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Chapter 7 Microbiology

68 Questions  I  By Andreazza
Chapter 7 Microbiology
Chapter 7 Microbiology  

  
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1.  Most bacterial and archaeal cells divide by  
A.
B.
C.
D.
2.  All bacterial and archaeal cells are diploid.  
A.
B.
3.  Which of the following is the correct order for binary fission?  
A.
B.
C.
D.
4.  The __________ is a group of proteins needed for DNA synthesis that assembles at the origin of replication.  
A.
B.
C.
D.
5.  The process of forming a cross wall between two daughter cells is known as  
A.
B.
C.
D.
6.  The cell wall of bacteria constrains the ___________ _________ that results from the osmolarity of the cytoplasmic contents.  
7.  The site at which replication of DNA starts in bacterial cells is known as the __________ of ___________. (answer, answer)  
8.  The purpose of the penicillin binding proteins is to link phospholipids together in the cellular membrane.  
A.
B.
9.  The actin-like protein that seems to be involved in determining cell shape is  
A.
B.
C.
D.
10.  During cytokinesis, a critical step in septation is the assembly of the  
A.
B.
C.
D.
11.  The limitation on microbial growth rate at high nutrient levels is  
A.
B.
C.
D.
12.  The total number of viable microorganisms remains constant in stationary phase because  
A.
B.
C.
D.
13.  Cells may enter stationary phase because of  
A.
B.
C.
D.
14.  A culture in a closed vessel to which no additional medium is added and from which no waste products are removed is called a __________ culture.  
A.
B.
C.
D.
15.  Given a log phase bacterial culture with 1 x 10^6 cells per ml and a generation time of 30 minutes, how long does it take the culture to reach a density of 6.4 x 10^7 cells per ml?    
A.
B.
C.
D.
16.  Microorganisms are most nearly uniform in terms of chemical and physiological properties during __________ phase.  
A.
B.
C.
D.
17.  Which of the following is a reason for the occurrence of a lag phase in a bacterial growth curve?  
A.
B.
C.
D.
18.  When a young, vigorously growing culture of bacteria is transferred to fresh medium of the same composition, the lag phase is usually short or absent.  
A.
B.
19.  During the lag phase of microbial growth, the cells are metabolically inactive.  
A.
B.
20.  The length of the lag phase of growth can vary depending on  
A.
B.
C.
D.
21.  When a young, vigorously growing culture of bacteria is transferred to fresh medium of different composition, the lag phase is usually short or absent.  
A.
B.
22.  The growth rate of a given species of microorganism is dependent on the composition of the medium in which it is grown.  
A.
B.
23.  Microbial __________ is an increase in cell constituents that may or may not be accompanied by an increase in cell number.  
24.  The __________ __________ is the length of time it takes for a population of microorganisms to double in number. (2 words)  
25.  If all cell components are synthesized at constant rates relative to one another, the culture is said to be in __________ growth; however, if the rates of synthesis of some components change relative to the rates of synthesis of other components, the culture is said to be in __________ growth. (answer, answer)  
26.  Growth is said to be __________ when all cellular components are synthesized at constant rates relative to one another.  
27.  At 4:00 p.m. a closed flask of sterile broth is inoculated with 10,000 cells. The lag phase lasts 1 hour. At 9:00 p.m. the culture enters stationary phase with a population of 65 million cells. At what time is the population half maximal?  
A.
B.
C.
D.
28.  At 4:00 p.m. a closed flask of sterile broth is inoculated with 10,000 cells. The lag phase lasts 1 hour. At 9:00 p.m. the log phase culture has population of 65 million cells. The approximate number of generations that has occurred is  
A.
B.
C.
D.
29.  Which of the following can be used to estimate the number of microorganisms in a culture?  
A.
B.
C.
D.
30.  Which of these methods can be used to determine the number of viable microorganisms in a sample?  
A.
B.
C.
D.
31.  At 4:00 p.m. a closed flask of sterile broth is inoculated with 10,000 cells. The lag phase lasts 1 hour. At 9:00 p.m. the log phase culture has a population of 65 million cells. The mean generation time is approximately  
A.
B.
C.
D.
32.  A culture system with constant environmental conditions maintained through continual provision of nutrient and removal of wastes is called __________ culture system.  
A.
B.
C.
D.
33.  An open system in which the growth rate is maintained by adding a nutrient (present in limiting quantities) at the same rate that medium containing microorganisms is removed is called  
A.
B.
C.
D.
34.  An open system in which the growth rate is maintained by the removal and addition of media at such a rate as to maintain a constant cell density is called a  
A.
B.
C.
D.
35.  One of the major advantages of a continuous culture system is that the cells can be maintained in the exponential growth phase for extended periods of time.  
A.
B.
36.  In a continuous culture system, the rate at which media is added and removed is called the __________ rate.  
A.
B.
C.
D.
37.  Which of the following is considered a cardinal growth temperature?  
A.
B.
C.
D.
38.  Organisms that grow well at 0C and have optimum growth temperatures of 15C or lower are called  
A.
B.
C.
D.
39.  Organisms that grow at 0C and have a maximum growth temperature of 35C are called  
A.
B.
C.
D.
40.  Organisms that do not require oxygen for growth but grow better in its presence are called  
A.
B.
C.
D.
41.  Organisms that ignore oxygen and grow equally well in its presence or absence are called  
A.
B.
C.
D.
42.  Organisms that are damaged by the normal atmospheric levels of oxygen (20%) but require oxygen at levels of 2–10% for growth are called  
A.
B.
C.
D.
43.  When a microorganism is placed in a(n) __________ solution, water will enter into the cell and cause it to burst unless something is done to prevent this.  
A.
B.
C.
D.
44.  The membranes of psychrophilic bacteria have relatively high levels of __________ fatty acids, which allow them to remain semi-fluid at cold temperatures.  
A.
B.
C.
D.
45.  Organisms that are not drastically affected by increased pressure are called  
A.
B.
C.
D.
46.  Organisms that require increased pressure for optimum growth are called  
A.
B.
C.
D.
47.  Most microorganisms maintain their internal pH  
A.
B.
C.
D.
48.  Organisms that grow near deep-sea volcanic vents are likely to be  
A.
B.
C.
D.
49.  Organisms that grow near deep-sea volcanic vents are likely to be  
A.
B.
C.
D.
50.  Organisms that grow in the mud under relatively nonturbulent bodies of water are likely to be  
A.
B.
C.
D.
51.  The primary mechanism by which DNA is damaged by ultraviolet radiation involves the formation of thymine dimers.  
A.
B.
52.  Obligate anaerobes are usually poisoned by molecular oxygen but may grow in aerobic habitats if associated with facultative anaerobes that use up all available oxygen.  
A.
B.
53.  DNA of thermophiles is stabilized by binding of special nucleoid-associated proteins.  
A.
B.
54.  Membranes of some thermophilic Archaea are stabilized by ether linked phospholipids.  
A.
B.
55.  Organisms that can grow in habitats with low water activity by maintaining a high internal salt concentration are called __________ organisms.  
56.  Organisms that require high levels of sodium chloride in order to grow are called __________ organisms.  
57.  Organisms that have their optimum growth pH between 0.0 and 5.5 are called __________.  
58.  Membranes of thermophilic bacteria are stabilized by phospholipids with  
A.
B.
C.
D.
59.  Organisms that have their optimum growth pH between 5.5 and 8.0 are called __________.  
60.  Organisms that have their optimum growth pH between 8.5 and 11.5 are called _______.  
61.  Organisms that grow best at pH levels above 10 are called __________ __________. (2 words)  
62.  Many microbes that live in environments where there is high exposure to light use _______________ to provide protection from photoxidation by singlet oxygen.  
63.  Organisms with growth temperature maxima between 85 and 113C are referred to as __________.  
64.  Complex microbial communities that grow tightly adhered to surfaces are called __________.  
65.  Quorum sensing in Gram-positive bacteria generally involves the use of ____________ as the external signaling molecules.  
66.  A common type of autoinducer found in gram-negative bacteria are acyl homoserine lactones (AHL).  
A.
B.
67.  A microbial environment containing high nutrient concentrations is called an oligotrophic environment.  
A.
B.
68.  Quorum sensing  
A.
B.
C.
D.
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