Stems, Roots, Leaves Quiz

88 Questions  I  By Kvgold42
A practice quiz for the final in botany.

  
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1.  Outer protective tissue that replaces epidermis when it is destroyed during secondary growth; includes cork, cork cambium, and phelloderm.
2.  A structure at the base of the embryo in many vascular plants. In some plants, it pushes the embryo into nutrient-rich tissue of the female gametophyte.
3.  The part of the wall of sieve-tube elements bearing one or more highly differentiated sieve areas.
4.  The two lateral meristems are the ____ cambium and the _____ cambium. (separate with comma)
5.  A wood in which the pores, or vessels, of the early wood are distinctly larger than those of the late wood, forming a well-defined ring in cross sections of the wood.
6.  An elongated, tapering, generally thick walled sclerenchyma cell of vascular plants; its walls may or may not be lignified; it may or may not have a living protoplast at maturity.
7.  What is the name given to the ovary wall? This structure thickens and becomes differentiated into distinct layers.
8.  A tissue derived from the apical meristem; of three kinds protoderm, procambium, and ground meristem.
9.  The first-formed wood of a growth increment, it contains larger cells and is less dense than the subsequently formed late wood; replaces the term "spring wood".
10.  The meristem that produces the periderm/cork
11.  Elongated living cell with unevenly thickened, nonlignified primary cell wall.
12.  An elongated, thick-walled conducting and supporting cell of xylem. It has tapering ends and pitted walls without perforations, as contrasted with a vessel element.
13.  A root that arises from another, older root; also called a branch root, or secondary root, if the older root is a primary root.
14.  In most vascular plants, what is the principle organ of photosynthesis?
15.  Primary meristematic tissue that gives rise to epidermal tissue.
16.  Nonliving and commonly dark-colored wood in which no water transport occurs; it is surrounded by sapwood.
17.  A fruit is a mature _________.
18.  Tubular outgrowths of epidermal cells of the root; greatly increase the absorbing surface of the root.
19.  A leaf tissue composed of loosely arranged, chloroplast-bearing cells.
20.  Ground tissue in the center of the stem.
21.  A thimblelike mass of cells that covers and protects the growing tip of a root.
22.  The first root of the plant, developing in continuation of the root tip or radicle of the embryo; the taproot.
23.  A scar left on a twig when a leaf falls, formed by the protective layer on the surface of the stem and the leaf is abscised.
24.  A tissue characteristic of roots that is bounded externally by the endodermis and internally by the phloem.
25.  A series of sieve-tube elements arranged end to end and interconnected by sieve plates.
26.  Class of angiosperms which is the smaller class that contains 90,000 species.
27.  Growth that occurs within the lateral meristems.
28.  Name one of the three primary meristems which are precursors of the tissue systems in the root.
29.  A long, slender sieve element with relatively unspecialized sieve areas and with tapering end walls that lack sieve plates; found in the phloem of gymnosperms.
30.  Upper angle between the leaf and the stem.
31.  Vascular bundles that contain the two vascular tissues, xylem and phloem.
32.  The meristem at the tip of the root or shoot in a vascular plant.
33.  Main axis of a spike; the axis of a fern leaf, from which the pinnae arise; in compound leaves, the extension of the petiole corresponding to the midrib of an entire leaf.
34.  The region of the stem between two successive nodes.
35.  The general term for a water-conducting cell in vascular plants; tracheids and vessel elements.
36.  Class of angiosperms which is the largest with at least 200,000 species.
37.  Embryonic tissue regions, primarily concerned with formation of new cells.
38.  A group of similar cells organized into a structural and functional unit.
39.  The primary meristem that gives rise to the ground tissue.
40.  In plants, growth derived from secondary or lateral meristems, the vascular cambium and cork cambium; results in an increase in girth.
41.  The stem and leaf are collectively referred to as the
42.  A minute opening bordered by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems through which gases pass.
43.  The part of the vascular bundle extending from the base of the leaf to its connection with a vascular bundle in the stem.
44.  A leaf tissue composed of columnar chloroplast-bearing cells.
45.  An undivided leaf as opposed to a compound leaf.
46.  A secondary tissue produced by a cork cambium; made up of polygonal cells, nonliving at maturity, with suberized cell walls, which are resistant to the passage of gases and water vapor; the outer part of the periderm.
47.  The arrangement of veins in the leaf blade that resembles a net; characteristic of the leaves of angiosperms except for monocots.
48.  A specialized parenchyma cell associated with a sieve-tube element in angiosperm phloem and arising from the same mother cell as the sieve-tube element.
49.  The wide gap, or region of ground tissue, found in the vascular cylinder where the leaf trace diverges toward the leaf.
50.  Name one of the two root systems associated with monocots or eudicots in vascular plants.
51.  A portion of the sieve element wall containing clusters of pores through which the protoplasts of adjacent sieve elements are interconnected.
52.  Root hiars form in which growth region of the root?
53.  The palisade and spongy parenchyma.
54.  A growth layer in the secondary xylem or secondary phloem, as seen in transverse section, may be called a growth increment, especially where seen in other than transverse section.
55.  Pairs of specialized epidermal cells surrounding a pore, or stoma.
56.  How many pounds of pressure do the xylem cells exert?
57.  In wood, the growth layer formed during a single year.
58.  Tissue region between vascular bundles in a stem.
59.  A name commonly applied to the wood of a magnolid or eudicot tree.
60.  A simple term for secondary xylem is
61.  The part of the plant body arising from the apical meristems and their derivative meristematic tissues; composed entiredly of primary tissues.
62.  A name commonly applied to the wood of a conifer.
63.  A sclerenchyma cell with a thick, lignified secondary wall having many pits. Variable in form but typically not very long; may or may not be living at maturity.
64.  Name a principle function of the stem.
65.  The last part of the growth increment formed in the growing season; it contains smaller cells and is denser than early wood, replaces the term "summer wood".
66.  A leaf whose blade is divided into several distinct leaflets.
67.  One of the component cells of a sieve-tube; found primarily in flowering plants and typically associated with a companion cell.
68.  The outermost primary permanent tissue in the root.
69.  Primary meristematic tissue that gives rise to vascular tissue.
70.  A tissue formed inwardly by the cork cambium, opposite the cork; inner part of the periderm.
71.  The lateral meristem that forms the periderm, producing cork toward the surface of the plant and phelloderm toward the inside.
72.  Portion of the ground tissue between the epidermis and the vascular bundles.
73.  A wood in which the pores, or vessels, are fairly uniformly distributed throughout the growth layers or in which the size of pores changes only slightly from early wood to late wood.
74.  A tissue or group of tissues organized into a structural or functional unit in a plant or plant organ.
75.  The stalk of the ovule.
76.  Produces secondary xylem to the inside of the vascular cylinder.
77.  A tissue composed of a single cell type; parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma are examples.
78.  Consists of a hollow cylinder one cell thick and makes up 90% of the secondary tissue produced.
79.  What is the name of the modified stem from which all flower parts develop?
80.  Responsible for all primary or lateral growth in the tips of the roots and shoots in vascular plants.
81.  A developmental process by which relatively unspecialized cell undergoes a progressive change to a more specialized cell; the specialization of cells and tissues for particular functions during development.
82.  The phylum that includes the angiosperms
83.  Cell of variable form and size with more or less thick, often lignified, secondary walls; may or may not be living at maturity; includes fibers and schlereids.
84.  The tissue from which lateral or branch roots originate
85.  The pattern of venation in which the principal veins of the leaf are parallel or nearly so; characteristic of monocots.
86.  The protective tissues formed outside by the cork cambium.
87.  The part of a stem where one or more leaves are attached.
88.  The primary root of a plant formed in direct continuation with the root tip or radicle of the embryo; forms a stout, tapering main root from which arise smaller, lateral roots.
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