Sociology Final

122 Questions  I  By Landonmarsh
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Sociology Quizzes & Trivia
1. Religion is a social institution that is best defined as involving:

  
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  • 1. 
    1. Religion is a social institution that is best defined as involving:
    • A. 

      beliefs and practices concerning what is sacred.

    • B. 

      Ideas about good and evil.

    • C. 

      A series of beliefs about creation

    • D. 

      Norms about how to live.


  • 2. 
    Following Emile Durkheim, we would define things as profane when we understand them:
    • A. 

      In terms of the past.

    • B. 

      As set apart as “forbidden.”

    • C. 

      In terms of ultimate meanings

    • D. 

      In terms of their everyday usefulness.


  • 3. 
    Ritual is a matter of
    • A. 

      Formal, ceremonial behavior

    • B. 

      Who people socialize with.

    • C. 

      Beliefs about truth

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 4. 
    . Faith is a way of knowing based on:
    • A. 

      Scientific research.

    • B. 

      Human senses.

    • C. 

      Cultural common sense.

    • D. 

      Conviction or belief in things unseen


  • 5. 
    Sociological analysis of religion is concerned with:
    • A. 

      Understanding patterns of religious activity and their effect on society.

    • B. 

      Which religions are true and which are false.

    • C. 

      The purpose of life.

    • D. 

      Discerning the will of God.


  • 6. 
    . Durkheim pointed to three functions of religion for society. Which of the following is NOT one of them?
    • A. 

      Fostering social cohesion

    • B. 

      Fostering social conflict

    • C. 

      Providing social control

    • D. 

      Providing meaning and purpose


  • 7. 
    Guided by the symbolic-interaction approach, sociologists examine:
    • A. 

      How daily rituals sharpen the boundary between the sacred and profane

    • B. 

      How religion gives our existence a measure of security and meaning.

    • C. 

      The use of ritual and religious meaning to strengthen social ties such as marriage.

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 8. 
    An analysis of how religion supports the interests of a society's elites would fall under which of the following theoretical approaches?
    • A. 

      Structural-functional approach

    • B. 

      Symbolic-interaction approach

    • C. 

      Social-conflict approach

    • D. 

      Social-exchange approach


  • 9. 
    What do the sacred texts of Christianity, Judaism, and Islam have in common?
    • A. 

      Support for patriarchy

    • B. 

      Belief in multiple deities

    • C. 

      The same sacred symbols

    • D. 

      Support for secularization


  • 10. 
    In his analysis of Protestantism and the rise of capitalism, Max Weber stated that Protestantism:
    • A. 

      Held back the development of capitalism.

    • B. 

      Supported the status quo.

    • C. 

      Encouraged greater gender equality

    • D. 

      Stressed duty and hard work, boosting economic production and fostering the rise of capitalism


  • 11. 
    . Supporters of liberation theology hope that this social movement will achieve which of the following goals?
    • A. 

      Keeping politics out of the church

    • B. 

      Helping people endure their suffering

    • C. 

      Encouraging personal growth

    • D. 

      Reducing social inequality and, especially, poverty


  • 12. 
    A religious organization that is well integrated into the larger society is called a
    • A. 

      Church.

    • B. 

      Sect.

    • C. 

      Cult.

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 13. 
    . Over the course of its history, the Roman Catholic Church has existed in various forms, including as a:
    • A. 

      State church.

    • B. 

      Church.

    • C. 

      Denomination

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 14. 
    In the United States, the Amish would be an example of a:
    • A. 

      State church.

    • B. 

      Cult.

    • C. 

      Sect.

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 15. 
    . Which of the following concepts refers to a religious organization that is largely outside a society’s cultural traditions?
    • A. 

      Church

    • B. 

      Sect

    • C. 

      Cult

    • D. 

      Denomination


  • 16. 
    Which of the following religious organizations began as a cult?
    • A. 

      Islam

    • B. 

      Christianity

    • C. 

      Judaism

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 17. 
    Animism is the belief that:
    • A. 

      God has a plan for the entire world

    • B. 

      Everything in the world is a conscious, living force that is able to affect us.

    • C. 

      Nothing is sacred.

    • D. 

      People can find little meaning in their everyday lives


  • 18. 
    Christianity is one example of which of the following types of religions?
    • A. 

      Monotheism

    • B. 

      Polytheism

    • C. 

      Animism

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 19. 
    Polytheism refers to:
    • A. 

      Acceptance of many religions as true

    • B. 

      Belief that all things in the world are sacred

    • C. 

      Belief in many gods.

    • D. 

      Openness to new religious experience.


  • 20. 
    In the United States, the Muslim population includes which of the following?
    • A. 

      Most Arab Americans

    • B. 

      Many Asian Americans

    • C. 

      Some African Americans

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 21. 
    The world's largest concentration of Jews (6 million) is found in:
    • A. 

      Europe.

    • B. 

      North America

    • C. 

      Africa

    • D. 

      Asia.


  • 22. 
    Which of the following is the oldest of the world religions discussed in the text?
    • A. 

      Hinduism

    • B. 

      Judaism

    • C. 

      Christianity

    • D. 

      Islam


  • 23. 
    Confucianism is closely linked to the traditional culture of:
    • A. 

      India

    • B. 

      China

    • C. 

      Japan.

    • D. 

      Iran


  • 24. 
    In general, compared to Eastern religions, Western religions:
    • A. 

      Are deity-based

    • B. 

      Operate more ethical codes of conduct.

    • C. 

      Are less clear about what is sacred and what is profane

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 25. 
    In the United States, a majority of people (52.1 percent) claim to be:
    • A. 

      Catholic.

    • B. 

      Jewish.

    • C. 

      Protestant

    • D. 

      Muslim


  • 26. 
    In the United States, _____ are more religious than _____.
    • A. 

      Older people; younger people

    • B. 

      Women; men

    • C. 

      Members of sects; members of churches

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 27. 
    . Secularization refers to which of the following?
    • A. 

      The historical importance of religion in people’s lives

    • B. 

      The historical increase in the importance of the sacred

    • C. 

      The historical decline in the importance of the sacred.

    • D. 

      The historical concern of the church with social change.


  • 28. 
    Which of the following is a correct example of civil religion?
    • A. 

      Singing patriotic song on the Fourth of July

    • B. 

      Tax exemptions for churches

    • C. 

      The sex scandal in the Catholic church

    • D. 

      High religiosity among members of sects


  • 29. 
    Read the four statements below. Which of the four is NOT a trait of religious fundamentalism?
    • A. 

      Endorsing conservative political goals

    • B. 

      Seeking the personal experience of God’s presence

    • C. 

      Interpreting religious texts literally

    • D. 

      Accepting religious pluralism


  • 30. 
    Which of the following nations stands out as the most religious of all high-income countries?
    • A. 

      Japan

    • B. 

      Sweden

    • C. 

      The United States

    • D. 

      France


  • 31. 
    Education is the social institution by which society provides people with important knowledge, including:
    • A. 

      Job skills

    • B. 

      Basic facts and information.

    • C. 

      Cultural norms and values

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 32. 
    If you were to enter a school in ancient Greece or China, the students you would find there would be mainly:
    • A. 

      Women.

    • B. 

      Soldiers.

    • C. 

      The rich.

    • D. 

      Foreigners.


  • 33. 
    In the world as a whole, about what share of children reach the secondary grades in school?
    • A. 

      Almost all

    • B. 

      Two-thirds

    • C. 

      Half

    • D. 

      One-fourth


  • 34. 
    The major reason that schooling is limited in lower-income nations is that:
    • A. 

      There is a lack of teachers.

    • B. 

      Religion forbids formal schooling.

    • C. 

      Most children become soldiers

    • D. 

      Many poor children must work for income.


  • 35. 
    On which of the following continents do we find the most countries with high rates of illiteracy?
    • A. 

      Africa

    • B. 

      Europe

    • C. 

      South America

    • D. 

      North America


  • 36. 
    . At what point in our history had a majority of adults in the United States earned a high-school diploma?
    • A. 

      The early 1800s

    • B. 

      About 1880

    • C. 

      The early 1900s

    • D. 

      The mid-1960s


  • 37. 
    In the United States today, what percentage of people over the age of twenty-five have earned a fouryear college degree?
    • A. 

      29 percent

    • B. 

      48 percent

    • C. 

      68 percent

    • D. 

      88 percent


  • 38. 
    In the United States, the focus of education has always been:
    • A. 

      What is philosophical

    • B. 

      What is practical and job-related

    • C. 

      What is theoretical

    • D. 

      All of the above.


  • 39. 
    Which of the following is a latent function of schooling?
    • A. 

      Ensuring some common culture

    • B. 

      Teaching about the U.S. way of life

    • C. 

      Providing child-care

    • D. 

      Teaching job skills


  • 40. 
    A social-conflict analysis suggests that schooling in the United States developed in the late nineteenth century because that was the time that:
    • A. 

      Factory owners needed an obedient and disciplined workforce

    • B. 

      Immigrants had to learn English in order to work in factories

    • C. 

      The country had to teach immigrants that its way of life was right and good.

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 41. 
    One result of tracking in schools is that:
    • A. 

      The brightest students get the worst teachers

    • B. 

      Students do not get to study what they are interested in

    • C. 

      The students who get the best schooling are usually those who are more privileged to begin with.

    • D. 

      Students from disadvantaged backgrounds end up in higher tracks where they cannot do the work.


  • 42. 
    As income goes up among U.S. families, we find that
    • A. 

      There is no difference in the share of children who attend college

    • B. 

      The share of children going to college goes down

    • C. 

      The share of children going to college goes up

    • D. 

      More women, but fewer men, go to college.


  • 43. 
    Community colleges are an important part of higher education in the United States because they:
    • A. 

      Enroll almost 40 percent of college students.

    • B. 

      Greatly expand the opportunity to attend college

    • C. 

      Enroll half of African American and Hispanic undergraduates

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 44. 
    According to Theodore Sizer, rigid bureaucracy harms schooling by:
    • A. 

      Imposing uniformity on culturally diverse schools.

    • B. 

      Emphasizing test scores and other numerical ratings

    • C. 

      Expecting all students to progress at the same rate.

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 45. 
    For the United States as a whole, about what percentage of people between ages sixteen and twentyfour drop out before completing high school?
    • A. 

      1 percent

    • B. 

      8.7 percent

    • C. 

      27 percent

    • D. 

      43 percent


  • 46. 
    Which of the following categories of the U.S. population has the highest dropout rate?
    • A. 

      Asian Americans

    • B. 

      African Americans

    • C. 

      Hispanics

    • D. 

      Non-Hispanic whites


  • 47. 
    The problem of functional illiteracy means that
    • A. 

      Many young people leave school without having learned basic skills.

    • B. 

      Many older people have forgotten the lessons they learned in school.

    • C. 

      A significant share of U.S. children never attend school.

    • D. 

      Many teachers in U.S. schools do not know how to teach


  • 48. 
    To improve U.S. schooling, A Nation at Risk recommended:
    • A. 

      Requiring all students to study more math, English, social studies, science, and computer science.

    • B. 

      Improving teacher training.

    • C. 

      Raising teachers' salaries.

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 49. 
    One indication that there is a problem of grade inflation is the fact that almost half of all grades given to today's high school students are:
    • A. 

      A's.

    • B. 

      B's.

    • C. 

      C's.

    • D. 

      D's.


  • 50. 
    Magnet schools encourage:
    • A. 

      Students to specialize in specific areas of study

    • B. 

      School busing for cultural diversity.

    • C. 

      Students to take control of their own learning

    • D. 

      Students to complete their education in fewer years


  • 51. 
    Charter schools are:
    • A. 

      Private schools that typically enroll high-income students

    • B. 

      Public schools that have the freedom to try new programs and policies.

    • C. 

      Private schools that have a religious curriculum.

    • D. 

      Public schools that are run by private companies.


  • 52. 
    Which of the following concepts refers to the practice of including people with disabilities in regular educational classes and programs?
    • A. 

      Tracking

    • B. 

      Mainstreaming

    • C. 

      Chartering

    • D. 

      The magnet school policy


  • 53. 
    Public schools have been losing teachers in recent years because of:
    • A. 

      Job-related frustration.

    • B. 

      Low pay.

    • C. 

      The retirement of many older teachers

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 54. 
    . A general lesson of sociological research is that:
    • A. 

      U.S. schools are steadily getting better

    • B. 

      We cannot expect schools by themselves to improve the quality of education

    • C. 

      Most public schools perform well; most private schools do not.

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 55. 
    Applying the sociological perspective, we see that the high rate of obesity in the United States reflects:
    • A. 

      Bad personal choices people make about their lives

    • B. 

      Cultural forces that encourage people to eat large amounts of unhealthy fast food

    • C. 

      Our long history as a nation of people with poor health.

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 56. 
    Approximately what share of U.S. adults is overweight?
    • A. 

      One-fifth

    • B. 

      One-third

    • C. 

      Two-thirds

    • D. 

      Nine-tenths


  • 57. 
    Society shapes human health because:
    • A. 

      Cultural patterns define what is or is not healthy.

    • B. 

      Social inequality affects a population's health.

    • C. 

      Society's technology affects people's health

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 58. 
    According to the World Health Organization, about how many of the world's people suffer from serious illness caused by poverty?
    • A. 

      1 million

    • B. 

      10 million

    • C. 

      1 billion

    • D. 

      10 billion


  • 59. 
    If you were to visit a low-income nation to study its high death rates, what would you suspect to be the most common causes of death?
    • A. 

      Cancer and heart disease

    • B. 

      Infectious diseases

    • C. 

      Accidents

    • D. 

      Old age


  • 60. 
    Poor health in low-income nations reflects which of the following factors?
    • A. 

      The lack of safe drinking water

    • B. 

      The lack of access to medical personnel

    • C. 

      The lack of a nutritious diet

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 61. 
    In poor nations around the world, about what share of all children die before they reach their first birthday?
    • A. 

      1 percent

    • B. 

      10 percent

    • C. 

      50 percent

    • D. 

      90 percent


  • 62. 
    During the early decades of the Industrial Revolution:
    • A. 

      Rapidly growing cities had poor sanitation.

    • B. 

      Factories fouled the air with smoke

    • C. 

      Workplace accidents were common.

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 63. 
    Which of the following diseases is the biggest killer in today's high-income nations?
    • A. 

      Heart disease

    • B. 

      Influenza

    • C. 

      Pneumonia

    • D. 

      Cholera


  • 64. 
    After the Industrial Revolution, there was an increase in the share of deaths caused by which of the following types of diseases?
    • A. 

      Infectious diseases such as influenza and pneumonia

    • B. 

      Chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer

    • C. 

      Both (a) and (b) are correct.

    • D. 

      Neither (a) nor (b) is correct.


  • 65. 
    Social epidemiology is the study of:
    • A. 

      The biological basis of disease.

    • B. 

      The availability of doctors around the world.

    • C. 

      The age at which people die.

    • D. 

      The distribution of health and illness in a population.


  • 66. 
    Which of the following factors has a strong link to life expectancy?
    • A. 

      Race

    • B. 

      Gender

    • C. 

      Social class

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct


  • 67. 
    . Read the following statements about health in the United States. Which of the statement is correct?
    • A. 

      The children of rich families have the best health in the world

    • B. 

      Children in poor families are as vulnerable as children in some low-income nations

    • C. 

      High-income people assess their own health more positively than low-income people.

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct


  • 68. 
    Which of the following categories of the U.S. population has the highest life-expectancy?
    • A. 

      White men

    • B. 

      White women

    • C. 

      African American men

    • D. 

      African American women


  • 69. 
    The greatest preventable cause of death in the United States is:
    • A. 

      Sexually transmitted diseases.

    • B. 

      Automobile accidents.

    • C. 

      Cigarette smoking

    • D. 

      Drinking alcohol.


  • 70. 
    What is the death toll in the United States each year caused by diseases related to obesity?
    • A. 

      3,000 people

    • B. 

      30,000 people

    • C. 

      300,000 people

    • D. 

      3 million people


  • 71. 
    Which of the following is a factor contributing to widespread obesity in U.S. society?
    • A. 

      Fewer of today's jobs involve the physical labor common in the past

    • B. 

      More work around the house is done by machines

    • C. 

      The typical diet involves more both food and more salty and fatty food

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 72. 
    Which sexually transmitted disease infects 50 million U.S. adults (about one in five)?
    • A. 

      Syphilis

    • B. 

      Genital herpes

    • C. 

      Gonorrhea

    • D. 

      AIDS


  • 73. 
    An exception to the general decline of infectious diseases in the United States is the increase in ______ after 1960.
    • A. 

      Cancer

    • B. 

      Obesity

    • C. 

      Flu

    • D. 

      Sexually transmitted diseases


  • 74. 
    Which of the following world regions is experiencing the most severe epidemic of AIDS?
    • A. 

      Latin America

    • B. 

      Sub-Saharan Africa

    • C. 

      The Middle East

    • D. 

      Eastern Asia


  • 75. 
    Upon infection, people with HIV:
    • A. 

      Display obvious symptoms

    • B. 

      Get very sick right away.

    • C. 

      Display no symptoms at all.

    • D. 

      Get mildly sick from time to time.


  • 76. 
    Which of the following statements is true?
    • A. 

      Voters in Oregon approved a physician-assisted suicide law.

    • B. 

      The U.S. Supreme Court has stated that there is no “right to die.”

    • C. 

      Physician-assisted suicide is legal in the Netherlands.

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 77. 
    It is correct to say that the medical establishment in the United States is oriented towards which of the following?
    • A. 

      Holistic treatment

    • B. 

      Herbal healing

    • C. 

      Traditional healing arts

    • D. 

      Scientific medicine


  • 78. 
    Holistic medicine asserts that:
    • A. 

      The most important task is treating symptoms of disease.

    • B. 

      Patients should rely on themselves—not just physicians—to ensure their health

    • C. 

      Treatment of patients should be impersonal.

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 79. 
    Of all high-income nations, which country relies the most on a direct-fee market system to pay for medical treatment?
    • A. 

      Great Britain

    • B. 

      Sweden

    • C. 

      The United States

    • D. 

      Japan


  • 80. 
    The concept "socialized medicine" refers to which of the following?
    • A. 

      Government insurance programs that pay for medical care

    • B. 

      A medical system mostly owned and operated by the government

    • C. 

      Programs to improve health by giving people support groups

    • D. 

      All of the following are correct.


  • 81. 
    In his structural-functional analysis, Talcott Parsons claimed that society responds to illness by:
    • A. 

      Punishing ill people.

    • B. 

      Withholding treatment to those who need it most.

    • C. 

      Using the "sick role" to relieve ill people of many daily responsibilities

    • D. 

      Forcing people, sick or not, to perform important work.


  • 82. 
    A criticism of Talcott Parsons’s approach to health and medicine is that it:
    • A. 

      Says little about the issue of prevention

    • B. 

      Places doctors rather than people in charge of health.

    • C. 

      Assumes sick people can afford to take time off from work.

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 83. 
    The topic of psychosomatic disorders is of greatest interest to sociologists guided by which theoretical approach?
    • A. 

      The structural-functional approach

    • B. 

      The symbolic-interaction approach

    • C. 

      The social-conflict approach

    • D. 

      The sociobiological approach


  • 84. 
    From a social-conflict point of view, capitalism fails to support human health because:
    • A. 

      It does not encourage development of new medical techniques and technologies.

    • B. 

      Physicians have little financial incentive to work.

    • C. 

      It makes quality of care dependent on income.

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 85. 
    Demography is defined as the study of:
    • A. 

      Democratic political systems

    • B. 

      Human population.

    • C. 

      Changes in human culture.

    • D. 

      The natural environment.


  • 86. 
    Fertility refers to:
    • A. 

      Life expectancy for a nation’s population.

    • B. 

      Norms that encourages people to have children

    • C. 

      The maximum number of children a woman can have

    • D. 

      The incidence of childbearing in a nation’s population.


  • 87. 
    Which of the following concepts refers to the maximum possible childbearing for women?
    • A. 

      The crude birth rate

    • B. 

      Fertility

    • C. 

      Fecundity

    • D. 

      The refined birth rate


  • 88. 
    Which of the following concepts refers to the number of live births in a given year for every thousand people in a population?
    • A. 

      Fertility

    • B. 

      Refined birth rate

    • C. 

      Crude birth rate

    • D. 

      Fecundity


  • 89. 
    One region of the world has both the highest birth rate and the highest infant mortality rate. Which is it?
    • A. 

      Latin America

    • B. 

      Africa

    • C. 

      Europe

    • D. 

      Asia


  • 90. 
    In global perspective, the crude birth rate of high income nations such as the United States is:
    • A. 

      Much higher than average.

    • B. 

      Slightly higher than average

    • C. 

      About equal to the average.

    • D. 

      Below average.


  • 91. 
    If you were studying countries with very low infant mortality, in which of the following global regions would you be most likely to look?
    • A. 

      Latin America

    • B. 

      Africa

    • C. 

      Europe

    • D. 

      Asia


  • 92. 
    In terms of migration within the United States, the region of the country most often left behind is:
    • A. 

      The heartland or Great Plains, from North Dakota down to Texas.

    • B. 

      The South.

    • C. 

      The West Coast, from Washington down to California.

    • D. 

      The Southeast.


  • 93. 
    Which of the following four statements about migration is NOT true?
    • A. 

      Migration can be voluntary or involuntary

    • B. 

      Movement into a territory is called immigration

    • C. 

      Movement out of a territory is called emigration.

    • D. 

      Migration has little or no effect on population size


  • 94. 
    Why are sex ratios usually below 100?
    • A. 

      Because many societies abort male fetuses

    • B. 

      Because more women than men are born.

    • C. 

      Because women typically outlive men.

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 95. 
    Through most of human history, families had many children because:
    • A. 

      Children were a source of needed labor.

    • B. 

      Birth control was not reliable.

    • C. 

      High death rates meant that many children did not reach adulthood.

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 96. 
    When did the world’s population reach 1 billion?
    • A. 

      1600

    • B. 

      1700

    • C. 

      1800

    • D. 

      1900


  • 97. 
    How much did the world's population increase during the twentieth century?
    • A. 

      Not at all—it stayed about the same.

    • B. 

      It doubled.

    • C. 

      It tripled.

    • D. 

      It quadrupled


  • 98. 
    Currently, about how much of the global population increase is taking place in low-income nations?
    • A. 

      33 percent

    • B. 

      50 percent

    • C. 

      75 percent

    • D. 

      96 percent


  • 99. 
    The basic idea behind demographic transition theory is:
    • A. 

      Population patterns reflect a society’s level of technological development

    • B. 

      Population increase will outstrip the planet’s ability to support us.

    • C. 

      Population increase is now mostly in high-income nations.

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 100. 
    In the preindustrial stage of economic development, population:
    • A. 

      Increases very slowly, with a high birth rate offset by a high death rate

    • B. 

      Increases rapidly due mostly to natural increase

    • C. 

      Increases rapidly due entirely to immigration

    • D. 

      Decreases very rapidly.


  • 101. 
          Which of the following nations would you expect to be most concerned about declining population?
    • A. 

      A landlocked country such as Chad

    • B. 

      A large country such as Brazil

    • C. 

      A high-income country such as Japan

    • D. 

      A low-income country such as Bangladesh


  • 102. 
        In low-income countries, increasing opportunities available to women is likely to:
    • A. 

      Stimulate the economy, raising economic output.

    • B. 

      Lower the birth rate.

    • C. 

      Result in more schooling for women

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 103. 
        About how long ago in history did the first cities emerge?
    • A. 

      10,000 years ago

    • B. 

      4,000 years ago

    • C. 

      2,000 years ago

    • D. 

      1,000 years ago


  • 104. 
    With the Industrial Revolution, how did the physical design of cities change?
    • A. 

      Cities took on a new focus on business.

    • B. 

      Winding streets gave way to broad and straight boulevards

    • C. 

      Urban populations became much larger.

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 105. 
    In what year was half the U.S. population living in urban places for the first time?
    • A. 

      1880

    • B. 

      1920

    • C. 

      1960

    • D. 

      1985


  • 106. 
        About when did urban centralization reach its peak in the United States?
    • A. 

      1900

    • B. 

      1925

    • C. 

      1950

    • D. 

      1975


  • 107. 
        Urban decentralization has led to:
    • A. 

      An expansion of suburbs.

    • B. 

      The development of vast urban regions

    • C. 

      The growth of edge cities

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 108. 
    If you were to compare Sunbelt cities, such as Houston, to Snowbelt cities, such as Chicago, what differences would you find?
    • A. 

      Sunbelt cities are typically smaller in physical size

    • B. 

      Sunbelt cities have smaller populations.

    • C. 

      Sunbelt cities have larger populations and are larger in physical size

    • D. 

      Sunbelt cities lack the sprawl typical of Snowbelt cities.


  • 109. 
        The concept "megalopolis" refers to which of the following?
    • A. 

      A vast urban region containing many cities and suburbs

    • B. 

      The largest city in any country

    • C. 

      A dense, central city

    • D. 

      The "rural rebound"


  • 110. 
        Which of the following concepts was used by Ferdinand Tönnies to refer to a type of social organization in which people come together only on the basis of individual self-interest?
    • A. 

      Gemeinschaft

    • B. 

      Gesellschaft

    • C. 

      Mechanical solidarity

    • D. 

      Organic solidarity


  • 111. 
        According to Emile Durkheim, while traditional, rural societies are held together by _____, modern urban societies are held together by _____.
    • A. 

      Likeness; difference

    • B. 

      Difference; likeness

    • C. 

      Money; morals

    • D. 

      Choice; conformity


  • 112. 
       . A third urban revolution is now taking place in:
    • A. 

      The United States

    • B. 

      High-income nations

    • C. 

      Middle-income nations.

    • D. 

      Low-income nations.


  • 113. 
       Which of the following concepts refers to the study of the interaction of living organisms and the natural environment?
    • A. 

      Sociobiology

    • B. 

      Ecology

    • C. 

      Demography

    • D. 

      Urban studies


  • 114. 
        The concept "environmental deficit" refers to:
    • A. 

      Long-term harm to the environment caused by a short-sighted focus on material affluence

    • B. 

      The fact that too few people are engaged in the study of the natural environment.

    • C. 

      The fact that natural scientists ignore the social dimensions of environmental problems.

    • D. 

      Efforts to protect the environment to benefit future generations.


  • 115. 
        Which of the following concepts refers to the optimistic approach to environmental issues that claims science can promote progress and solve environmental problems?
    • A. 

      The sustainability thesis

    • B. 

      The Malthusian thesis

    • C. 

      The limits to growth

    • D. 

      The logic of growth


  • 116. 
       Which of the following statements expresses the “limits to growth” thesis?
    • A. 

      We are rapidly consuming the Earth’s finite resources.

    • B. 

      Whatever problems technology creates, technology can solve.

    • C. 

      Quality of life on the Earth is now improving

    • D. 

      Growth makes sense because it raises living standards.


  • 117. 
      . As a rich nation that values consumption and convenience, the U.S. can be described as:
    • A. 

      A "Malthusian society."

    • B. 

      A "recycling society."

    • C. 

      A "disposable society."

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 118. 
    Which of the following accounts for most water use in the world today?
    • A. 

      Industry

    • B. 

      Agriculture

    • C. 

      Households

    • D. 

      Water parks, golf courses, and other recreational settings


  • 119. 
        Which of the following is evidence of the shortage of fresh water now found around the world?
    • A. 

      China's supply of ground water is declining rapidly

    • B. 

      Water supply in the Middle East is at a critical level.

    • C. 

      Mexico City has pumped so much water from the ground that the city continues to sink about two inches per year

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 120. 
        Why is the gradual loss of the world’s rain forests an important environmental concern?
    • A. 

      Rainforests are vital to maintaining the planet’s biodiversity and climate.

    • B. 

      Rainforests are necessary grazing lands

    • C. 

      Rainforests are a vital source of hardwoods and other raw materials.

    • D. 

      Rainforests are a source of air pollution.


  • 121. 
       Mounting evidence suggests that the average temperature of the planet is:
    • A. 

      Now steady.

    • B. 

      Rising.

    • C. 

      Falling.

    • D. 

      Lower than it has ever been.


  • 122. 
    . The environmental racism thesis falls within which theoretical approach?
    • A. 

      The structural-functional approach

    • B. 

      The sociobiology approach

    • C. 

      The symbolic-interaction approach

    • D. 

      The social-conflict approach


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