Microbiology Questions

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Microbiology Quizzes & Trivia
A review for microbiology in order to get an A for the final exam

  
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  • 1. 
    Who proved that microorganisms cause disease?
    • A. 

      Pasteur

    • B. 

      Van Leeuwenhoek

    • C. 

      Koch

    • D. 

      Hooke


  • 2. 
    Nitrogen bases are building blocks of:
    • A. 

      Lipids

    • B. 

      Deoxyribose

    • C. 

      Nucleotides

    • D. 

      Ribosomes

    • E. 

      None of these


  • 3. 
    Proteins are formed by amino acids connected by:
    • A. 

      Alpha 1,4-glycosidic bond

    • B. 

      Phosphodiester linkage

    • C. 

      Hydrogen bonds

    • D. 

      Peptide bonds


  • 4. 
    Which of the following is not a kingdom in the five-kingdom system?
    • A. 

      Protista

    • B. 

      Algae

    • C. 

      Plant

    • D. 

      Animal

    • E. 

      Monera


  • 5. 
    The best use of a negative stain is:
    • A. 

      To determine cell shape

    • B. 

      To see endospore

    • C. 

      To determine Gram reaction

    • D. 

      To determine motility


  • 6. 
    We discussed two processes for synthesizing ATP. Which process requires proton gradient across the membrane?
    • A. 

      Substrate level phosphorylation

    • B. 

      Oxidative level phosphorylation


  • 7. 
    Place the following steps in the correct sequence: 1 - Staining; 2- Making a smear; 3 - Fixing
    • A. 

      1-2-3

    • B. 

      1-3-2

    • C. 

      3-2-1

    • D. 

      2-3-1


  • 8. 
    Which of the following chemicals is found only in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria?
    • A. 

      Plasmid

    • B. 

      Teichoic acid

    • C. 

      Flagella

    • D. 

      Lipopolysaccharide

    • E. 

      Peptidoglycan


  • 9. 
    Identify the FALSE statement.
    • A. 

      The cell wall of G+ is much thicker than G-

    • B. 

      In Gram stain, G- are blue (purple) and G+ are pink (red)

    • C. 

      G+ and NOT G- contain teichoic acid in their cell wall

    • D. 

      In Gram stain, G+ are blue (purple) and G- are pink (red)


  • 10. 
    Which of the following is one of the hallmarks of a cell?
    • A. 

      Self sufficient

    • B. 

      Disease causing

    • C. 

      Having cell wall

    • D. 

      Self replicating

    • E. 

      Presence of RNA and ribosome in the ell


  • 11. 
    All of the following statements are true of gram-positive cells except which one?
    • A. 

      Gram positive cells have more peptidoglycan

    • B. 

      Gram positive cells have endotoxin

    • C. 

      Gram positive cells are sensitive to penicillin

    • D. 

      Gram positive cells are decolorized by alcohol-acetone


  • 12. 
    Which of the following statements are about a gram-negative cell wall is not true?
    • A. 

      It has teichoic acids

    • B. 

      It contains an endotoxin

    • C. 

      It protects the cell from osmotic lysis

    • D. 

      It maintains the shape of the cell


  • 13. 
    Which of the following is not a kingdom in the five-kingdom system?
    • A. 

      Animal

    • B. 

      Fungi

    • C. 

      Monera

    • D. 

      Plant

    • E. 

      Virus


  • 14. 
    Which of the following chemical bonds is the strongest?
    • A. 

      Ionic bond

    • B. 

      Covalent bond

    • C. 

      Hydrogen Bond

    • D. 

      They all have the same strength


  • 15. 
    Bacterial cell membrane DOES NOT contain:
    • A. 

      Phospholipids

    • B. 

      Proteins

    • C. 

      Glycoproteins

    • D. 

      Lipids

    • E. 

      Nucleic acids


  • 16. 
    All of the following can be found in mitochondria except:
    • A. 

      Circular DNA

    • B. 

      Ribosome

    • C. 

      ATP-generating mechanism

    • D. 

      Electron transport system

    • E. 

      Cell wall


  • 17. 
    Which of the following is not a characteristic of a Bacteria?
    • A. 

      All are unicellular.

    • B. 

      All are pathogenic.

    • C. 

      Cell walls are composed of peptidoglycan.

    • D. 

      Most possess cell walls.


  • 18. 
    This microscope uses an ultraviolet light source.
    • A. 

      Dark field microscope

    • B. 

      Fluorescence microscope

    • C. 

      Electron microscope

    • D. 

      Compound light microscope


  • 19. 
    Which of the following is considered an endotoxin?
    • A. 

      Teichoic acid

    • B. 

      Lipopolysaccharide

    • C. 

      Periplasm

    • D. 

      Murein

    • E. 

      Peptidoglycan


  • 20. 
    Bacteria differ from viruses because bacteria
    • A. 

      Have cells

    • B. 

      Have DNA and RNA

    • C. 

      Can live without a host

    • D. 

      All of these


  • 21. 
    These molecules are the primary building blocks of the plasma membrane in cells
    • A. 

      Carbohydrates

    • B. 

      Nucleic acids

    • C. 

      Proteins

    • D. 

      Lipids


  • 22. 
    Which of the following does not contribute to the hydrophobic interaction?
    • A. 

      Ionic interaction between hydrophobic molecules

    • B. 

      Proximity of hydrophobic molecules

    • C. 

      Increase entropy

    • D. 

      Exclusion of water


  • 23. 
    These are the primary molecules making up plasma membrane in cells
    • A. 

      Nucleic acids

    • B. 

      Carbohydrates

    • C. 

      Proteins

    • D. 

      Lipids


  • 24. 
    This is not a major bioelement
    • A. 

      Sulfur

    • B. 

      Nitrogen

    • C. 

      Hydrogen

    • D. 

      Magnesium

    • E. 

      Phosphate


  • 25. 
    A protein's function depends upon its unique conformation. Which level of protein folding achieves this conformation?
    • A. 

      Primary structure

    • B. 

      Beta sheet

    • C. 

      Alpha helix

    • D. 

      Secondary structure

    • E. 

      Tertiary structure


  • 26. 
    Which forces/bonds are involved in quaternary structure of proteins?
    • A. 

      Hydrogen bond, S-S bridges, Van der Waals forces, peptide bonds

    • B. 

      Hydrogen bond, S-S bridges, Van der Waals forces, peptide bonds, and hydrophobic interactions

    • C. 

      Hydrogen bond, S-S bridges, peptide bonds

    • D. 

      Hydrogen bond, S-S bridges, Van der Waals forces, hydrophobic interactions


  • 27. 
    This is not an internal structure of a bacteria
    • A. 

      Ribosome

    • B. 

      Plasmid

    • C. 

      Fimbriae

    • D. 

      Nucleoid


  • 28. 
    You can find nucleotides in
    • A. 

      DNA

    • B. 

      Amino acids

    • C. 

      Fatty acids

    • D. 

      Proteins

    • E. 

      Carbohydrates


  • 29. 
    Which are of microbiolgy studies fungi?
    • A. 

      Mycology

    • B. 

      Parasitology

    • C. 

      Biotechnology

    • D. 

      Immunology

    • E. 

      Bioremediation


  • 30. 
    Which of the following compounds has the greatest amount of energy for a cell?
    • A. 

      O2

    • B. 

      Glucose

    • C. 

      CO2

    • D. 

      ATP

    • E. 

      Pyruvate


  • 31. 
    Which of the following is not part of the cell membrane?
    • A. 

      Fatty acids

    • B. 

      Nucleic acids

    • C. 

      Sugars

    • D. 

      Amino acids


  • 32. 
    Cell division occurs in prokaryotes by:
    • A. 

      Budding

    • B. 

      Meiosis

    • C. 

      Binary Fission

    • D. 

      Mitosis


  • 33. 
    Which of the following mechanisms requires energy?
    • A. 

      Simple diffusion

    • B. 

      Osmosis

    • C. 

      Facilitated diffusion

    • D. 

      Active transport


  • 34. 
    Cells are made of mostly
    • A. 

      Lipids

    • B. 

      Proteins

    • C. 

      RNA

    • D. 

      DNA

    • E. 

      Carbohydrates


  • 35. 
    What color should a gram-positive organism appear after Gram stain
    • A. 

      Pink

    • B. 

      Red

    • C. 

      Green

    • D. 

      Purple

    • E. 

      Orange


  • 36. 
    Eukarya
    • A. 

      Have a membrane around their DNA

    • B. 

      Contain outer membrane and cell membrane

    • C. 

      Consist of only multicellular organisms

    • D. 

      All of these are correct

    • E. 

      None of these are correct


  • 37. 
    The type of bond holding Na+ and Cl- ions in NaCl is a(n):
    • A. 

      Covalent bond

    • B. 

      Double bond

    • C. 

      Ionic bond

    • D. 

      Hydrogen bond


  • 38. 
    A medium that contains cyrstal violet inhibit growth of gram-positive bacteria. The medium is:
    • A. 

      Selective

    • B. 

      Differential

    • C. 

      Enriched


  • 39. 
    Loss of electrons means:
    • A. 

      Phosphorylation

    • B. 

      Reduction

    • C. 

      Oxidation


  • 40. 
    S-S agar inhibits gram-positive bacteria. On this medium, bacteria that ferment lactose to produce red colonies, and bacteria that do not ferment lactose to produce colorless colonies. This medium is:
    • A. 

      Both selective and differential

    • B. 

      Differential

    • C. 

      Enriched

    • D. 

      Selective


  • 41. 
    Which of the following is not a characteristic of cell membrane
    • A. 

      Selective permeability

    • B. 

      Composed of Phospholipid bilayer

    • C. 

      Contains proteins

    • D. 

      Maintain cell shape

    • E. 

      Present in all cells


  • 42. 
    Which of the following mechanisms generate ATP using an electron transport chain?
    • A. 

      Fermentation

    • B. 

      Glycolysis

    • C. 

      Oxidative phosphorylation

    • D. 

      Substrate level phosphorylation

    • E. 

      Krebs cycle


  • 43. 
    An example of bioremediation is the use of:
    • A. 

      Bacillus thuringiensis to kill crop-eating insects

    • B. 

      Cowpox virus to vaccinate against smallpox

    • C. 

      Saccharomyces cerevisie to make wine

    • D. 

      Pseudomonas to remove uranium from oil at weapons depots


  • 44. 
    This microscope achieves the highest magnification and greatest resolution.
    • A. 

      Flurorescence microscope

    • B. 

      Phase-contrast microscope

    • C. 

      Electron microscope

    • D. 

      Darkfield microscope

    • E. 

      Compound light microscope


  • 45. 
    All of the following organisms are eukaryotes except:
    • A. 

      Plants

    • B. 

      Archaea

    • C. 

      Protozoa

    • D. 

      Fungi

    • E. 

      All of these are eukaryotes


  • 46. 
    Which molecule is composed of a chain of amino acids?
    • A. 

      Carbohydrates

    • B. 

      Proteins

    • C. 

      Lipids

    • D. 

      Nucleic acids


  • 47. 
    The most common solidifying agent added to culture media is:
    • A. 

      Starch

    • B. 

      Silica gel

    • C. 

      Gelatin

    • D. 

      Agar


  • 48. 
    The best definition of biotechnology is:
    • A. 

      The use of living organisms to make desired products

    • B. 

      Curing diseases

    • C. 

      The use of microorganisms in sewage treatment

    • D. 

      The development of genetic engineering


  • 49. 
    Peptidoglycan is made of mostly:
    • A. 

      Proteins

    • B. 

      Lipids

    • C. 

      Nucleic acids

    • D. 

      Carbohydrates


  • 50. 
    Which of the following is not a product of TCA cycle?
    • A. 

      CO2

    • B. 

      Acetyle-CoA

    • C. 

      NADH

    • D. 

      GTP (ATP)

    • E. 

      FADH


  • 51. 
    Which of the following is a scientific name?
    • A. 

      Legionnaires' Disease

    • B. 

      Legionella Pneumophila

    • C. 

      Legionnares' bacterium

    • D. 

      Philadelphia fever


  • 52. 
    You have isolated a cell that lacks a membrane enclosed nucleus. You would find all of the following structures except  which one?
    • A. 

      A ribosome

    • B. 

      A chromosome

    • C. 

      Peptidoglycan

    • D. 

      A lysosome


  • 53. 
    This microscope is used to observe a specimen that emits light when illuminated with an ultra violet light and is an excellent diagnostic tool.
    • A. 

      Electron microscope

    • B. 

      Compound light microscope

    • C. 

      Fluorescence microscope

    • D. 

      Darkfield microscope


  • 54. 
    Which of the following statements about bacteria is not true?
    • A. 

      Bacteria are essential to the presence of life on Earth

    • B. 

      Everyone has bacteria in and on his body

    • C. 

      Bacteria are used to make some foods

    • D. 

      The only good bacterium is a dead bacterium


  • 55. 
    A denatured protein maintains its:
    • A. 

      Structural integrity (3D), but it loses its functions

    • B. 

      Tertiary structure

    • C. 

      Primary structure

    • D. 

      Quarternary structure

    • E. 

      Secondary structure


  • 56. 
    Cells containing the peptidoglycan layer are susceptible to penicillin. Which part of this molecule does this antibiotic affect?
    • A. 

      Formation of peptide bridge

    • B. 

      Synthesis of amino acids

    • C. 

      Synthesis of Muramic acid

    • D. 

      Synthesis of glucoseamine


  • 57. 
    The appearance of gram-negative bacteria after completing Gram stan is:
    • A. 

      Red

    • B. 

      Brown

    • C. 

      Purple

    • D. 

      Colorless


  • 58. 
    The idea of spontaneous generation postulated that:
    • A. 

      Living organisms could arise from non-living material

    • B. 

      Organisms could spontaneously evolve into more advance organisms

    • C. 

      Organisms could evolve into next generation of organisms

    • D. 

      Organisms could spontaneously arise from other living organisms


  • 59. 
    Assume you have bacterial culture that requires teichoic acid in its growth medium. If teichoic acid is not provided, the bacteria will not be able to make:
    • A. 

      Cell wall

    • B. 

      Capsule

    • C. 

      Cell membrane

    • D. 

      Enzymes


  • 60. 
    Cocci are:
    • A. 

      Round to oval bacteria

    • B. 

      Rod bacteria

    • C. 

      Cylindrical shape bacteria

    • D. 

      Bacillus type bacteria

    • E. 

      Spiral


  • 61. 
    Which of the following scientists and their discoveries is not correctly matched?
    • A. 

      Jenner-vaccination

    • B. 

      Lister-antibiotics

    • C. 

      Koch-germ theory of disease

    • D. 

      Ehrlich-chemotheraphy


  • 62. 
    A chemical bond formed by two atoms when they share pairs of electrons to fill their outer shells is a/an:
    • A. 

      Hydrophilic interaction

    • B. 

      Covalent bond

    • C. 

      Hydrogen bond

    • D. 

      Ionic bond

    • E. 

      Romantic bond


  • 63. 
    Which of the following organelles most closely resembles a prokaryotic cell?
    • A. 

      MItochondrion

    • B. 

      Cell wall

    • C. 

      Golgi complex

    • D. 

      Nucleus

    • E. 

      Vacuole


  • 64. 
    A molecule that contains both hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups is called:
    • A. 

      Amphipathic

    • B. 

      Fluid mosaic

    • C. 

      Isoelentric

    • D. 

      Amphoteric

    • E. 

      Isotonic


  • 65. 
    The most important environmental factor affecting growth is:
    • A. 

      Moisture

    • B. 

      PH

    • C. 

      Oxygen

    • D. 

      Temperature


  • 66. 
    Who disproved the theory of spontaneous generation?
    • A. 

      Pasteur

    • B. 

      Koch

    • C. 

      Hooke

    • D. 

      Van Leeuwenhoek


  • 67. 
    At which growth temperture bacteria grow at the fastest rate?
    • A. 

      Maximum temperature

    • B. 

      Optimum temperature

    • C. 

      Minimum temperature


  • 68. 
    Which of the following is not a variation of light microscopy?
    • A. 

      Fluorescent microscopy

    • B. 

      Bright field microscopy

    • C. 

      Electron microscopy

    • D. 

      Dark field microscopy

    • E. 

      Phase contrast microscopy


  • 69. 
    A peptide bond: (1) is a covalent bond (2) holds the primary structure of protein together (3) is between two hydrogen groups (4) is between carbon and nitrogen (5) is between two sugar molecules
    • A. 

      1 2 3 4

    • B. 

      1 2 3 4 5

    • C. 

      1 4 5

    • D. 

      2 3 4

    • E. 

      1 2 4


  • 70. 
    What is the purpose of buffer in culture media?
    • A. 

      To keep bacteria under control

    • B. 

      To increase pH

    • C. 

      To decrease pH

    • D. 

      To separate microorganisms from one another

    • E. 

      To maintain pH at a certain level


  • 71. 
    The difference between simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion is that facilitated diffusion:
    • A. 

      Requires transporter proteins (carriers)

    • B. 

      Does not require ATP (energy)

    • C. 

      Requires ATP (energy)

    • D. 

      Can move materials from a higher to a lower concentration

    • E. 

      Can move materials from a lower to a higher concentration


  • 72. 
    By which of the following mechanisms can a cell transport a substance from a lower to a higher concentration?
    • A. 

      Simple diffusion

    • B. 

      Extracellular enzymes

    • C. 

      Facilitated diffusion

    • D. 

      Active transport


  • 73. 
    All of the following statements about cellulase are true except which one?
    • A. 

      Some bacteria make it

    • B. 

      It is a carbohydrate

    • C. 

      It is used to degrade cellulose

    • D. 

      It is a protein


  • 74. 
    Which of the following statements is true?
    • A. 

      Endospores are for reproduction

    • B. 

      A cell can produce many endospores

    • C. 

      Endospores allow cell to survive environmental changes

    • D. 

      A cell produces one endospore and keeps growing

    • E. 

      Endospores are easily stained in Gram stain


  • 75. 
    All of the following are true about starch and cellulose except they are:
    • A. 

      Polymers of glucose

    • B. 

      Digested by animals

    • C. 

      Digested by many bacteria and fungi

    • D. 

      Produced by plants


  • 76. 
    A medium having higher concentration of solutes than interior of the cell is a ______ ______, which causes cell to _________
    • A. 

      Hypertonic solution, shrivel

    • B. 

      Isotonic solution, swell

    • C. 

      Hypertonic solution, swell

    • D. 

      Hypotonic solution, shrivel

    • E. 

      Hypotonic solution, swell


  • 77. 
    The fluid mosaic model describes
    • A. 

      Cytoplasm

    • B. 

      Cell membrane

    • C. 

      Cell wall

    • D. 

      Gram negative outer membrane


  • 78. 
    Which of the following is not related to bacterial cell wall
    • A. 

      Made of peptidoglycan

    • B. 

      Controls water balance

    • C. 

      Not all bacteria have cell wall

    • D. 

      Preserve shape of bacteria

    • E. 

      All of these are related to bacterial cell wall


  • 79. 
    Name the two macromolecules that are considered essence of life
    • A. 

      Proteins and lipids

    • B. 

      Carbohydrates and lipids

    • C. 

      Carbohydrates and proteins

    • D. 

      Nucleic acids and proteins

    • E. 

      Nucleic acids and lipids


  • 80. 
    Bacterial cell wall is made of:
    • A. 

      Cellulose

    • B. 

      Lipopolysaccharides

    • C. 

      Murein

    • D. 

      Phospholipids

    • E. 

      Proteins


  • 81. 
    Bioremediation refers to:
    • A. 

      Using microbe to study diseases

    • B. 

      Using microbe in vaccine development

    • C. 

      Using microbes to clean up pollution

    • D. 

      Rehabilitating wayward bacteria


  • 82. 
    Eukaryotes include all BUT
    • A. 

      Algae

    • B. 

      Fungi

    • C. 

      Plants

    • D. 

      Animals

    • E. 

      Bacteria


  • 83. 
    In the name of escherichia coli, coli is the:
    • A. 

      Specific epithet family

    • B. 

      Genus

    • C. 

      Species

    • D. 

      Kingdom


  • 84. 
    For the most organisms this molecule acts as the sole informational molecule and carries the genetic blueprint of the cell
    • A. 

      Lipids

    • B. 

      Proteins

    • C. 

      RNA

    • D. 

      DNA


  • 85. 
    What is/are the important biological function(s) of polysaccharides? a. energy storage b. structural support c. enzymatic activity d. information change
    • A. 

      b and d

    • B. 

      B and c

    • C. 

      A and c

    • D. 

      C and d

    • E. 

      A and b


  • 86. 
    Fermentation differs from anaerobic respiration in all of the following ways except which one? Fermentation does not:
    • A. 

      Re-oxidize NADH

    • B. 

      Require molecular oxygen

    • C. 

      Require a final electron acceptor

    • D. 

      Oxidize glucose

    • E. 

      None of the answers are correct


  • 87. 
    This structure could not be found in prokayotes
    • A. 

      Flagella

    • B. 

      Plasmid

    • C. 

      Pili

    • D. 

      Golgi apparatus

    • E. 

      All of these could be found in prokaryotes


  • 88. 
    All of the following statements are true about the plasma membrane except which?
    • A. 

      The lipids and proteins move across the membrane

    • B. 

      Small ions can easily cross the membrane

    • C. 

      Integral proteins make channels in the membrane

    • D. 

      Peripheral proteins catalyze chemical reactions


  • 89. 
    Which of the following pairs are mismatched?
    • A. 

      Ehrlich - chemoterarphy

    • B. 

      Jenner - vaccination

    • C. 

      Pasteur - proof of biogenesis

    • D. 

      Koch - aseptic surgery


  • 90. 
    Robert koch established his postulates using the disease
    • A. 

      Gonorrhea

    • B. 

      Tubeculosis

    • C. 

      Diptheria

    • D. 

      Anthrax

    • E. 

      Syphilis


  • 91. 
    All of the following are polysaccharides except:
    • A. 

      Peptidoglycan

    • B. 

      Glucose

    • C. 

      Starch

    • D. 

      Cellulose

    • E. 

      Glycogen


  • 92. 
    Which one makes the most ATP; aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration or fermentation?
    • A. 

      Anaerobic respiration

    • B. 

      Fermentation

    • C. 

      Aerobic respiration

    • D. 

      They all basically make the same number of ATP


  • 93. 
    Proteins are involved in all of the following except:
    • A. 

      Regulate cellular processes

    • B. 

      Serve as hereditary materials

    • C. 

      Provide structural support

    • D. 

      Catalyze chemical process

    • E. 

      All the answers are correct


  • 94. 
    Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
    • A. 

      Leeuwenhoek - microscope

    • B. 

      Pasteur - proof of biogenesis

    • C. 

      Jenner - vaccination

    • D. 

      Koch - aseptic surgery


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