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Chapter 10 Microbiology

62 Questions  I  By Andreazza
Chapter 10 Microbiology
Chapter 10 Microbiology  

  
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1.  The sum total of all chemical reactions occurring in a cell is called  
A.
B.
C.
D.
2.  Although most metabolic reactions are freely reversible, a few irreversible catabolic steps are bypassed during biosynthesis with special enzymes that catalyze the reverse reaction in order to allow for independent regulation of catabolic and anabolic pathways.  
A.
B.
3.  Metabolic pathways can be either catabolic or anabolic but not both.  
A.
B.
4.  __________ pathways are those that function both catabolically and anabolically.  
5.  The catabolism of glucose begins with one or more of the glycolytic pathways that yield pyruvate.  
A.
B.
6.  ____________ ____________ is a process that can completely catabolize an organic energy source to CO2 using the glycolytic pathways and TCA cycle with O2 as the terminal electron acceptor for an electron transport chain. (2 words)  
7.  Very few gram positive bacteria utilize the Entner-Doudoroff glycolytic pathway.  
A.
B.
8.  Some aerobic bacteria lack the Entner-Doudoroff and Embden-Meyerhoff pathways and instead use the pentose phosphate pathway for glycolysis.  
A.
B.
9.  An organism may use glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway simultaneously.  
A.
B.
10.  The net gain of ATP per molecule of glucose metabolized anaerobically via the Embden-Meyerhoff pathway in prokaryotes is  
A.
B.
C.
D.
11.  The net gain of ATP per molecule of glucose metabolized to pyruvate using Entner-Doudoroff pathway is  
A.
B.
C.
D.
12.  The pentose phosphate pathway produces  
A.
B.
C.
D.
13.  The synthesis of ATP from ADP and Pi, when coupled with an exergonic chemical reaction is called __________ phosphorylation.  
A.
B.
C.
D.
14.  The most common pathway for conversion of glucose to pyruvate is  
A.
B.
C.
D.
15.  The TCA cycle generates all of the following from each acetyl-CoA molecule oxidized except  
A.
B.
C.
D.
16.  The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex oxidizes and cleaves pyruvate to form one CO2 and  
A.
B.
C.
D.
17.  After glycolysis, pyruvate is oxidized to one CO2 and the two-carbon molecule acetyl-CoA by a multienzyme system called the ________ ________ complex. (2 words)  
18.  TCA cycle enzymes are found in the _____________ _________ of eukaryotic cells. (2 words)  
19.  In the TCA cycle, two carbons are removed from citric acid in the form of __________, thereby regenerating oxaloacetate to complete the cycle.  
A.
B.
C.
D.
20.  In the TCA cycle, two carbons in the form of __________ are added to oxaloacetate at the start of the cycle.  
A.
B.
C.
D.
21.  The major function(s) of the TCA cycle is(are)  
A.
B.
C.
D.
22.  When mitochondria pass electrons donated by NADH through the electron transport chain to molecular oxygen, a theoretical maximum of __________ molecules of ATP can be made per oxygen molecule reduced.  
23.  The hypothesis that proton motive force drives ATP synthesis is called the __________ hypothesis.  
24.  The most commonly accepted hypothesis for the production of ATP that results from electron transport system is called the __________ hypothesis.  
25.  Bacterial electron transport chains may be comprised of fewer components and have lower P/O ratios than mitochondrial transport chains.  
A.
B.
26.  The electron transport systems in eukaryotes and prokaryotes use different electron carriers.  
A.
B.
27.  In addition to being used in the making of ATP, proton motive force is used directly to power the rotation of bacterial flagella.  
A.
B.
28.  Differences between mitochondrial and E. coli electron transport chains include the following:  
A.
B.
C.
D.
29.  Which of the following is NOT true regarding ATP synthases?  
A.
B.
C.
D.
30.  The theoretical maximum net gain of ATP per molecule of glucose metabolized aerobically in eukaryotes is  
A.
B.
C.
D.
31.  Production of ATP using the energy liberated when electrons from reduced chemical bonds are passed through the electron transport system is generally referred to as __________.  
A.
B.
C.
D.
32.  Mitochondrial electron transport takes place  
A.
B.
C.
D.
33.  In higher eukaryotes, most aerobically generated ATP is produced by  
A.
B.
C.
D.
34.  The number of ATP molecules generated per atom of oxygen that is reduced when electrons are passed from NADH or reduced FAD (FADH) to O2 is called the  
A.
B.
C.
D.
35.  In aerobic conditions, it takes __________ sugar to produce the same amount of ATP when compared to anaerobic conditions.  
A.
B.
C.
36.  Prokaryotes may use several different terminal oxidases for the electron transport system.  
A.
B.
37.  Reduction of nitrate to nitrite by Paracoccus denitrificans is an example of anaerobic respiration.  
A.
B.
38.  When cells of a facultative anaerobe such as Paracoccus denitrificans are growing under anaerobic conditions and using nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor, ______________ nitrate reduction is occurring.  
39.  Which of the following can be used as electron acceptors during anaerobic respiration?  
A.
B.
C.
D.
40.  Organisms that form lactate, ethanol, and CO2 as end products of glucose metabolism are called __________ fermenters.  
41.  Fermentation involves the use of pyruvate and/or other organic molecules as electron acceptors.  
A.
B.
42.  In the process of fermentation an organic substrate, such as glucose, is reduced and an intermediate of the pathway, such as pyruvate, is oxidized.  
A.
B.
43.  Organisms that directly reduce almost all of their pyruvate to lactate are called __________ fermenters.  
44.  Oxygen is always required for the regeneration of NAD from NADH.  
A.
B.
45.  Large external polysaccharides are degraded by bacteria and archaea using ________ ________, which secrete these substances outside the cell. (2 words)  
46.  Disaccharides and polysaccharides can be processed as nutrients after first being cleaved to monosaccharides by either __________ or __________. (answer, answer)  
47.  Fatty acids are metabolized by the __________ pathway.  
A.
B.
C.
D.
48.  During breakdown of fatty acids, carbons are removed __________ at a time with each turn of the cycle, and two carbon units are released as __________.  
A.
B.
C.
D.
49.  Proteins are catabolized by hydrolytic cleavage to amino acids by the action of enzymes called __________.  
50.  Amino acids are processed first by the removal of the amino group through  
A.
B.
C.
D.
51.  Nitrification of ammonia occurs when ammonia is first converted to nitrite and then is converted to nitrate by the nitrogen-fixing bacteria.  
A.
B.
52.  _______________ is a two-step process that depends on the activity of at least two genera to carry out the oxidation of ammonia to nitrate.  
53.  Which of the following may be used as sources of energy by chemolithotrophs?  
A.
B.
C.
D.
54.  How many molecules of ATP are needed to reduce one molecule of carbon dioxide to carbohydrate by oxygenic phototrophs during the dark reactions of photosynthesis?  
A.
B.
C.
D.
55.  How many molecules of NADPH are needed to reduce one molecule of carbon dioxide to carbohydrate by oxygenic phototrophs during the dark reactions of photosynthesis?  
A.
B.
C.
D.
56.  How many quanta of light are needed to reduce one molecule of carbon dioxide to carbohydrate during photosynthesis?  
A.
B.
C.
D.
57.  All prokaryotic photosynthesizers are anoxygenic.  
A.
B.
58.  Photosynthetic organisms serve as the base for most food chains in the biosphere.  
A.
B.
59.  All eukaryotic photosynthesizers are oxygenic.  
A.
B.
60.  In the process of noncyclic photophosphorylation  
A.
B.
C.
D.
61.  In the process of __________, ATP is synthesized when excited electrons from chlorophyll P700 pass through a series of electron carriers then return to chlorophyll P700.  
A.
B.
C.
D.
62.  Photosynthetic electron transport in cyanobacteria takes place  
A.
B.
C.
D.
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