Chapter 6, Memory

67 Questions  I  By Adkinsjr
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Psychology Quizzes & Trivia
Questions derived from material in Chapter 6 (memory) of Hockenbury & Hockenbury, 5th Edition.

  
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  • 1. 
    The research psychologist known for experimentally demonstrating the duration of memory sensory.
    • A. 

      Richard F. Thompson

    • B. 

      Hermann Ebbinghaus

    • C. 

      George Sperling

    • D. 

      Eric Kandel


  • 2. 
    The process of transforming information into a form that can be entered into and retained by the memory system.
    • A. 

      Encoding

    • B. 

      Storage

    • C. 

      Iconic Memory

    • D. 

      Echoic Memory


  • 3. 
    During the very brief time that the information is held in _________________ memory, you "select," or pay attention to, just a few aspects of all the environmental information that's being registered.
    • A. 

      Short-term

    • B. 

      Sensory

    • C. 

      Iconic

    • D. 

      Echoic


  • 4. 
    __________ memory has a large capacity for information
    • A. 

      Long term

    • B. 

      Iconic

    • C. 

      Sensory

    • D. 

      Short term


  • 5. 
    Sensory memory has a ______________ capacity for information.
    • A. 

      Small

    • B. 

      Unlimited

    • C. 

      Large


  • 6. 
    __________________ refers to the active, working memory system.
    • A. 

      Short term

    • B. 

      Sensory

    • C. 

      Long term

    • D. 

      Iconic


  • 7. 
    Information retrieved from long-term memory is then moved to _______________ memory
    • A. 

      Iconic

    • B. 

      Sensory

    • C. 

      Short term

    • D. 

      Echoic


  • 8. 
    _______________ memory has a limited capacity for information.
    • A. 

      Short-term

    • B. 

      Long-term

    • C. 

      Sensory

    • D. 

      Iconic


  • 9. 
    __________________ memory has an unlimited capacity for information.
    • A. 

      Short term

    • B. 

      Sensory

    • C. 

      Long term

    • D. 

      Echoic


  • 10. 
    The average duration for short-term memory is _________________
    • A. 

      20 seconds

    • B. 

      1/4 second to 3 seconds

    • C. 

      1 minute


  • 11. 
    In Baddeley's model of working memory, the phonological loop component...
    • A. 

      Is specialized for verbal material, such as lists of numbers or words, and is often used in standard short-term memory tests.

    • B. 

      Is specialized for spatial or visual material, such as remebering the layout of a room or city.

    • C. 

      Controls attention, integrates information, and manages the activities of the other two components of working memory.


  • 12. 
    In Braddely's model of working-memory, the visuospatial sketchpad...
    • A. 

      Is specialized for spatial or visual material, such as rembering the layout of a room or city.

    • B. 

      Is specialized for verbal material, such as lists of numbers or words, and is often used in standard short-term memory tests.

    • C. 

      Controls attention, integrates information, and manages the activities of the other two components of working memory.


  • 13. 
    In Braddley's model of working-memory, the central exectutive component...
    • A. 

      Controls attention, integrates information, and manages the activities of the other two components of working memory.

    • B. 

      Is specialized for verbal material, such as lists of numbers or words, and is often used in standard short-term memory tests.

    • C. 

      Is specialized for spatial or visual material, such as rembering the layout of a room or city.


  • 14. 
    _______________ rehearsal allows you to relate the information to other information you already know.
    • A. 

      Maintenance

    • B. 

      Elaborative

    • C. 

      Chunking

    • D. 

      Procedural


  • 15. 
    Which form of memory rehearsal is more effective?
    • A. 

      Maintenance

    • B. 

      Elaborative


  • 16. 
    _________________ interference occurs when a new memory interferes with remembering an old memory; backward-acting memory interference
    • A. 

      Retroactive interference

    • B. 

      Proactive interference

    • C. 

      Suppression

    • D. 

      Repression


  • 17. 
    Autobiographical memory is closely related to ________________ memory.
    • A. 

      Procedural

    • B. 

      Episodic

    • C. 

      Semantic

    • D. 

      Explicit


  • 18. 
    Information or knowledge that can be consciously recolleted; also called declarative memory.
    • A. 

      Procedural memory

    • B. 

      Semantic memory

    • C. 

      Implicit memory

    • D. 

      Explicit memory


  • 19. 
    Information or knowledge that affects behavior or task performance but cannot be consciously recollected; also called non-declarative memory
    • A. 

      Elaborative memory

    • B. 

      Episodic memory

    • C. 

      Implicit memory

    • D. 

      Explicit memory


  • 20. 
    The content of ____________ memories of individuals living in collectivistic cultures have been shown to significantly differ from those of non-collectivistic western cultures.
    • A. 

      Semantic

    • B. 

      Procedural

    • C. 

      Autobiographcial

    • D. 

      Implicit


  • 21. 
    The ______________________ describes units of information in long-term memory as being organized in a complex network of associations.
    • A. 

      Process of clustering

    • B. 

      Semantic network model

    • C. 

      Serial position effect

    • D. 

      Cued recall


  • 22. 
    A test of long-term memory that involves remembering an item of information in response to a retrieval cue.
    • A. 

      Cued recall

    • B. 

      Recall

    • C. 

      Recognition

    • D. 

      Serial position effect


  • 23. 
    A test of long-term memory that involves retrieving information without the aid of retrieval cues; also called free recall.
    • A. 

      Recall

    • B. 

      Cued recall

    • C. 

      Recognition

    • D. 

      Serial position effect


  • 24. 
    A test of long-term memory that involves identifying correct information out of several possible choices.
    • A. 

      Recall

    • B. 

      Cued recall

    • C. 

      Recognition

    • D. 

      Serial position effect


  • 25. 
    The tendency to remember items at the beginning and end of a list better than items in the middle.
    • A. 

      Recall

    • B. 

      Cued recall

    • C. 

      Recognition

    • D. 

      Serial position effect


  • 26. 
    Fill-in-the Blank and matching questions are examples of _________ tests.
    • A. 

      Cued-recall

    • B. 

      Recall

    • C. 

      Recognition

    • D. 

      Serial position effect


  • 27. 
    Multiple choice tests use ___________ as a measure of memorization.
    • A. 

      Recall

    • B. 

      Cued recall

    • C. 

      Recognition

    • D. 

      Serial position effect


  • 28. 
    The context effect and mood congruence are associated with the ________________.
    • A. 

      Serial position effect

    • B. 

      Flashbulb memory

    • C. 

      Encoding specificity principle


  • 29. 
    The ______________________ is the tendency to recover information more easily when the retrieval occurs in the same setting as the original learning of the information.
    • A. 

      Context effect

    • B. 

      Mood congruence

    • C. 

      Flashbulb memory

    • D. 

      Serial position effect


  • 30. 
    An encoding specificity phenomenon in which a given mood tends to evoke memories that are consistent with that mood.
    • A. 

      Context effect

    • B. 

      Mood congruence

    • C. 

      Serial position effect

    • D. 

      Recall


  • 31. 
    In seriously depressed individuals, the _______________________ effect can actually pro-long depression. the depressed mood enhances memory retrieval of sad experiences, such as personal failures or losses. In turn, dwelling on negative memories can intensify or prolong the depression.
    • A. 

      Flashbulb memory

    • B. 

      Serial position

    • C. 

      Mood congruence

    • D. 

      Context


  • 32. 
    The recall of very specific images or details sorrounding a vivid, rare, or significant personal event; details may or may not be accurate.
    • A. 

      Context effect

    • B. 

      Flashbulb memory

    • C. 

      Cued recall

    • D. 

      Recognition


  • 33. 
    Psychologist who used 'nonsense syllables' to test memory; originated the scientific study of forgetting; plotted the first forgetting curve, which describes the basic pattern of forgetting learned information over time.
    • A. 

      Hermann Ebbinghaus

    • B. 

      Eric Kandel

    • C. 

      George Sperling

    • D. 

      Richard F. Thompson


  • 34. 
    Prospective coding failures are largely due to _______________ failure
    • A. 

      Encoding

    • B. 

      Short-term memory

    • C. 

      Retrieval cue

    • D. 

      Recall


  • 35. 
    Absent mindedness is a phenomenon that often causes ______________ failure
    • A. 

      Retrieval cue

    • B. 

      Prospective memory

    • C. 

      Recall

    • D. 

      Encoding.


  • 36. 
    Which of the following is NOT a proposed explanation for the phenomenon known as "deja vu"
    • A. 

      A disruption in source monitoring

    • B. 

      Encoding Failure

    • C. 

      Decay Theory

    • D. 

      A millisecond time lag in which information is sent to one cerebral hemisphere a split second before it is sent to the other hemisphere.


  • 37. 
    The forgetting curves plotted by Hermann Ebbinghaus seem to contradict which theory of forgetting?
    • A. 

      Interference Theory

    • B. 

      Motivated forgetting

    • C. 

      Decay Theory

    • D. 

      Retrograde amnesia


  • 38. 
    Forgetting in which an old memory interferes with remembering a new memory; forward-acting memory interference.
    • A. 

      Retroactive interference

    • B. 

      Proactive interference

    • C. 

      Suppression

    • D. 

      Repression


  • 39. 
    _____________ is motivated forgetting that occurs consciously, while ________________ is motivated forgetting that occurs unconsciously.
    • A. 

      Repression; suppression

    • B. 

      Suppression; repression


  • 40. 
    The ______________________ is a memory distortion phenomenon in which a person's existing memories can be altered if the person is exposed to misleading information.
    • A. 

      Source confusion

    • B. 

      Misinformation effect

    • C. 

      Proactive interference

    • D. 

      Suppression


  • 41. 
    American psychologist who has conducted extensive research on the memory distortions that can occur in eyewitness testimony.
    • A. 

      Elizabeth F. Loftus

    • B. 

      Brenda Milner

    • C. 

      Karly Lasley

    • D. 

      Suzanne Corkin


  • 42. 
    A memory distortion that occurs when the true source of the memory is forgotten.
    • A. 

      False memory

    • B. 

      Deja vu

    • C. 

      Source monitoring

    • D. 

      Source confusion


  • 43. 
    Source confusion and false memories can result from the _______________ effect
    • A. 

      Context

    • B. 

      Misinformation

    • C. 

      Serial position


  • 44. 
    No longer just a utilitarian communication device, phones can be used to flirg, play games, or make a fashion statement. As the capabilities and function of phones have expanded, your _________ has changed to incorporate these new attributes.
    • A. 

      Schema

    • B. 

      Memory

    • C. 

      Understanding

    • D. 

      Perspective


  • 45. 
    Several studies have shown that vividly imagining an event markedly increases confidence that the event actually occurred in childhood, an effect called___________________
    • A. 

      The misinformation effect

    • B. 

      False memory

    • C. 

      Imagination inflation

    • D. 

      Flashbulb memory


  • 46. 
    A teacher who is having difficulty remembering the names of new students, because of her vivid memories of students' names from a previous semester, is experiencing:
    • A. 

      Source confusion

    • B. 

      Retroactive interference

    • C. 

      Proactive interference

    • D. 

      Decay


  • 47. 
    The brain changes associated with a particular stored memory is called a ______________
    • A. 

      Memory trace

    • B. 

      Memory formation

    • C. 

      New info

    • D. 

      Chemical reaction


  • 48. 
    Physiological psychologist who attempted to find the specific brain location of particular memories.
    • A. 

      Hermann Ebbinghaus

    • B. 

      George Sperling

    • C. 

      Eric Kandel

    • D. 

      Karl Lashley


  • 49. 
    Although __________________ failed to show that memories can be localized, psychologist ________________________ succeded in confirming Pavlov's speculations.
    • A. 

      Richard F. Thompson; Karl Lashley

    • B. 

      Karl Lashley; Richard F. Thompson

    • C. 

      George Sperling; Eric Kandel

    • D. 

      Eric Kandel; Richard F. Thompson


  • 50. 
    The combined work of Richard f. Thompson and his predecessor, Karl Lashley, suggests that memories_________________
    • A. 

      Are localized

    • B. 

      Are distributed

    • C. 

      Are both localized and distributed


  • 51. 
    Researcher who Aplysia, a kind of sea snail, to study neuronal changes that occur when a new memory is formed for a simple classically conditioned response.
    • A. 

      Richard F. Thompson

    • B. 

      Eric Kandel

    • C. 

      Karl Lashley

    • D. 

      George Sperling


  • 52. 
    A long-lasting increase in synaptic strength between two neurons.
    • A. 

      Memory consolidation

    • B. 

      New information

    • C. 

      Long-term potentiation

    • D. 

      Memory trace


  • 53. 
    Loss of memory, especially for episodic information; backward-acting amnesia
    • A. 

      Retrograde amnesia

    • B. 

      Anterograde amnesia

    • C. 

      Memory consolidation

    • D. 

      Memory trace


  • 54. 
    The gradual, physical process of converting new long-term memories to stable, enduring long-term memory codes.
    • A. 

      Encoding

    • B. 

      Clustering

    • C. 

      Source monitoring

    • D. 

      Memory consolidation


  • 55. 
    Loss of memory caused by the inability to store new memories.
    • A. 

      Anterograde amnesia

    • B. 

      Amnesia

    • C. 

      Retrograde amnesia

    • D. 

      Memory consolidation.


  • 56. 
    People who have ________ amnesia are unable to remember some or all of their past, especially episodic memories for recent events. People who have ____________ amnesia, such as in the famous cause of H.M., have difficulty forming new memories.
    • A. 

      Retrograde; anterograde

    • B. 

      Anterograde; retrograde


  • 57. 
    Psychologists ___________ and ______________________ studied the famous case of H.M.
    • A. 

      Brenda Milner; Suzanne Corkin

    • B. 

      Brenda Milner; Elizabeth F. Loftus

    • C. 

      Suzanne Corkin; Elizabeth F. Loftus

    • D. 

      Eric Kandel; Brenda Milner


  • 58. 
    Neuropsychologist who has extensively investigated the neural basis of memory.
    • A. 

      George Sperling

    • B. 

      Elizabeth F. Loftus

    • C. 

      Brenda Milner

    • D. 

      Suzanne Corkin


  • 59. 
    Neuropsychologist whose groundbreaking research on the role of brain structures and functions in cognitive processes helped establish neuropsychology as a field.
    • A. 

      Karl Lashley

    • B. 

      Elizabeth F. Loftus

    • C. 

      Brenda Milner

    • D. 

      Suzanne Corkin


  • 60. 
    H.M.'s case suggests that:
    • A. 

      The hippocampus is involved in most short-term memory tasks.

    • B. 

      The hippocampus is the storage site for already established long-term memories.

    • C. 

      The critical role played by the hippocampus seems to be the encoding of new memories for events and information and the transfer of them from short-term to long-term memory.


  • 61. 
    Richard F. Thompson found that a classically conditioned behavior is associated with a small area of the brain called the _________________
    • A. 

      Cerebellum

    • B. 

      Hippocampus

    • C. 

      Amygdala

    • D. 

      Frontal lobes


  • 62. 
    H.M. could not readily form new __________ or _____________ memories, which reflect the explicit memory system. But it turns out the H.M.can from new ______________ memories, which reflect the _______________ memory system
    • A. 

      Episodic;procedural;explicit;implicit

    • B. 

      Explicit;procedural;implicit;episodic

    • C. 

      Episodic; semantic; procedural; implicit

    • D. 

      Episodic;semantic;implicit;explicit


  • 63. 
    Normal monkeys are afraid of snakes, but if the __________ is damaged, a monkey loses its fear of snakes and other natural predators. This part of the brain is also involved in encoding memories of sensory stimuli that are associated with rewards and punishments.
    • A. 

      Amygdala

    • B. 

      Cerebellum

    • C. 

      Hippocampus

    • D. 

      Frontal lobe


  • 64. 
    Region of the brain involved in the retrieval and organization of information associated with autobiographical and episodic memories.
    • A. 

      Hippocampus

    • B. 

      Cerebellum

    • C. 

      Frontal lobes

    • D. 

      Prefrontal cortex


  • 65. 
    The part of the brain that seems to play a role in working memory.
    • A. 

      Prefrontal cortex

    • B. 

      Frontal lobes

    • C. 

      Cerebellum

    • D. 

      Medial temperal lobes


  • 66. 
    Similarily to the frontal lobes, what part of the brain is involved in encoding complex memories by forming links among the information stored in multiple brain regions?
    • A. 

      Cerebellum

    • B. 

      Medial temperal lobes

    • C. 

      Amygdala

    • D. 

      Hippocampus


  • 67. 
    Dementia is often caused by ________
    • A. 

      Long term potentiation

    • B. 

      Amnesia

    • C. 

      Alzheimer's disease

    • D. 

      The flu


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