54 Questions

THE BEHAVIOR OF GASES Chapter 14

Questions and Answers

- 1.. What theory explains the behavior of gases with respect to conditions such astemperature and pressure?
- A.
Potential theory

- B.
Kinetic theory

- C.
Gas theory

- 2.If you notice that a sealed bag of potato chips bulges when placed near a sunny window, what can you hypothesize about the relationship between the temperature and pressure of an enclosed gas?
- A.
An increase in temperature causes an increase in the pressure exerted by the gas.

- B.
An increase in temperature causes an decrease in the pressure exerted by the gas.

- C.
An decrease in temperature causes an increase in the pressure exerted by the gas.

- 3.1.Gas particles are so small in relation to the distances between them that their individual volumes can be assumed to be insignificant.2. No attractive or repulsive forces exist between gas particles.3.Gas particles are in constant random motion, traveling in independent straight paths until they collide with each other or other objects.
- A.
Three basic assumptions of the potenial theory about the properties of gases.

- B.
Three basic assumptions of the kinetic theory about the properties of gases.

- C.
Three basic assumptions of the gas theory about the properties of gases.

- 4.The large relative distances between gas particles means that there is considerable empty space between them.The assumption that gas particles are far apart explains gas compressibility.Compressibility is a measure of how much the volume of matter decreasesunder pressure.
- A.
Non compressibility of gases.

- B.
Compressibility of gases.

- C.
Gas particle compressibility

- 5.Look at Figure 12.1 on page 327. How does an automobile air bag protect the crash dummy from being broken as a result of impact?
- A.
The gases used to inflate the airbag are compressible and are able to absorb a considerable amount of energy.

- B.
The gases used to inflate the airbag are not compressible and are able to absorb a considerable amount of energy.

- C.
The gases used to inflate the airbag are compressible and are not able to absorb a considerable amount of energy.

- 6.
. b. c. *P.*kilopascals volume, V, liters temperature,*T,*kelvins number of particles,*n,*moles- A.
The name, the symbol, and a common unit for the four variables that are generally used to describe the characteristics of a liquids.

- B.
The name, the symbol, and a common unit for the four variables that are generally used to describe the characteristics of a gas.

- C.
The name, the symbol, and a common unit for the four variables that are generally used to describe the characteristics of a solids.

- 7.Four everyday items that rely on the behavior of gases to operate properly.
- A.
Feet, hands, legs,arms

- B.
Chair, table shoes,windows

- C.
Automobile tires,air compressors, air brakes,aerosol cans

- 8.How do conditions change inside a tire when you pump it up with a tirenumn?
- A.
Because air particles are added, the pressure increases inside the tire.

- B.
Because air particles are added, the pressure decreases inside the tire.

- C.
Because air particles are taken away, the pressure increases inside the tire.

- 9.What can happen if too much air is pumped into a tire?
- A.
The pressure inside the tire can increase beyond the strength of its walls, causing the tire to rupture or burst.

- B.
The pressure inside the tire can decrease beyond the strength of its walls, causing the tire to rupture or burst.

- C.
The pressure outside the tire can decrease beyond the strength of its walls, causing the tire to rupture or burst.

- 10.When a sealed container of gas is opened, gas will flowfrom the region of higher pressure to the region of__________ pressure.
- A.
Same

- B.
Higher

- C.
Lower

- 11.Pushing the button creates an opening between the atmosphere and the gas inside the can, which is at a higher pressure.Gas from inside the can rushes out of the opening, forcing the product in the can and out with it.
- A.
The jar of pickles will closs tightly.

- B.
The garbage can lid will pop off.

- C.
The spray button on an aerosol spray can is pressed.

- 12.Raising the temperature of an enclosed gas causes its pressure to ___________.
- A.
Increase

- B.
Decrease

- C.
Stay the same

- 13.The average kinetic energy of the gas particles increases as the particles absorb thermal energy.Faster-moving particles impact the walls of their container with more energy, exerting greater pressure.
- A.
Describes how gases behave when the temperature increases

- B.
Describes how gases behave when the temperature decreases

- C.
Describes how gases behave when the temperature istays the same

- 14.Throwing an aerosol can into a fire causes the gas pressure inside the can to increase greatly, with the likelihood that the can will burst.
- A.
Explain why it is dangerous to bounce an aerosol can into a fire.

- B.
Explain why it is dangerous to open aerosol cans over a fire.

- C.
Explain why it is dangerous to throw aerosol cans into a fire.

- 15.What is Daltoris law of partial pressures?
- A.
At constant volume and temperature, the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the component gases.

- B.
At constant volume and temperature, the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the component liquid.

- C.
At constant volume and temperature, the total non pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the component gases.

- 16.The tendency of gas molecules to move from areas of higher concentration toareas of lower concentration is called
- A.
Gases

- B.
Diffusion

- C.
Effusion

- 17.If two bodies with different masses have the same kinetic energy, the one with the greater mass must move __________.
- A.
The same

- B.
Slower

- C.
Faster

- 18.Which of the gases shown has behavior that is close to ideal ranging from near0 kPa to almost 40 000 kPa?
- A.
CH 4 exponent at 100 °C

- B.
CH 4 exponent at 300 °C

- C.
CH 4 exponent at 200 °C

- 19.Two assumptions of simple kinetic theory that are incorrect for real gases?
- A.
Gas particles are attracted to each other. k Gas particles have some volume.

- B.
Gas particles are not attracted to each other. k Gas particles have no volume.

- C.
Gas particles are attracted to each other. k Gas particles have alot volume.

- 20.The nonzero volume of gas particles tends to __________volume, making the ratio
*(P*x*V)/(n*x*R*x*T)*greater than 1.- A.
Increase

- B.
Decrease

- C.
Stays the same

- 21._______________ says that equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of particles.
- A.
Boyle's hypothesis

- B.
Charles hypothesis

- C.
Avogadro's hypothesis

- 22.Why is Avogadro's hypothesis reasonable?
- A.
As long as the gas particles are not tightly packed, there is a great deal of occupied space between them, A container can easily accommodate the same number of relatively large or relatively small gas particles.

- B.
As long as the gas particles are not tightly packed, there is a great deal of empty space between them, A container can easily accommodate the same number of relatively large or relatively small gas particles.

- C.
As long as the gas particles are not tightly packed, there is a great deal of occupied space between them, A container can easily accommodate the same number of relatively large or relatively large gas particles.

- 23.How many gas particles occupy a volume of 22.4 L at standard temperature and pressure?
- A.
6.02 x 1Q 30 exponents particles

- B.
6.02 x 1Q 25 exponents particles

- C.
6.02 x 1Q 23 exponents particles

- 24.Gas pressure depends only on thenumber of gas particles in a given volume and on their average ________—the type of particle does not matter.
- A.
Gas energy

- B.
Potential energy

- C.
Kenetic energy

- 25.4. The contribution of the pressure of each gas in a mixture to the total pressure is called the _________ exerted by that gas.
- A.
Partial pressure

- B.
Complete pressure

- C.
No pressure

- 26.To meet the assumptions of___________of gases, gases must behave in an "ideal" way.
- A.
Potential theory

- B.
Kinetic theory

- C.
Gas theory

- 27.There is no real gas that exactly conforms to the kinetic theory and the ideal gas law.At many conditions of temperature and pressure, real gases behave very much like ideal gases.
- A.
True about ideal gases and the potential theory.

- B.
True about ideal gases and the kinetic theory.

- C.
True about ideal gases and the gas theory.

- 28.If a gas were truly an ideal gas, it would be _________to liquefy or solidify it by cooling or by applying pressure.
- A.
Important

- B.
Possible

- C.
Impossible

- 29.15. A gas that follows the gas laws over a certain range of temperature and pressure is said to exhibit____________ under those conditions.
- A.
Less than ideal behavior

- B.
Ideal behavior

- C.
No behavior

- 30.What ratio always equals 1 for an ideal gas?
- A.
___(P x V)____ (n x R x T)

- B.
___(P x V)____ (n R x T)

- C.
__2_(P x V)____ (n x R x T)

- 31.What is the magnitude of the marked intervals on the pressure axis of the graph?.
- A.
30 000 kPa

- B.
20 000 kPa

- C.
10 000 kPa

- 32.Which of the gases shown deviates the most from ideal at pressures less than 20 000 kPa?
- A.
CO 8 exponent at 40 °C

- B.
CO 4 exponent at 40 °C

- C.
CO 2 exponent at 40 °C

- 33.At a specified temperature and pressure, is the number of moles of gas in a sample directly proportional or inversely proportional to the volume of the sample?
- A.
Not directly proportional

- B.
Directly proportional

- C.
Indirectly proportional

- 34.The correct description of how the combined gas law must be modified when you measure the amount of a gas in moles.
- A.
Multiply each side of the equation by the number of moles.

- B.
Divide each side of the equation by the number of moles.

- C.
Add the number of moles to each side of the equation.

- 35.For what kind of gas is
*(P*x*V) I (T x n} a*constant for all values of pressure,temperature, and volume under which the gas can exist?- A.
An ideal volumn

- B.
An ideal mass

- C.
An ideal gas

- 36.Which variable in the equation
*(Pi x VJ*_{=}(P_{2}^{x}^2) CT, x*nj*(Z*_{2}x*n*is constant in Boyle's law, Charles's law, and Gay-Lussac's law?_{2})- A.
The number of moles must be constant, n1 lower = n 2 lower , for all three of these gas laws.

- B.
The number of moles must be constant, n2 lower = n 2 lower , for all three of these gas laws.

- C.
The number of moles must be constant, n1 lower = n 3 lower , for all three of these gas laws.

- 37.Why would you use the ideal gas law when you know the gas constant instead of the combined gas law?
- A.
Knowing the gas constant, T, and the ideal gas Saw, P x V = n x R x T lets you calculate the number of motes of gas at any specified values of P, V, and T.

- B.
Knowing the gas constant, R, and the ideal gas Saw, P x V = n x R x T lets you calculate the number of motes of gas at any specified values of P, V, and T.

- C.
Knowing the gas constant, n, and the ideal gas Saw, P x V = n x R x T lets you calculate the number of motes of gas at any specified values of P, V, and T.

- 38.A single mathematical expression involving pressure, temperature, and volume can represent the _______of Boyle, Charles, and Gay-Lussac if one or another of these quantities is held constant.
- A.
Gas laws

- B.
Liquid laws

- C.
Solid laws

- 39.The fourth variable is the amount of ___________ in the system.
- A.
Solid

- B.
Liquid

- C.
Gas

- 40.What is this mathematical equation called?
- A.
The combined solid law

- B.
The combined liquid law

- C.
The combined gas law

- 41.17. Which gas law does this equation represent if temperature is held constant sothat T 2 lower T 2 lower ?
- A.
Boy|e's law

- B.
Charles's law

- C.
Gay-Lussac's law

- 42.Which gas law does this equation represent if pressure is held constant so thatP 1 lower =
*P2 lower*?- A.
Boy|e's law

- B.
Charles's law

- C.
Gay-Lussac's law

- 43.Which gas law does this equation represent if volume is held constant so that
*V 1 lower = V2 lower**?*- A.
Boy|e's law

- B.
Charles's law

- C.
Gay-Lussac's law

- 44.The combined gas law allows calculations for situations where none of the variables—pressure, _____________, or volume—are constant.
- A.
Temperature

- B.
Liquid

- C.
Solid

- 45.What do you notice about the product of pressure times volume at constant temperature? What gas law does thisillustrate?
- A.
Pressure times volume is constant. This relationship illustratesGay-Lussac's law .

- B.
Pressure times volume is constant. This relationship illustrates Charles's law.

- C.
Pressure times volume is constant. This relationship illustrates Boyle's law.

- 46.The temperature at which average kinetic energy of gas particles theoreticallyis zero is called
- A.
Negative one

- B.
Absolute zero

- C.
zero

- 47.What does it mean to say that two variables are directly proportional?
- A.
When one variable decrease, the other increases so that the ratio of the two variables remains constant.

- B.
When one variable increases, the other increases so that the ratio of the two variables remains constant.

- C.
When one variable increases, the other increases so that the amount of the two variables remains constant.

- 48.Charles's law states that when thepressure of a fixed _______of gas is held constant, the volume of the gas isdirectly proportional to its Kelvin temperature.
- A.
Mass

- B.
Volumn

- C.
Circumference

- 49.. Charles's law may be written ___V1__ lower = __V2__ lower temperatures are T1 T2measured on what scale?.
- A.
Boyle temperatue

- B.
Kelvin temperature

- C.
Chsrles temperature

- 50.
*P P*14. Gay-Lussac's law may be written —*~ = —*f if the volume is constant and if the T1 T 2temperatures are measured on what scale?- A.
Boyle's Scale

- B.
Kelvin's Scale

- C.
Gay's Scale

- 51.How are the average kinetic energy of gasparticles and their Kelvin temperature related?
- A.
The average kinetic energy of gas particles and their Kelvin temperature are directly proportional.

- B.
The average kinetic energy of gas particles and their Gay temperature are directly proportional.

- C.
The average kinetic energy of gas particles and their Lussac temperature are directly proportional.

- 52.The volume and the pressure of an enclosed gas heldat constant temperature.
- A.
When the pressure increases, the volume increases. When the pressure decreases, the volume decreases.

- B.
When the pressure increases, the volume decreases. When the pressure decreases, the volume increases.

- C.
When the pressure decreases, the volume decreases. When the pressure icreases, the volume increases.

- 53.What is an inverse relationship for two variables?
- A.
An inverse relationship occurs when one variable increases as the other increases.

- B.
An converse relationship occurs when one variable increases as the other decreases.

- C.
An inverse relationship occurs when one variable increases as the other decreases.

- 54.______________ law states that for a given mass of gas at a constant temperature, the volume of the gas varies inversely with pressure.
- A.
Boyles

- B.
Gay

- C.
Kelven