1. | . What theory explains the behavior of gases with respect to conditions such astemperature and pressure? |
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2. | If you notice that a sealed bag of potato chips bulges when placed near a sunny window, what can you hypothesize about the relationship between the temperature and pressure of an enclosed gas? |
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3. | 1.Gas particles are so small in relation to the distances between them that their individual volumes can be assumed to be insignificant.2. No attractive or repulsive forces exist between gas particles.3.Gas particles are in constant random motion, traveling in independent straight paths until they collide with each other or other objects. |
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4. | The large relative distances between gas particles means that there is considerable empty space between them.The assumption that gas particles are far apart explains gas compressibility.Compressibility is a measure of how much the volume of matter decreasesunder pressure. |
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5. | Look at Figure 12.1 on page 327. How does an automobile air bag protect the crash dummy from being broken as a result of impact? |
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6. | . b. c. pressure, P. kilopascals volume, V, liters temperature, T, kelvins number of particles, n, moles |
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7. | Four everyday items that rely on the behavior of gases to operate properly. |
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8. | How do conditions change inside a tire when you pump it up with a tirenumn? |
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9. | What can happen if too much air is pumped into a tire? |
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10. | When a sealed container of gas is opened, gas will flowfrom the region of higher pressure to the region of__________ pressure. |
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11. | Pushing the button creates an opening between the atmosphere and the gas inside the can, which is at a higher pressure.Gas from inside the can rushes out of the opening, forcing the product in the can and out with it. |
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12. | Raising the temperature of an enclosed gas causes its pressure to ___________. |
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13. | The average kinetic energy of the gas particles increases as the particles absorb thermal energy.Faster-moving particles impact the walls of their container with more energy, exerting greater pressure. |
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14. | Throwing an aerosol can into a fire causes the gas pressure inside the can to increase greatly, with the likelihood that the can will burst. |
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15. | What is Daltoris law of partial pressures? |
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16. | The tendency of gas molecules to move from areas of higher concentration toareas of lower concentration is called |
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17. | If two bodies with different masses have the same kinetic energy, the one with the greater mass must move __________. |
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18. | Which of the gases shown has behavior that is close to ideal ranging from near0 kPa to almost 40 000 kPa? |
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19. | Two assumptions of simple kinetic theory that are incorrect for real gases? |
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20. | The nonzero volume of gas particles tends to __________volume, making the ratio (P x V)/(n x R x T) greater than 1. |
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21. | _______________ says that equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of particles. |
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22. | Why is Avogadro's hypothesis reasonable? |
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23. | How many gas particles occupy a volume of 22.4 L at standard temperature and pressure? |
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24. | Gas pressure depends only on thenumber of gas particles in a given volume and on their average ________—the type of particle does not matter. |
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25. | 4. The contribution of the pressure of each gas in a mixture to the total pressure is called the _________ exerted by that gas. |
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26. | To meet the assumptions of___________of gases, gases must behave in an "ideal" way. |
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27. | There is no real gas that exactly conforms to the kinetic theory and the ideal gas law.At many conditions of temperature and pressure, real gases behave very much like ideal gases. |
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28. | If a gas were truly an ideal gas, it would be _________to liquefy or solidify it by cooling or by applying pressure. |
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29. | 15. A gas that follows the gas laws over a certain range of temperature and pressure is said to exhibit____________ under those conditions. |
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30. | What ratio always equals 1 for an ideal gas? |
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31. | What is the magnitude of the marked intervals on the pressure axis of the graph?. |
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32. | Which of the gases shown deviates the most from ideal at pressures less than 20 000 kPa? |
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33. | At a specified temperature and pressure, is the number of moles of gas in a sample directly proportional or inversely proportional to the volume of the sample? |
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34. | The correct description of how the combined gas law must be modified when you measure the amount of a gas in moles. |
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35. | For what kind of gas is (P x V) I (T x n} a constant for all values of pressure,temperature, and volume under which the gas can exist? |
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36. | Which variable in the equation (Pi x VJ _{=} (P_{2} ^{x} ^2) CT, x nj (Z*_{2} x n_{2}) is constant in Boyle's law, Charles's law, and Gay-Lussac's law? |
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37. | Why would you use the ideal gas law when you know the gas constant instead of the combined gas law? |
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38. | A single mathematical expression involving pressure, temperature, and volume can represent the _______of Boyle, Charles, and Gay-Lussac if one or another of these quantities is held constant. |
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39. | The fourth variable is the amount of ___________ in the system. |
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40. | What is this mathematical equation called? |
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41. | 17. Which gas law does this equation represent if temperature is held constant sothat T 2 lower T 2 lower ? |
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42. | Which gas law does this equation represent if pressure is held constant so thatP 1 lower = P2 lower ? |
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43. | Which gas law does this equation represent if volume is held constant so thatV 1 lower = V2 lower? |
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44. | The combined gas law allows calculations for situations where none of the variables—pressure, _____________, or volume—are constant. |
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45. | What do you notice about the product of pressure times volume at constant temperature? What gas law does thisillustrate? |
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46. | The temperature at which average kinetic energy of gas particles theoreticallyis zero is called |
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47. | What does it mean to say that two variables are directly proportional? |
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48. | Charles's law states that when thepressure of a fixed _______of gas is held constant, the volume of the gas isdirectly proportional to its Kelvin temperature. |
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49. | . Charles's law may be written ___V1__ lower = __V2__ lower temperatures are T1 T2measured on what scale?. |
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50. | P P 14. Gay-Lussac's law may be written —~ = —f if the volume is constant and if the T1 T 2temperatures are measured on what scale? |
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51. | How are the average kinetic energy of gasparticles and their Kelvin temperature related? |
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52. | The volume and the pressure of an enclosed gas heldat constant temperature. |
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53. | What is an inverse relationship for two variables? |
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54. | ______________ law states that for a given mass of gas at a constant temperature, the volume of the gas varies inversely with pressure. |
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