Stems, Roots, Leaves Quiz

88 Questions  I  By Kvgold42 on April 30, 2009
A practice quiz for the final in botany.


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1.  What is the name of the modified stem from which all flower parts develop?
2.  A name commonly applied to the wood of a conifer.
3.  The two lateral meristems are the ____ cambium and the _____ cambium. (separate with comma)
4.  The first-formed wood of a growth increment, it contains larger cells and is less dense than the subsequently formed late wood; replaces the term "spring wood".
5.  A sclerenchyma cell with a thick, lignified secondary wall having many pits. Variable in form but typically not very long; may or may not be living at maturity.
6.  A leaf tissue composed of loosely arranged, chloroplast-bearing cells.
7.  A simple term for secondary xylem is
8.  A wood in which the pores, or vessels, are fairly uniformly distributed throughout the growth layers or in which the size of pores changes only slightly from early wood to late wood.
9.  The meristem at the tip of the root or shoot in a vascular plant.
10.  The tissue from which lateral or branch roots originate
11.  Tissue region between vascular bundles in a stem.
12.  The wide gap, or region of ground tissue, found in the vascular cylinder where the leaf trace diverges toward the leaf.
13.  A leaf tissue composed of columnar chloroplast-bearing cells.
14.  Name one of the two root systems associated with monocots or eudicots in vascular plants.
15.  The part of the plant body arising from the apical meristems and their derivative meristematic tissues; composed entiredly of primary tissues.
16.  The lateral meristem that forms the periderm, producing cork toward the surface of the plant and phelloderm toward the inside.
17.  A long, slender sieve element with relatively unspecialized sieve areas and with tapering end walls that lack sieve plates; found in the phloem of gymnosperms.
18.  Main axis of a spike; the axis of a fern leaf, from which the pinnae arise; in compound leaves, the extension of the petiole corresponding to the midrib of an entire leaf.
19.  Vascular bundles that contain the two vascular tissues, xylem and phloem.
20.  Primary meristematic tissue that gives rise to vascular tissue.
21.  The phylum that includes the angiosperms
22.  A minute opening bordered by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems through which gases pass.
23.  Name one of the three primary meristems which are precursors of the tissue systems in the root.
24.  In most vascular plants, what is the principle organ of photosynthesis?
25.  Outer protective tissue that replaces epidermis when it is destroyed during secondary growth; includes cork, cork cambium, and phelloderm.
26.  A fruit is a mature _________.
27.  A developmental process by which relatively unspecialized cell undergoes a progressive change to a more specialized cell; the specialization of cells and tissues for particular functions during development.
28.  A wood in which the pores, or vessels, of the early wood are distinctly larger than those of the late wood, forming a well-defined ring in cross sections of the wood.
29.  In plants, growth derived from secondary or lateral meristems, the vascular cambium and cork cambium; results in an increase in girth.
30.  A leaf whose blade is divided into several distinct leaflets.
31.  Class of angiosperms which is the smaller class that contains 90,000 species.
32.  The arrangement of veins in the leaf blade that resembles a net; characteristic of the leaves of angiosperms except for monocots.
33.  A tissue derived from the apical meristem; of three kinds protoderm, procambium, and ground meristem.
34.  What is the name given to the ovary wall? This structure thickens and becomes differentiated into distinct layers.
35.  A thimblelike mass of cells that covers and protects the growing tip of a root.
36.  A tissue formed inwardly by the cork cambium, opposite the cork; inner part of the periderm.
37.  Class of angiosperms which is the largest with at least 200,000 species.
38.  Produces secondary xylem to the inside of the vascular cylinder.
39.  The first root of the plant, developing in continuation of the root tip or radicle of the embryo; the taproot.
40.  The last part of the growth increment formed in the growing season; it contains smaller cells and is denser than early wood, replaces the term "summer wood".
41.  A tissue composed of a single cell type; parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma are examples.
42.  The pattern of venation in which the principal veins of the leaf are parallel or nearly so; characteristic of monocots.
43.  A tissue characteristic of roots that is bounded externally by the endodermis and internally by the phloem.
44.  The part of a stem where one or more leaves are attached.
45.  Embryonic tissue regions, primarily concerned with formation of new cells.
46.  A name commonly applied to the wood of a magnolid or eudicot tree.
47.  A scar left on a twig when a leaf falls, formed by the protective layer on the surface of the stem and the leaf is abscised.
48.  The stalk of the ovule.
49.  An elongated, tapering, generally thick walled sclerenchyma cell of vascular plants; its walls may or may not be lignified; it may or may not have a living protoplast at maturity.
50.  A series of sieve-tube elements arranged end to end and interconnected by sieve plates.
51.  The part of the wall of sieve-tube elements bearing one or more highly differentiated sieve areas.
52.  The general term for a water-conducting cell in vascular plants; tracheids and vessel elements.
53.  Upper angle between the leaf and the stem.
54.  Nonliving and commonly dark-colored wood in which no water transport occurs; it is surrounded by sapwood.
55.  The stem and leaf are collectively referred to as the
56.  Tubular outgrowths of epidermal cells of the root; greatly increase the absorbing surface of the root.
57.  The region of the stem between two successive nodes.
58.  Root hiars form in which growth region of the root?
59.  Elongated living cell with unevenly thickened, nonlignified primary cell wall.
60.  The primary root of a plant formed in direct continuation with the root tip or radicle of the embryo; forms a stout, tapering main root from which arise smaller, lateral roots.
61.  A group of similar cells organized into a structural and functional unit.
62.  Ground tissue in the center of the stem.
63.  A tissue or group of tissues organized into a structural or functional unit in a plant or plant organ.
64.  The meristem that produces the periderm/cork
65.  An elongated, thick-walled conducting and supporting cell of xylem. It has tapering ends and pitted walls without perforations, as contrasted with a vessel element.
66.  Consists of a hollow cylinder one cell thick and makes up 90% of the secondary tissue produced.
67.  A portion of the sieve element wall containing clusters of pores through which the protoplasts of adjacent sieve elements are interconnected.
68.  An undivided leaf as opposed to a compound leaf.
69.  The primary meristem that gives rise to the ground tissue.
70.  Name a principle function of the stem.
71.  Pairs of specialized epidermal cells surrounding a pore, or stoma.
72.  Cell of variable form and size with more or less thick, often lignified, secondary walls; may or may not be living at maturity; includes fibers and schlereids.
73.  A specialized parenchyma cell associated with a sieve-tube element in angiosperm phloem and arising from the same mother cell as the sieve-tube element.
74.  How many pounds of pressure do the xylem cells exert?
75.  A structure at the base of the embryo in many vascular plants. In some plants, it pushes the embryo into nutrient-rich tissue of the female gametophyte.
76.  The palisade and spongy parenchyma.
77.  A growth layer in the secondary xylem or secondary phloem, as seen in transverse section, may be called a growth increment, especially where seen in other than transverse section.
78.  The protective tissues formed outside by the cork cambium.
79.  Portion of the ground tissue between the epidermis and the vascular bundles.
80.  The outermost primary permanent tissue in the root.
81.  In wood, the growth layer formed during a single year.
82.  Growth that occurs within the lateral meristems.
83.  A root that arises from another, older root; also called a branch root, or secondary root, if the older root is a primary root.
84.  One of the component cells of a sieve-tube; found primarily in flowering plants and typically associated with a companion cell.
85.  Responsible for all primary or lateral growth in the tips of the roots and shoots in vascular plants.
86.  A secondary tissue produced by a cork cambium; made up of polygonal cells, nonliving at maturity, with suberized cell walls, which are resistant to the passage of gases and water vapor; the outer part of the periderm.
87.  Primary meristematic tissue that gives rise to epidermal tissue.
88.  The part of the vascular bundle extending from the base of the leaf to its connection with a vascular bundle in the stem.
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