Sociology Final

122 Questions  I  By Landonmarsh
1. Religion is a social institution that is best defined as involving:

  
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1.  1. Religion is a social institution that is best defined as involving:
A.
B.
C.
D.
2.  Following Emile Durkheim, we would define things as profane when we understand them:
A.
B.
C.
D.
3.  Ritual is a matter of
A.
B.
C.
D.
4.  . Faith is a way of knowing based on:
A.
B.
C.
D.
5.  Sociological analysis of religion is concerned with:
A.
B.
C.
D.
6.  . Durkheim pointed to three functions of religion for society. Which of the following is NOT one of them?
A.
B.
C.
D.
7.  Guided by the symbolic-interaction approach, sociologists examine:
A.
B.
C.
D.
8.  An analysis of how religion supports the interests of a society's elites would fall under which of the following theoretical approaches?
A.
B.
C.
D.
9.  What do the sacred texts of Christianity, Judaism, and Islam have in common?
A.
B.
C.
D.
10.  In his analysis of Protestantism and the rise of capitalism, Max Weber stated that Protestantism:
A.
B.
C.
D.
11.  . Supporters of liberation theology hope that this social movement will achieve which of the following goals?
A.
B.
C.
D.
12.  A religious organization that is well integrated into the larger society is called a
A.
B.
C.
D.
13.  . Over the course of its history, the Roman Catholic Church has existed in various forms, including as a:
A.
B.
C.
D.
14.  In the United States, the Amish would be an example of a:
A.
B.
C.
D.
15.  . Which of the following concepts refers to a religious organization that is largely outside a society’s cultural traditions?
A.
B.
C.
D.
16.  Which of the following religious organizations began as a cult?
A.
B.
C.
D.
17.  Animism is the belief that:
A.
B.
C.
D.
18.  Christianity is one example of which of the following types of religions?
A.
B.
C.
D.
19.  Polytheism refers to:
A.
B.
C.
D.
20.  In the United States, the Muslim population includes which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
21.  The world's largest concentration of Jews (6 million) is found in:
A.
B.
C.
D.
22.  Which of the following is the oldest of the world religions discussed in the text?
A.
B.
C.
D.
23.  Confucianism is closely linked to the traditional culture of:
A.
B.
C.
D.
24.  In general, compared to Eastern religions, Western religions:
A.
B.
C.
D.
25.  In the United States, a majority of people (52.1 percent) claim to be:
A.
B.
C.
D.
26.  In the United States, _____ are more religious than _____.
A.
B.
C.
D.
27.  . Secularization refers to which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
28.  Which of the following is a correct example of civil religion?
A.
B.
C.
D.
29.  Read the four statements below. Which of the four is NOT a trait of religious fundamentalism?
A.
B.
C.
D.
30.  Which of the following nations stands out as the most religious of all high-income countries?
A.
B.
C.
D.
31.  Education is the social institution by which society provides people with important knowledge, including:
A.
B.
C.
D.
32.  If you were to enter a school in ancient Greece or China, the students you would find there would be mainly:
A.
B.
C.
D.
33.  In the world as a whole, about what share of children reach the secondary grades in school?
A.
B.
C.
D.
34.  The major reason that schooling is limited in lower-income nations is that:
A.
B.
C.
D.
35.  On which of the following continents do we find the most countries with high rates of illiteracy?
A.
B.
C.
D.
36.  . At what point in our history had a majority of adults in the United States earned a high-school diploma?
A.
B.
C.
D.
37.  In the United States today, what percentage of people over the age of twenty-five have earned a fouryear college degree?
A.
B.
C.
D.
38.  In the United States, the focus of education has always been:
A.
B.
C.
D.
39.  Which of the following is a latent function of schooling?
A.
B.
C.
D.
40.  A social-conflict analysis suggests that schooling in the United States developed in the late nineteenth century because that was the time that:
A.
B.
C.
D.
41.  One result of tracking in schools is that:
A.
B.
C.
D.
42.  As income goes up among U.S. families, we find that
A.
B.
C.
D.
43.  Community colleges are an important part of higher education in the United States because they:
A.
B.
C.
D.
44.  According to Theodore Sizer, rigid bureaucracy harms schooling by:
A.
B.
C.
D.
45.  For the United States as a whole, about what percentage of people between ages sixteen and twentyfour drop out before completing high school?
A.
B.
C.
D.
46.  Which of the following categories of the U.S. population has the highest dropout rate?
A.
B.
C.
D.
47.  The problem of functional illiteracy means that
A.
B.
C.
D.
48.  To improve U.S. schooling, A Nation at Risk recommended:
A.
B.
C.
D.
49.  One indication that there is a problem of grade inflation is the fact that almost half of all grades given to today's high school students are:
A.
B.
C.
D.
50.  Magnet schools encourage:
A.
B.
C.
D.
51.  Charter schools are:
A.
B.
C.
D.
52.  Which of the following concepts refers to the practice of including people with disabilities in regular educational classes and programs?
A.
B.
C.
D.
53.  Public schools have been losing teachers in recent years because of:
A.
B.
C.
D.
54.  . A general lesson of sociological research is that:
A.
B.
C.
D.
55.  Applying the sociological perspective, we see that the high rate of obesity in the United States reflects:
A.
B.
C.
D.
56.  Approximately what share of U.S. adults is overweight?
A.
B.
C.
D.
57.  Society shapes human health because:
A.
B.
C.
D.
58.  According to the World Health Organization, about how many of the world's people suffer from serious illness caused by poverty?
A.
B.
C.
D.
59.  If you were to visit a low-income nation to study its high death rates, what would you suspect to be the most common causes of death?
A.
B.
C.
D.
60.  Poor health in low-income nations reflects which of the following factors?
A.
B.
C.
D.
61.  In poor nations around the world, about what share of all children die before they reach their first birthday?
A.
B.
C.
D.
62.  During the early decades of the Industrial Revolution:
A.
B.
C.
D.
63.  Which of the following diseases is the biggest killer in today's high-income nations?
A.
B.
C.
D.
64.  After the Industrial Revolution, there was an increase in the share of deaths caused by which of the following types of diseases?
A.
B.
C.
D.
65.  Social epidemiology is the study of:
A.
B.
C.
D.
66.  Which of the following factors has a strong link to life expectancy?
A.
B.
C.
D.
67.  . Read the following statements about health in the United States. Which of the statement is correct?
A.
B.
C.
D.
68.  Which of the following categories of the U.S. population has the highest life-expectancy?
A.
B.
C.
D.
69.  The greatest preventable cause of death in the United States is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
70.  What is the death toll in the United States each year caused by diseases related to obesity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
71.  Which of the following is a factor contributing to widespread obesity in U.S. society?
A.
B.
C.
D.
72.  Which sexually transmitted disease infects 50 million U.S. adults (about one in five)?
A.
B.
C.
D.
73.  An exception to the general decline of infectious diseases in the United States is the increase in ______ after 1960.
A.
B.
C.
D.
74.  Which of the following world regions is experiencing the most severe epidemic of AIDS?
A.
B.
C.
D.
75.  Upon infection, people with HIV:
A.
B.
C.
D.
76.  Which of the following statements is true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
77.  It is correct to say that the medical establishment in the United States is oriented towards which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
78.  Holistic medicine asserts that:
A.
B.
C.
D.
79.  Of all high-income nations, which country relies the most on a direct-fee market system to pay for medical treatment?
A.
B.
C.
D.
80.  The concept "socialized medicine" refers to which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
81.  In his structural-functional analysis, Talcott Parsons claimed that society responds to illness by:
A.
B.
C.
D.
82.  A criticism of Talcott Parsons’s approach to health and medicine is that it:
A.
B.
C.
D.
83.  The topic of psychosomatic disorders is of greatest interest to sociologists guided by which theoretical approach?
A.
B.
C.
D.
84.  From a social-conflict point of view, capitalism fails to support human health because:
A.
B.
C.
D.
85.  Demography is defined as the study of:
A.
B.
C.
D.
86.  Fertility refers to:
A.
B.
C.
D.
87.  Which of the following concepts refers to the maximum possible childbearing for women?
A.
B.
C.
D.
88.  Which of the following concepts refers to the number of live births in a given year for every thousand people in a population?
A.
B.
C.
D.
89.  One region of the world has both the highest birth rate and the highest infant mortality rate. Which is it?
A.
B.
C.
D.
90.  In global perspective, the crude birth rate of high income nations such as the United States is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
91.  If you were studying countries with very low infant mortality, in which of the following global regions would you be most likely to look?
A.
B.
C.
D.
92.  In terms of migration within the United States, the region of the country most often left behind is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
93.  Which of the following four statements about migration is NOT true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
94.  Why are sex ratios usually below 100?
A.
B.
C.
D.
95.  Through most of human history, families had many children because:
A.
B.
C.
D.
96.  When did the world’s population reach 1 billion?
A.
B.
C.
D.
97.  How much did the world's population increase during the twentieth century?
A.
B.
C.
D.
98.  Currently, about how much of the global population increase is taking place in low-income nations?
A.
B.
C.
D.
99.  The basic idea behind demographic transition theory is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
100.  In the preindustrial stage of economic development, population:
A.
B.
C.
D.
101.        Which of the following nations would you expect to be most concerned about declining population?
A.
B.
C.
D.
102.      In low-income countries, increasing opportunities available to women is likely to:
A.
B.
C.
D.
103.      About how long ago in history did the first cities emerge?
A.
B.
C.
D.
104.  With the Industrial Revolution, how did the physical design of cities change?
A.
B.
C.
D.
105.  In what year was half the U.S. population living in urban places for the first time?
A.
B.
C.
D.
106.      About when did urban centralization reach its peak in the United States?
A.
B.
C.
D.
107.      Urban decentralization has led to:
A.
B.
C.
D.
108.  If you were to compare Sunbelt cities, such as Houston, to Snowbelt cities, such as Chicago, what differences would you find?
A.
B.
C.
D.
109.      The concept "megalopolis" refers to which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
110.      Which of the following concepts was used by Ferdinand Tönnies to refer to a type of social organization in which people come together only on the basis of individual self-interest?
A.
B.
C.
D.
111.      According to Emile Durkheim, while traditional, rural societies are held together by _____, modern urban societies are held together by _____.
A.
B.
C.
D.
112.     . A third urban revolution is now taking place in:
A.
B.
C.
D.
113.     Which of the following concepts refers to the study of the interaction of living organisms and the natural environment?
A.
B.
C.
D.
114.      The concept "environmental deficit" refers to:
A.
B.
C.
D.
115.      Which of the following concepts refers to the optimistic approach to environmental issues that claims science can promote progress and solve environmental problems?
A.
B.
C.
D.
116.     Which of the following statements expresses the “limits to growth” thesis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
117.    . As a rich nation that values consumption and convenience, the U.S. can be described as:
A.
B.
C.
D.
118.  Which of the following accounts for most water use in the world today?
A.
B.
C.
D.
119.      Which of the following is evidence of the shortage of fresh water now found around the world?
A.
B.
C.
D.
120.      Why is the gradual loss of the world’s rain forests an important environmental concern?
A.
B.
C.
D.
121.     Mounting evidence suggests that the average temperature of the planet is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
122.  . The environmental racism thesis falls within which theoretical approach?
A.
B.
C.
D.
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