem.
5.  Produces secondary xylem to the inside of the vascular cylinder.
6.  A fruit is a mature _________.
7.  Consists of a hollow cylinder one cell thick and makes up 90% of the secondary tissue produced.
8.  Main axis of a spike; the axis of a fern leaf, from which the pinnae arise; in compound leaves, the extension of the petiole corresponding to the midrib of an entire leaf.
9.  Tubular outgrowths of epidermal cells of the root; greatly increase the absorbing surface of the root.
10.  The outermost primary permanent tissue in the root.
11.  Pairs of specialized epidermal cells surrounding a pore, or stoma.
12.  The meristem that produces the periderm/cork
13.  The part of a stem where one or more leaves are attached.
14.  A portion of the sieve element wall containing clusters of pores through which the protoplasts of adjacent sieve elements are interconnected.
15.  A wood in which the pores, or vessels, are fairly uniformly distributed throughout the growth layers or in which the size of pores changes only slightly from early wood to late wood.
16.  The last part of the growth increment formed in the growing season; it contains smaller cells and is denser than early wood, replaces the term "summer wood".
17.  The general term for a water-conducting cell in vascular plants; tracheids and vessel elements.
18.  A leaf tissue composed of columnar chloroplast-bearing cells.
19.  The two lateral meristems are the ____ cambium and the _____ cambium. (separate with comma)
20.  Primary meristematic tissue that gives rise to epidermal tissue.
21.  A sclerenchyma cell with a thick, lignified secondary wall having many pits. Variable in form but typically not very long; may or may not be living at maturity.
22.  Outer protective tissue that replaces epidermis when it is destroyed during secondary growth; includes cork, cork cambium, and phelloderm.
23.  A tissue derived from the apical meristem; of three kinds protoderm, procambium, and ground meristem.
24.  A tissue composed of a single cell type; parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma are examples.
25.  A group of similar cells organized into a structural and functional unit.
26.  An elongated, thick-walled conducting and supporting cell of xylem. It has tapering ends and pitted walls without perforations, as contrasted with a vessel element.
27.  A growth layer in the secondary xylem or secondary phloem, as seen in transverse section, may be called a growth increment, especially where seen in other than transverse section.
28.  Name a principle function of the stem.
29.  The wide gap, or region of ground tissue, found in the vascular cylinder where the leaf trace diverges toward the leaf.
30.  A name commonly applied to the wood of a magnolid or eudicot tree.
31.  Growth that occurs within the lateral meristems.
32.  The primary meristem that gives rise to the ground tissue.
33.  The stem and leaf are collectively referred to as the
34.  Elongated living cell with unevenly thickened, nonlignified primary cell wall.
35.  A root that arises from another, older root; also called a branch root, or secondary root, if the older root is a primary root.
36.  Name one of the three primary meristems which are precursors of the tissue systems in the root.
37.  A developmental process by which relatively unspecialized cell undergoes a progressive change to a more specialized cell; the specialization of cells and tissues for particular functions during development.
38.  A series of sieve-tube elements arranged end to end and interconnected by sieve plates.
39.  The first-formed wood of a growth increment, it contains larger cells and is less dense than the subsequently formed late wood; replaces the term "spring wood".
40.  In most vascular plants, what is the principle organ of photosynthesis?
41.  The lateral meristem that forms the periderm, producing cork toward the surface of the plant and phelloderm toward the inside.
42.  One of the component cells of a sieve-tube; found primarily in flowering plants and typically associated with a companion cell.
43.  Primary meristematic tissue that gives rise to vascular tissue.
44.  A name commonly applied to the wood of a conifer.
45.  The primary root of a plant formed in direct continuation with the root tip or radicle of the embryo; forms a stout, tapering main root from which arise smaller, lateral roots.
46.  A secondary tissue produced by a cork cambium; made up of polygonal cells, nonliving at maturity, with suberized cell walls, which are resistant to the passage of gases and water vapor; the outer part of the periderm.
47.  A specialized parenchyma cell associated with a sieve-tube element in angiosperm phloem and arising from the same mother cell as the sieve-tube element.
48.  A wood in which the pores, or vessels, of the early wood are distinctly larger than those of the late wood, forming a well-defined ring in cross sections of the wood.
49.  The meristem at the tip of the root or shoot in a vascular plant.
50.  A tissue formed inwardly by the cork cambium, opposite the cork; inner part of the periderm.
51.  Upper angle between the leaf and the stem.
52.  Class of angiosperms which is the smaller class that contains 90,000 species.
53.  Tissue region between vascular bundles in a stem.
54.  A tissue characteristic of roots that is bounded externally by the endodermis and internally by the phloem.
55.  Responsible for all primary or lateral growth in the tips of the roots and shoots in vascular plants.
56.  In wood, the growth layer formed during a single year.
57.  In plants, growth derived from secondary or lateral meristems, the vascular cambium and cork cambium; results in an increase in girth.
58.  A tissue or group of tissues organized into a structural or functional unit in a plant or plant organ.
59.  Root hiars form in which growth region of the root?
60.  The part of the wall of sieve-tube elements bearing one or more highly differentiated sieve areas.
61.  What is the name given to the ovary wall? This structure thickens and becomes differentiated into distinct layers.
62.  The stalk of the ovule.
63.  The part of the vascular bundle extending from the base of the leaf to its connection with a vascular bundle in the stem.
64.  A structure at the base of the embryo in many vascular plants. In some plants, it pushes the embryo into nutrient-rich tissue of the female gametophyte.
65.  A minute opening bordered by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems through which gases pass.
66.  The arrangement of veins in the leaf blade that resembles a net; characteristic of the leaves of angiosperms except for monocots.
67.  Name one of the two root systems associated with monocots or eudicots in vascular plants.
68.  Cell of variable form and size with more or less thick, often lignified, secondary walls; may or may not be living at maturity; includes fibers and schlereids.
69.  Embryonic tissue regions, primarily concerned with formation of new cells.
70.  The tissue from which lateral or branch roots originate
71.  Nonliving and commonly dark-colored wood in which no water transport occurs; it is surrounded by sapwood.
72.  The pattern of venation in which the principal veins of the leaf are parallel or nearly so; characteristic of monocots.
73.  The first root of the plant, developing in continuation of the root tip or radicle of the embryo; the taproot.
74.  The protective tissues formed outside by the cork cambium.
75.  The region of the stem between two successive nodes.
76.  Portion of the ground tissue between the epidermis and the vascular bundles.
77.  The palisade and spongy parenchyma.
78.  A leaf tissue composed of loosely arranged, chloroplast-bearing cells.
79.  An elongated, tapering, generally thick walled sclerenchyma cell of vascular plants; its walls may or may not be lignified; it may or may not have a living protoplast at maturity.
80.  Ground tissue in the center of the stem.
81.  Class of angiosperms which is the largest with at least 200,000 species.
82.  A scar left on a twig when a leaf falls, formed by the protective layer on the surface of the stem and the leaf is abscised.
83.  The part of the plant body arising from the apical meristems and their derivative meristematic tissues; composed entiredly of primary tissues.
84.  A simple term for secondary xylem is
85.  How many pounds of pressure do the xylem cells exert?
86.  A thimblelike mass of cells that covers and protects the growing tip of a root.
87.  An undivided leaf as opposed to a compound leaf.
88.  A leaf whose blade is divided into several distinct leaflets.
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