Chapter 6 History Test

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Chapter 6 History Test

  
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  • 1. 
    Approximately where and when did Zoroastrianism begin?
    • A. 

      In China during the seventh century B.C.E.

    • B. 

      In Greece during the fifth century B.C.E.

    • C. 

      In Iran during the early sixth century B.C.E.

    • D. 

      In India during the eighth century B.C.E.


  • 2. 
    The religion founded by Gautama Siddharta focuses on
    • A. 

      Escape from desire

    • B. 

      Ascetic practices to free the soul from evil

    • C. 

      Salvation of the soul through avoidance of sin

    • D. 

      Devotion to gods as a means of gaining entry into heaven


  • 3. 
    Important evidence that the early Jews were primarily a pastoral people may be seen in
    • A. 

      The sacrifice of Cain and Abel

    • B. 

      The sacrifice of David and Saul

    • C. 

      The story of Noah

    • D. 

      The story of Adam


  • 4. 
    The Jewish Diaspora to Babylon began in
    • A. 

      700 B.C.E.

    • B. 

      680 B.C.E.

    • C. 

      580 B.C.E.

    • D. 

      500 B.C.E.


  • 5. 
    Jesus was a teacher who came out of the
    • A. 

      Zoroastrian tradition

    • B. 

      Greek tradition

    • C. 

      Roman tradition

    • D. 

      Jewish tradition


  • 6. 
    According to the creation story told in India, Brahman created the world
    • A. 

      From chaos

    • B. 

      From the void

    • C. 

      From himself

    • D. 

      From atoms


  • 7. 
    In the Christian Gospel of John, creation is connected with
    • A. 

      The logos

    • B. 

      Feeling

    • C. 

      A rearrangement of prior matter

    • D. 

      Expansion from a tiny force


  • 8. 
    According to the concept of Indian henotheism
    • A. 

      There is only one god

    • B. 

      There are many gods

    • C. 

      There are gods, but they do not care about humans

    • D. 

      Many gods collectively represent a divine unity


  • 9. 
    For what reason did Aristotle rank human souls as more important than those of animals?
    • A. 

      Human souls were rational

    • B. 

      God created human souls to be superior

    • C. 

      He didn't. Aristotle believed that all souls, human and animal, were kindred

    • D. 

      He didn't. Aristotle denied that animals had souls


  • 10. 
    Confucius believed that human beings were essentially
    • A. 

      Evil

    • B. 

      Good

    • C. 

      Morally neutral

    • D. 

      Sinful


  • 11. 
    According to Plato, political power in a state should be in the hands of
    • A. 

      The people

    • B. 

      Aristocrats

    • C. 

      Kings

    • D. 

      Philosophers


  • 12. 
    A Chinese belief system that focuses on following proper ethical practices within a strict hierarchy is called
    • A. 

      Daoism

    • B. 

      Legalism

    • C. 

      Buddhism

    • D. 

      Confucianism


  • 13. 
    The Greek mathematician Pythagoras is famous for his theorem and for the idea
    • A. 

      Of zero

    • B. 

      That musical harmonies can be expressed mathematically

    • C. 

      Of pi

    • D. 

      Of a system of notation that enabled the calculation of extremely large numbers


  • 14. 
    Daoist philosophers believed that geometry and mathematics
    • A. 

      Were meaningless

    • B. 

      Were important in understanding underlying realities

    • C. 

      Were dangerous practices that could result in moral collapse

    • D. 

      Were difficult but necessary parts of an education


  • 15. 
    Rationalism is a doctrine that holds that
    • A. 

      Reason accompanied by faith in higher powers leads to enlightenment

    • B. 

      Knowledge may only be gained through meditation

    • C. 

      Unaided reason can elicit truth

    • D. 

      An excuse can be made up for any occasion


  • 16. 
    Indian philosophers of the Nyaya School claimed that
    • A. 

      Reason existed in human beings naturally and not as a result of any divine force

    • B. 

      Reason was an extraordinary perception that God conferred on people

    • C. 

      Reason was based on the senses, and therefore, was always to be distrusted

    • D. 

      Reasons was an ability to comprehend the world in a manner that made God or gods unnecessary


  • 17. 
    Confucian philosophy emphasized
    • A. 

      Religious morality to guide human behavior, but little interest in science

    • B. 

      Knowledge through science practice, but little interest in religion

    • C. 

      Knowledge through science, but also focused on religion

    • D. 

      Interest in human affairs, but little in science or religion


  • 18. 
    According to the Greek medical writer Hippocrates, disease could be explained
    • A. 

      By some natural causes, but also by acts of the gods

    • B. 

      By natural causes alone

    • C. 

      As a result of atoms swerving about

    • D. 

      As a result of acts of the gods


  • 19. 
    Xunzi, a Chinese medical specialist, wrote that if a person attempted to cure rheumatism by beating a drum and sacrificing a pig to the gods, then
    • A. 

      The rheumatism would be cured

    • B. 

      The rheumatism would get better, but the person would not be happy

    • C. 

      The drum would be worn out, and the pig would be gone

    • D. 

      The rheumatism would not get better because the person should have played a flute and sacrificed a chicken instead


  • 20. 
    The Greek philosopher Epicurus believed that
    • A. 

      One should lead a life in pursuit of pleasure

    • B. 

      There are moral absolutes

    • C. 

      The key to happiness was participation in the life of the community

    • D. 

      The gods participate in our lives


  • 21. 
    Stoicism had an enormous effect on
    • A. 

      Christianity

    • B. 

      Skepticism

    • C. 

      Platonism

    • D. 

      Aristotelianism


  • 22. 
    Alexander the Great's Tutor was
    • A. 

      Plato

    • B. 

      Epicurus

    • C. 

      Aristotle

    • D. 

      Zeno


  • 23. 
    What were the four categories of axial-age sages?
    • A. 

      Professional intellectuals, military leaders, prophets, and charismatic leaders

    • B. 

      Professional intellectuals, political advisors, prophets, and wealthy aristocrats

    • C. 

      Professional intellectuals, wealthy patrons, prophets, and political leaders

    • D. 

      Professional intellectuals, political advisors, prophets, and charismatic leaders


  • 24. 
    Which of the following is not something that we share with thinkers of the axial age?
    • A. 

      Political thought

    • B. 

      Philosophical thought

    • C. 

      Economic thought

    • D. 

      Religious thought


  • 25. 
    Which of the following relationships between royal patron and sage is incorrect?
    • A. 

      Mozi and Chu

    • B. 

      Buddha and Kosala

    • C. 

      Mahavira and Mosala

    • D. 

      Zoroaster and Persia


  • 26. 
    Buddha, Jesus, and Socrates were all teachers who were also similar because
    • A. 

      They came from wealthy backgrounds

    • B. 

      They wrote nothing

    • C. 

      They taught that enlightenment comes from meditation

    • D. 

      They were rationalists


  • 27. 
    In the fragments of dialogues between sages and rulers that appear int he Vedas,
    • A. 

      Rulers sometimes defeat the arguments of the sages

    • B. 

      Sages always defeat the arguments of the rulers

    • C. 

      Sages simple lecture to the rulers

    • D. 

      Rulers merely explain to sages the correct way


  • 28. 
    Which of the following lists of philosophers and religious leaders is correctly ordered from the oldest to most recent?
    • A. 

      Confucius, Nyaya School, Zoroaster, Epicurus

    • B. 

      Pythagoras, Mahavira, Zeno, Jesus

    • C. 

      Zoroaster, Confucius, Nyaya School, Han Feizi

    • D. 

      Jewish Sages, Plato, Confucius, Epicurus


  • 29. 
    A good example of a dualist religion is
    • A. 

      Christianity

    • B. 

      Buddhism

    • C. 

      Zoroastrianism

    • D. 

      Islam


  • 30. 
    A key reason that geometry and mathematics are important in many philosophical traditions is that
    • A. 

      These disciplines also have practical uses for everyday life

    • B. 

      These areas of study are essential to the movement of the stars and planets

    • C. 

      They help to develop the logical faculties of the human mind

    • D. 

      They show that reality can be invisible and untouchable, yet open to reason


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