Anatomy And Physiology Final Exam Prep Test

272 Questions  I  By Jlpena
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  • 1. 
    Olfactory receptors are found
    • A. 

      Throughout the nasal cavity

    • B. 

      Only in the inferior portion of the nasal cavity

    • C. 

      Only in the superior portion of the nasal cavity

    • D. 

      Only in the mid nasal regions


  • 2. 
    Which hormones does the posterior pituitary gland produce?
    • A. 

      Prolactin and Human Growth Hormone

    • B. 

      Oxytocin and Prolactin

    • C. 

      FSH and TSH

    • D. 

      Oxytocin and Antidiuretic Hormone


  • 3. 
    This is the volume of blood ejected from the left ventricle into the aorta each minute.
    • A. 

      Cardiac output

    • B. 

      Stroke volume

    • C. 

      Heart rate

    • D. 

      Cardiac input


  • 4. 
    Which of the following processes is the function of the smooth muscle layer of the digestive system?
    • A. 

      Ingestion

    • B. 

      Secretion

    • C. 

      Mixing and propulsion

    • D. 

      Absorption

    • E. 

      All of the above


  • 5. 
    This is the formation of a new glucose molecule.
    • A. 

      Gluconeogenesis

    • B. 

      Glycolysis

    • C. 

      Glucosamine

    • D. 

      Calcitrol


  • 6. 
    An acute allergic reaction can lead to
    • A. 

      Transplantation

    • B. 

      Passive immunity

    • C. 

      Anaphylactic shock

    • D. 

      Active immunity


  • 7. 
    Which hormone promotes an increased metabolic rate?
    • A. 

      Insulin

    • B. 

      Adrenocorticotropic hormone

    • C. 

      Thyroid hormone

    • D. 

      Calcitonin

    • E. 

      Glucagon


  • 8. 
    Which of the following is NOT a function of the lymphatic and immune system?
    • A. 

      Draining excess interstitial fluid

    • B. 

      Maintaining water homeostasis in the body

    • C. 

      Transporting dietary lipids

    • D. 

      Carrying out immune responses


  • 9. 
    How much of the total volume of body fluid is intracellular fluid?
    • A. 

      10%

    • B. 

      1/2

    • C. 

      2/3

    • D. 

      90%


  • 10. 
    What is the major hormone that regulates water loss?
    • A. 

      ANP

    • B. 

      Angiotensin II

    • C. 

      Renin

    • D. 

      ADH

    • E. 

      Angiotensin


  • 11. 
    The ______________ muscles contract in response to cold temperatures and move the testes closer to the body to absorb more body heat.

  • 12. 
    The B Cell receptors, the light/heavy variable regions are located
    • A. 

      Transmembrane region

    • B. 

      Tips of the molecules

    • C. 

      There is no variable region on a B cell receptor

    • D. 

      Depends on the type of B cell

    • E. 

      There are only constant regions


  • 13. 
    Which artery wall is responsible for vasoconstriction?
    • A. 

      Tunica interna

    • B. 

      Tunica media

    • C. 

      Tunica externa

    • D. 

      Tunica fascia


  • 14. 
    When B and T cells are fully developed and mature, they are known to be
    • A. 

      Immunocompetent

    • B. 

      Pluripotent stem cells

    • C. 

      Primary lymphatic cells

    • D. 

      Germ cells

    • E. 

      Specifically promoted


  • 15. 
    The cardiovascular center is located in _____________ _______________.

  • 16. 
    Which is NOT a major function of the blood?
    • A. 

      Transportation of nutrients

    • B. 

      Regulation of blood pH

    • C. 

      Protection against disease infection

    • D. 

      Transportation of heat

    • E. 

      Production of oxygen


  • 17. 
    Which blood glucose lowering hormone is produced by the pancreatic islet cells?
    • A. 

      Insulin

    • B. 

      Plasma proteins

    • C. 

      Blood clotting factors

    • D. 

      Thyroid hormones

    • E. 

      Calcitonin


  • 18. 
    How many hormones do the five types of anterior pituitary cells secrete?
    • A. 

      5

    • B. 

      7

    • C. 

      10

    • D. 

      12

    • E. 

      Unlimited


  • 19. 
    The pars distalis and the pars tuberalis comprise:
    • A. 

      The anterior pituitary

    • B. 

      The hypothalamus

    • C. 

      The posterior pituitary

    • D. 

      The adrenal gland

    • E. 

      The thyroid gland


  • 20. 
    These cells provide for the sense of smell.
    • A. 

      Olfactory hair cells

    • B. 

      Glial cells

    • C. 

      Basal stem cells

    • D. 

      Bowman's glands

    • E. 

      Gustatory cells


  • 21. 
    Which of the below structures converts vibrations to action potentials?
    • A. 

      Cochlea

    • B. 

      Pinna

    • C. 

      Tympanic membrane

    • D. 

      Organ of Corti

    • E. 

      Vestibulocochlear nerve


  • 22. 
    This darkly pigmented structure reduces light reflection within the eyeball.
    • A. 

      Sclera

    • B. 

      Conjunctiva

    • C. 

      Iris

    • D. 

      Choroid

    • E. 

      Retina


  • 23. 
    Taste buds are found
    • A. 

      Epiglottis

    • B. 

      Pharynx

    • C. 

      Soft palate

    • D. 

      Both a and b

    • E. 

      All of the above


  • 24. 
    Which of the below vessels is a pulse point at the wrist?
    • A. 

      Radial artery

    • B. 

      Subclavian artery

    • C. 

      Axillary artery

    • D. 

      Cephalic artery

    • E. 

      Palmar artery


  • 25. 
    Which of the below vessels supplies blood to the intestines?
    • A. 

      Subclavian artery

    • B. 

      Mesenteric artery

    • C. 

      Coronary artery

    • D. 

      Popliteal artery


  • 26. 
    The lymph from the right foot empties into the
    • A. 

      Left axillary vein

    • B. 

      Lumbar trunk

    • C. 

      Jugular trunk

    • D. 

      Thoracic duct

    • E. 

      Right lymphatic duct


  • 27. 
    This induces production of a specific antibody. ____________________

  • 28. 
    This pressure provides information about the condition of the cardiovascular system such as atherosclerosis and patent ductus arteriosus. 
    • A. 

      Diastolic blood pressure

    • B. 

      Systolic blood pressure

    • C. 

      Pulse pressure

    • D. 

      Venule pressure

    • E. 

      Capillary pressure


  • 29. 
    This is a small hormone that can stimulate or inhibit many normal cell functions.
    • A. 

      Enzyme

    • B. 

      Kinins

    • C. 

      Cytokine

    • D. 

      MHC

    • E. 

      Leukocyte


  • 30. 
    The left subclavian vein receives lymph from 
    • A. 

      Left axillary vein

    • B. 

      Lumbar trunk

    • C. 

      Jugular trunk

    • D. 

      Thoracic duct

    • E. 

      Right lymphatic duct


  • 31. 
    Continuous capillaries can be found in the following tissues.
    • A. 

      Skeletal muscle

    • B. 

      Smooth muscle

    • C. 

      Connective tissue

    • D. 

      Lungs

    • E. 

      All of the above


  • 32. 
    Which of the below is NOT found in arteries but IS found in veins?
    • A. 

      Tunica externa

    • B. 

      Tunica media

    • C. 

      Tunica interna

    • D. 

      Valves


  • 33. 
    Which of these does NOT provide a physical or chemical barrier?
    • A. 

      Macrophages

    • B. 

      Saliva

    • C. 

      Urine

    • D. 

      Mucus

    • E. 

      Stratified squamous epithelium


  • 34. 
    This is a blood vessel that conveys blood from the tissues back to the heart.
    • A. 

      Artery

    • B. 

      Arteriole

    • C. 

      Aorta

    • D. 

      Vein

    • E. 

      Capillary


  • 35. 
    When an artery or arteriole is damaged, its smooth muscle contracts producing
    • A. 

      A tear in the artery

    • B. 

      A branch off the artery called an arteriole

    • C. 

      A vascular spasm

    • D. 

      Tetanus

    • E. 

      Constriction of the outer four layers


  • 36. 
    Which of the following is the blood vessel that distributes blood to organs?
    • A. 

      Arteries

    • B. 

      Capillaries

    • C. 

      Venules

    • D. 

      Arterioles

    • E. 

      Veins


  • 37. 
    Which of the following reduces blood loss?
    • A. 

      Erythrocyte

    • B. 

      Platelet

    • C. 

      Lymphocyte

    • D. 

      Basophil

    • E. 

      Neutrophil


  • 38. 
    List the 10 cells, structures, and fluids that light must pass through to reach the photoreceptor cells. (in order)

  • 39. 
    Which of the following provides immune responses?
    • A. 

      Eosinophil

    • B. 

      Macrophage

    • C. 

      Lymphocyte

    • D. 

      Basophil

    • E. 

      Platelet


  • 40. 
    What controls the anterior pituitary gland?
    • A. 

      Action of the hypothalamus

    • B. 

      Chemical signals from the blood

    • C. 

      The peripheral nervous system

    • D. 

      Action potentials from the thalamus

    • E. 

      Chemical changes in CSF


  • 41. 
    Which of the following is NOT a function of a hormone?
    • A. 

      Regulates chemical composition and volume of the internal environment

    • B. 

      Regulates metabolism

    • C. 

      Regulates glandular secretions

    • D. 

      Produces electrolytes

    • E. 

      Controls growth and development


  • 42. 
    Which of the following plasma proteins plays a role in blood clotting?
    • A. 

      Albumins

    • B. 

      Globulins

    • C. 

      Fibrinogens

    • D. 

      Prostaglandins

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 43. 
    Parathyroid hormone is the major regulator of the concentration of which of the following ions in the blood?
    • A. 

      Calcium

    • B. 

      Sodium

    • C. 

      Potassium

    • D. 

      Chloride

    • E. 

      Manganese


  • 44. 
    Which of the following nerves serves in a gustatory function? 
    • A. 

      Vestibulocochlear

    • B. 

      Oculomotor

    • C. 

      Vagus

    • D. 

      Trigeminal

    • E. 

      Spinal accessory


  • 45. 
    List the 3 items secreted by basophils at sites of inflammation:

  • 46. 
    Which of the following hormones opposes the action of parathyroid hormone?
    • A. 

      Thyroid stimulating hormone

    • B. 

      Testosterone

    • C. 

      Insulin

    • D. 

      Calcitonin

    • E. 

      Calcitriol


  • 47. 
    Which methods provide homeostasis?
    • A. 

      Vascular spasm, clotting, polycythemia

    • B. 

      Hemolysis, vascular spasm, platelet plug formation

    • C. 

      Emigration, clotting, hemolysis

    • D. 

      Platelet plug formation, vascular spasm, clotting

    • E. 

      Anemia, hemogenesis, platelet plug formation


  • 48. 
    Which of the following hormones contribute to the body's long term response to stress?
    • A. 

      Insulin, glucagon, thyroid hormone

    • B. 

      HGH, insulin, Aldosterone

    • C. 

      Cortisol, hGH, Thyroid hormone

    • D. 

      Parathyroid hormone, Cortisol, hGH

    • E. 

      Calcitonin, Thyroid hormone, Insulin


  • 49. 
    Which of the following is NOT a part of the process used to synthesize and secrete T3 and T4?
    • A. 

      Iodide trapping

    • B. 

      Oxidation of iodide

    • C. 

      Coupling of T1 and T2

    • D. 

      Hydrolysis of calcium

    • E. 

      Iodination of tyrosine


  • 50. 
    This is the heaviest gland of the body.
    • A. 

      Heart

    • B. 

      Liver

    • C. 

      Pancreas

    • D. 

      Large intestine

    • E. 

      Thyroid


  • 51. 
    This is the principle bile pigment.
    • A. 

      Stercobilin

    • B. 

      Bilirubin

    • C. 

      Biliverdin

    • D. 

      Both a and b

    • E. 

      All of the above


  • 52. 
    Brunners glands
    • A. 

      Secrete mucous

    • B. 

      Secrete an acidic juice

    • C. 

      Secrete an alkaline juice

    • D. 

      Secrete mucous and acidic juice

    • E. 

      Both mucous and an alkaline juice


  • 53. 
    One of the four pancreatic enzymes that help digest proteins is:

  • 54. 
    These cells secrete testosterone 
    • A. 

      Sertoli cells

    • B. 

      Spermatogenic cells

    • C. 

      Leydig cells

    • D. 

      Oogonia

    • E. 

      Chief cells


  • 55. 
    This is the most abundant mineral in the body
    • A. 

      Calcium

    • B. 

      Sodium

    • C. 

      Magnesium

    • D. 

      Phosphate

    • E. 

      Protiens


  • 56. 
    About 80% of the extracellular fluid is _________________.

  • 57. 
    Which of the following is the most accurate function of an electrolyte in the body?
    • A. 

      Controlling osmosis between compartments

    • B. 

      Maintaining acid-base balance

    • C. 

      Carry electrical currents

    • D. 

      Serve as cofactors

    • E. 

      All of the above


  • 58. 
    This is a condition where blood pH is below 7.35
    • A. 

      Isodosis

    • B. 

      Acidosis

    • C. 

      Alkalosis

    • D. 

      Alkalemia

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 59. 
    This lies posterior to the bladder and anterior to the rectum and secretes an alkaline, fructose filled fluid.
    • A. 

      Prostate

    • B. 

      Cowper's glands

    • C. 

      Seminal vesicle

    • D. 

      Spongy urethra

    • E. 

      Prostatic urethra


  • 60. 
    This is a test to measure kidney function.
    • A. 

      Renal study

    • B. 

      Plasma creatine

    • C. 

      Kidney assay

    • D. 

      Renal clearance

    • E. 

      Hilus study


  • 61. 
    These cells may eventually become spermatozoa.
    • A. 

      Sertoli cells

    • B. 

      Sustentacular cells

    • C. 

      Spermatogenic cells

    • D. 

      Chief cells

    • E. 

      Speciation cells


  • 62. 
    This occurs when water loss is greater than water gain.
    • A. 

      Dehydration

    • B. 

      Evaporation

    • C. 

      Precipitation

    • D. 

      Insensible loss

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 63. 
    This is composed of three cylindrical masses of erectile tissue each surrounded by a fibrous tissue.
    • A. 

      Testes

    • B. 

      Prostate

    • C. 

      Bladder

    • D. 

      Penis

    • E. 

      Urethra


  • 64. 
    The peritubular capillaries are exactly the same as the vasa recta.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 65. 
    The palatine tonsil and the pharyngeal tonsils are the same thing
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 66. 
    The cilia in the upper and lower respiratory tract move in opposite directions.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 67. 
    The vocal cords in males tend to vibrate slower, causing a lower range of pitch.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 68. 
    The Macula Lutea contains the fovea centralis.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 69. 
    The Organ of Corti and the otoliths are the same thing.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 70. 
    The cochlea acts to convert sound waves to vibrations.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 71. 
    Upon reaching their targets, lipid-soluble hormones diffuse through the phospholipid bilayer of the target cell membrane and bind to receptors in the cytosol or nucleus.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 72. 
    A megakaryoblast will develop into platelets.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 73. 
    The endocrine system is comprised solely of endocrine glands.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 74. 
    Acromegaly and gigantism are caused by hypersecretion of the same hormone.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 75. 
    An increase in the number of circulating WBC's usually indicates inflammation or infection.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 76. 
    The optic disc is synonymous for the fovea centralis
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 77. 
    Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes Insipidus are exactly the same thing.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 78. 
    The mitral valve and the tricuspid valve are the same thing.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 79. 
    If the SA node stops working, the heart will stop and the person will die
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 80. 
    It is the depolarization and repolarization of the heart that cause our heart beats
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 81. 
    Lymph from the small intestines appears white due to the presence of lipids.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 82. 
    There are two atrioventricular valves and two semilunar valves
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 83. 
    Veins are the blood vessels that only return blood to the heart.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 84. 
    The myogenic response make smooth muscle contract more forcefully when relaxed.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 85. 
    Fever intensifies the effect of interferons and promotes the rate of repair.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 86. 
    Pluripotent stem cells come from the Thymus
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 87. 
    The cricoid cartilage assist to maintain an open airway.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 88. 
    Tracheotomy is accomplished to allow change of vocal pitch
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 89. 
    Change of pitch is accomplished by changing tension in the vocal cords.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 90. 
    Lymphoid stem cells give rise to lymphocytes. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 91. 
    Myeloid stem cells and lymphoid stem cells are exactly the same thing
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 92. 
    An important function of lymphatic vessels is to return the plasma proteins to the bloodstream that could not diffuse back into the capillaries.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 93. 
    The distal convoluted tubule is the first section of the tubule and leads to the Loop of Henle.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 94. 
    The arcuate veins drains directly into the renal vein.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 95. 
    The arcuate artery drains into the interlobar arteries prior to reaching the glomerulus. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 96. 
    Binocular vision assists with depth perception.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 97. 
    The sclera and cornea are exactly the same thing.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 98. 
    The tarsal glands secrete a substance specifically designed to prevent the palpebrae from sticking together.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 99. 
    The parafollicular cells help regulate Na+ and water in the body.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 100. 
    A person with diabetes Mellitus may have the same cellular processes as someone undergoing starvation.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 101. 
    Water soluble hormones also diffuse through the phospholipid bilayer of the target cell membrane.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 102. 
    A hemocrit measures the percentage of RBC in packed blood
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 103. 
    Blood viscosity depends mostly on the ratio of RBC to plasma volume
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 104. 
    The major difference between lymph and interstitial fluid is location. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 105. 
    The arytenoid cartilage assist in the tension of the true vocal cords and therefore assist speech.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 106. 
    The esophagus is located anterior to the trachea
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 107. 
    These provide physical support, nourishment, and electrical insulation for olfactory receptors. 
    • A. 

      Dendrites

    • B. 

      Glial cells

    • C. 

      Basal stem cells

    • D. 

      Bowman's glands

    • E. 

      Supporting cells


  • 108. 
    Adaptation of olfactory sensations
    • A. 

      Occurs rapidly

    • B. 

      Is an increase in sensitivity

    • C. 

      Is seen in olfaction and hearing

    • D. 

      Occurs only with vision

    • E. 

      Never occurs with taste


  • 109. 
    Infection of a sebaceous ciliary gland can result in:
    • A. 

      Blood shot eyes

    • B. 

      Inhibition of crying

    • C. 

      Sty

    • D. 

      Tumor

    • E. 

      Blindness


  • 110. 
    Which is the correct order in the flow of tears?
    • A. 

      Lacrimal gland, lacrimal sac, excretory lacrimal duct, superior or inferior lacrimal canal, nasolacrimal duct, nasal cavity

    • B. 

      Lacrimal gland, excretory lacrimal duct, superior or inferior lacrimal canal, nasolacrimal duct, lacrimal sac, nasal cavity

    • C. 

      Lacrimal gland, excretory lacrimal duct, superior or inferior lacrimal canal, lacrimal sac, nasolacrimal duct, nasal cavity

    • D. 

      Lacrimal gland, lacrimal sac, nasolacrimal duct, superior or inferior lacrimal canal, excretory lacrimal duct, nasal cavity


  • 111. 
    Which of the following is the space between the upper and lower eyelids?
    • A. 

      Palpebral fissure

    • B. 

      Levator palpebrae

    • C. 

      Lacrimal caruncle

    • D. 

      Lateral commissure

    • E. 

      Conjectiva


  • 112. 
    The lens is made of layers of proteins called
    • A. 

      Choroid

    • B. 

      Ciliary bodies

    • C. 

      Crystallins

    • D. 

      Cones

    • E. 

      Rods


  • 113. 
    This lies between the lens and the retina
    • A. 

      Vitreous chamber

    • B. 

      Pupil

    • C. 

      Iris

    • D. 

      Cornea

    • E. 

      Aqueous chamber


  • 114. 
    Which of the anterior pituitary hormones stimulates milk production?

  • 115. 
    The name of the hormone produced by the chief cells of the parathyroid gland.

  • 116. 
    List the 5 white blood cells (in any order)

  • 117. 
    The name of the structure that increases the volume of the atria is called an ______________.

  • 118. 
    List 2 of the barriers used in innate defense:

  • 119. 
    List one of the five actions of antibodies.

  • 120. 
    These are mainly used to kill infectious microbes and tumor cells.

  • 121. 
    ______________ can only become activated when bound to a foreign antigen AND simultaneously receiving a costimulate.

  • 122. 
    This is the sum of the residual and the expiratory reserve volume:

  • 123. 
    The cough reflex is usually due to stimulation of the mucous membrane of the _____________.

  • 124. 
    The name of the structure that is found in the digestive system, consists of prominent lymphatic tissue and functions in the immune response is ________ (acronym) which stands for: _________ __________ __________ __________.

  • 125. 
    This digestive aid, produced by the stomach, begins degestion by denaturing proteins is _________.

  • 126. 
    This is the portion of the stomach that connects to the duodenum:

  • 127. 
    Which cells secretes intrinsic factor?

  • 128. 
    The blood vessel that is the immediate inferior continuation of the external iliac artery is the _________ artery.

  • 129. 
    Name the (specific) disease in which  the beta cells are being destroyed by the victim's immune system.

  • 130. 
    Epinephrine and thyroxine cause both heart rate and cardiac output to _____________.

  • 131. 
    Aldosterone causes blood volume to __________.

  • 132. 
    A decrease in peripheral resistance causes arterial blood pressure to ______________.

  • 133. 
    Name the structure on the tongue that is placed as an inverted V shape at the back of the tongue and that each house 100-300m taste buds.

  • 134. 
    Name the ossicles in order from external to internal:

  • 135. 
    These _______ cells of the gland _________ secrete somatostatin that is identical to the growth inhibiting hormones secreted by the ______________.

  • 136. 
    Name the structure of the heart that is comprised of endothelial tissue over a layer of connective tissue which serves to minimize surface friction as blood passes through the heart and blood vessels ___________.

  • 137. 
    The other name for pluripotent stem cells is: __________________

  • 138. 
    Name the TWO hormones produced by the follicular cells of the thyroid gland:

  • 139. 
    List 2 functions of the hypothalamus

  • 140. 
    The olfactory tract
    • A. 

      Projects to the cortical region controlled by the limbic system and part of the amygdale

    • B. 

      Has its integrating center in the hypothalamus

    • C. 

      Is only motor neurons

    • D. 

      Receives information from the taste buds

    • E. 

      Consists of the olfactory and vestibulocochlear nerves


  • 141. 
    Which of the below structures senses dynamic equilibrium?
    • A. 

      Cochlea

    • B. 

      Semicircular canals

    • C. 

      Macula of vestibule

    • D. 

      Organ of Corti

    • E. 

      Vestibulocochlear nerve


  • 142. 
    How many extrinsic eye muscles are responsible for moving the eye?
    • A. 

      7

    • B. 

      8

    • C. 

      6

    • D. 

      4

    • E. 

      5


  • 143. 
    The first step in visual transduction is:
    • A. 

      Allowing light through the pupil

    • B. 

      Stopping scattering of light

    • C. 

      Enhancing light level

    • D. 

      Absorbing light by photopigments

    • E. 

      Generating action potentials in optic nerve


  • 144. 
    Which of the below receptors is primarily used during high light situations?
    • A. 

      Scotopsin

    • B. 

      Rods

    • C. 

      Cones

    • D. 

      Vitamin A

    • E. 

      Optic nerve


  • 145. 
    The main function of this structure is to regulate the amount of light entering the eyeball through the pupil.
    • A. 

      Retina

    • B. 

      Cornea

    • C. 

      Iris

    • D. 

      Choroid

    • E. 

      Tunic


  • 146. 
    This is the transparent coat that covers the iris.
    • A. 

      Retina

    • B. 

      Choroid

    • C. 

      Tunic

    • D. 

      Ciliary body

    • E. 

      Cornea


  • 147. 
    Ferritin is used to 
    • A. 

      Transport iron

    • B. 

      Store iron

    • C. 

      Convert iron

    • D. 

      Synthesize iron

    • E. 

      Digest iron


  • 148. 
    Which of the following promotes inflammation?
    • A. 

      Eosinophil

    • B. 

      Monocyte

    • C. 

      Lymphocyte

    • D. 

      Basophil

    • E. 

      Neutrophil


  • 149. 
    Which of the following is a phagocyte?
    • A. 

      Monocyte

    • B. 

      Platelet

    • C. 

      Lymphocyte

    • D. 

      Basophil

    • E. 

      Eosinophil


  • 150. 
    What antibodies does a person with type O blood have in their plasma?
    • A. 

      A

    • B. 

      B

    • C. 

      A and B

    • D. 

      No antibodies

    • E. 

      Not enough information to answer


  • 151. 
    A red blood cell without a nucleus is called a:
    • A. 

      Proeyrthroblast

    • B. 

      Cytokine

    • C. 

      Precursor cell

    • D. 

      Interleukin

    • E. 

      Reticulocyte


  • 152. 
    When a hormone is present in excessive levels, the number of target-cell receptors may decrease. This is called:
    • A. 

      Receptor recognition

    • B. 

      Circulating hormone

    • C. 

      Paracrine

    • D. 

      Up regulation

    • E. 

      Down regulation


  • 153. 
    These hormones act on neighboring cells without entering the bloodstream.
    • A. 

      Local hormones

    • B. 

      Paracrines

    • C. 

      Autocrines

    • D. 

      Both b and c

    • E. 

      All of the above


  • 154. 
    These lipid soluable hormones derived from cholesterol.
    • A. 

      Steroids

    • B. 

      Thyroid hormones

    • C. 

      Nitric Oxide

    • D. 

      Amine hormones

    • E. 

      Peptide hormones


  • 155. 
    What is the major difference in the action of a water soluble hormone versus a lipid soluble hormone?
    • A. 

      Lipid soluble hormones bind to cell surface receptors

    • B. 

      How the mRNA is transcribed

    • C. 

      The use of a second messenger

    • D. 

      Only one type needs a hormone receptor

    • E. 

      Lipid hormones are not found in the bloodstream


  • 156. 
    When one hormone is opposing the action of another hormone it is called:
    • A. 

      Synergistic effects

    • B. 

      Permissive effects

    • C. 

      Antagonistic effects

    • D. 

      Circulating

    • E. 

      Local


  • 157. 
    Which of the following anterior pituitary hormones stimulates Cortisol production?
    • A. 

      Luteinizing hormone

    • B. 

      Prolactin

    • C. 

      Insuline like growth factors

    • D. 

      Melanocyte stimulating hormone

    • E. 

      Adrenocorticotropic hormone


  • 158. 
    Which of the following anterior pituitary hormones stimulates growth of long bones?
    • A. 

      Human growth hormone

    • B. 

      Prolactin

    • C. 

      Thyrotropin

    • D. 

      Follicle stimulating hormone

    • E. 

      ACTH


  • 159. 
    Which type of anterior pituitary cell secretes human growth hormone?
    • A. 

      Thyrotrophs

    • B. 

      Gonadotrophs

    • C. 

      Somatotrophs

    • D. 

      Lactotrophs

    • E. 

      Corticotrophs


  • 160. 
    The amount of ADH that is secreted varies with
    • A. 

      Blood osmotic pressure

    • B. 

      Blood calcium levels

    • C. 

      Oxygen content of blood

    • D. 

      Blood levels of glucose

    • E. 

      All of the above


  • 161. 
    Once this is formed, the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways are identical.
    • A. 

      Thromboplastin

    • B. 

      Prothrombinase

    • C. 

      Fibrinogen

    • D. 

      Fibrin

    • E. 

      Calcium


  • 162. 
    This hormone causes the development of megakaryblasts.
    • A. 

      Erythropoietin

    • B. 

      Thrombopoietin

    • C. 

      Nitric Oxide

    • D. 

      Human growth hormone

    • E. 

      Heparin


  • 163. 
    Which of the following destroys antigen-antibody complexes?
    • A. 

      Eosinophil

    • B. 

      Monocyte

    • C. 

      Lymphocyte

    • D. 

      Basophil

    • E. 

      Neutrophil


  • 164. 
    Which of the following is an anticoagulant?
    • A. 

      Heparin

    • B. 

      Fibrinogen

    • C. 

      Protease

    • D. 

      Prostacyclin

    • E. 

      Plasmin


  • 165. 
    What antigens does a person have on their RBC if their plasma has antibody A?
    • A. 

      A

    • B. 

      B

    • C. 

      O

    • D. 

      A and B

    • E. 

      No antigens


  • 166. 
    Which layer consists of cardiac muscle tissue?
    • A. 

      Epicardium

    • B. 

      Pericardium

    • C. 

      Myocardium

    • D. 

      Endocardium

    • E. 

      Hypocardium


  • 167. 
    To which side of the body is the apex pointed?
    • A. 

      At the midline

    • B. 

      To the left

    • C. 

      To the right

    • D. 

      Different for males and females

    • E. 

      Posteriorly


  • 168. 
    This is the layer that protects the heart
    • A. 

      Epicardium

    • B. 

      Parietal layer

    • C. 

      Myocardial tissue

    • D. 

      Mediastinum

    • E. 

      Endocardium


  • 169. 
    This is the mass of tissue from the sternum to the vertebral column between the lungs. 
    • A. 

      Epicardium

    • B. 

      Parietal layer

    • C. 

      Pericardial tissue

    • D. 

      Mediastinum

    • E. 

      Fibrous cardium


  • 170. 
    Which of the following consists of inelastic dense irregular connective tissue?
    • A. 

      Parietal layer of pericardium

    • B. 

      Serous pericardium

    • C. 

      Fibrous pericardium

    • D. 

      Epicardium

    • E. 

      Pericardial cavity


  • 171. 
    This is used to reduce the friction between membranes of the heart.
    • A. 

      Epicardium

    • B. 

      Endocardium layer

    • C. 

      Pericardium

    • D. 

      Pericardial (serous) fluid

    • E. 

      Pericardial cavity


  • 172. 
    The largest factor that promotes reabsorption of fluids, into blood, from the interstitial fluids is
    • A. 

      Tissue hydrostatic pressure

    • B. 

      Tissue osmotic pressure

    • C. 

      Blood osmotic pressure

    • D. 

      Blood hydrostatic pressure

    • E. 

      Colloid pressure


  • 173. 
    Which of the following is most important in forcing blood flow through veins?
    • A. 

      Heart rate

    • B. 

      Stroke volume

    • C. 

      Muscular activity

    • D. 

      Blood viscosity

    • E. 

      Valve opening


  • 174. 
    Blood flow depends on which of the following criteria.
    • A. 

      Blood pressure

    • B. 

      Systemic vascular resistance

    • C. 

      Blood type

    • D. 

      Blood pressure and systemic vascular pressure

    • E. 

      Blood pressure and heart rate


  • 175. 
    Which of the below would NOT increase blood pressure
    • A. 

      Increased blood volume

    • B. 

      Increased sympathetic stimulation

    • C. 

      Increased heart rate

    • D. 

      Increased stroke volume

    • E. 

      Decreased cardiac output


  • 176. 
    Which of the below would be the response of the body as a result of decreased frequency of action potentials arising from the baroreceptors?
    • A. 

      Increased blood pressure

    • B. 

      Increased parasympathetic stimulation

    • C. 

      Decreased heart rate

    • D. 

      Decreased stroke volume

    • E. 

      Decreased cardiac output


  • 177. 
    Which of the below factors do NOT increase systemic vascular resistance?
    • A. 

      Decreased vessel lumen diameter

    • B. 

      Increased blood viscosity

    • C. 

      Decreased vessel length

    • D. 

      Decreased vasodilation

    • E. 

      Increased blood cell count


  • 178. 
    How much of blood plasma is water (approximately)?
    • A. 

      95%

    • B. 

      91%

    • C. 

      88%

    • D. 

      80%

    • E. 

      50%


  • 179. 
    This structure increases the capacity of the atrium.
    • A. 

      Ventricle

    • B. 

      Coronary sulcus

    • C. 

      Fossa ovalis

    • D. 

      Interatrial septum

    • E. 

      Auricle


  • 180. 
    Which type of immunity defends against any type of invader?
    • A. 

      Nonspecific

    • B. 

      Specific

    • C. 

      Cell mediated

    • D. 

      Antibody mediated immunity

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 181. 
    As each atrium contracts where does blood move?
    • A. 

      Into an auricle

    • B. 

      Into an artery

    • C. 

      Into a vein

    • D. 

      Through an atrioventricular valve

    • E. 

      Through a semilunar valve


  • 182. 
    This vessel plays a key role in regulating blood flow into capillaries.
    • A. 

      Venules

    • B. 

      Arterioles

    • C. 

      Veins


  • 183. 
    This can only stimulate an immune response if attached to a large carrier molecle.
    • A. 

      Hapten

    • B. 

      Epitope

    • C. 

      Antigen


  • 184. 
    T cells secrete this toxin that is used to fragment DNA
    • A. 

      Perforin

    • B. 

      Lymphotoxin

    • C. 

      Toxin T


  • 185. 
    This is a network of specialized cardiac muscle fibers that provide a path for each cycle of cardiac excitation to progress through the heart.
    • A. 

      Purkinje fibes

    • B. 

      Pacemaker

    • C. 

      Conduction system


  • 186. 
    Capillaries are known as
    • A. 

      Exchange vessels

    • B. 

      Pressure reservoirs

    • C. 

      Distributing vessels


  • 187. 
    This term refers to the period of time during a cardiac cycle when contraction occurs and blood pressure rises.
    • A. 

      Systole

    • B. 

      Diastole

    • C. 

      Repolarization


  • 188. 
    Chemoreceptors in blood vessels measuring high levels of blood carbon dioxide would NOT cause which of the following:
    • A. 

      Increased heart rate

    • B. 

      Decreased respiratory rate

    • C. 

      Increased blood pressure


  • 189. 
    Which is the correct order of filtrate flow?
    • A. 

      Loop of Henle, glomerular capsule, PCT, DCT, Collecting duct

    • B. 

      Glomerular capsule, DCT, Loop of Henle, PCT, collecting duct

    • C. 

      Glomerular capsule, PCT, Loop of Henle, DCT, collecting duct


  • 190. 
    Which of the following is NOT of function of the liver?
    • A. 

      Phagocytosis

    • B. 

      Storage of bilirubin

    • C. 

      Protein metabolism


  • 191. 
    This part of the heart can initiate a contraction and can set a constant heart rate of about 100 beats per minute. 
    • A. 

      Sinoatrial valve

    • B. 

      Chemoreceptors

    • C. 

      Proprioceptors


  • 192. 
    Which of the following tissues forms the exchange surfaces of the alveolus?
    • A. 

      Stratified squamous epithelium

    • B. 

      Simple squamous epithelium

    • C. 

      Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells


  • 193. 
    PTH, Calcitriol, and calcitonin are
    • A. 

      The main regulators of NaCl in the blood

    • B. 

      The main regulators of calcium in the blood

    • C. 

      The main regulators of phosphate in the blood


  • 194. 
    Water usually accounts for what percentage of the total volume of urine?
    • A. 

      80%

    • B. 

      90%

    • C. 

      95%


  • 195. 
    An analysis of the physical, chemical, and microscopic properties of urine is called
    • A. 

      Filtration study

    • B. 

      Urinalysis

    • C. 

      Concentration study


  • 196. 
    This structure protects and regulates the temperature of the testes
    • A. 

      Scrotum

    • B. 

      Tunica albuginea

    • C. 

      Cremaster muscle


  • 197. 
    The primary function of the epididymis is
    • A. 

      Sperm maturations

    • B. 

      Spermatid storage

    • C. 

      Produce sperm


  • 198. 
    Which of the following is not a glucocorticoid effect?
    • A. 

      Reduce of inflammation

    • B. 

      Immune suppression

    • C. 

      Increase in blood cell production


  • 199. 
    Which of the following is not an agranular leukocyte?
    • A. 

      Lymphocyte

    • B. 

      Macrophage

    • C. 

      Basophil


  • 200. 
    Through which structure does blood pass from the right atrium to the right ventricle?
    • A. 

      Bicuspid valve

    • B. 

      Tricuspid valve

    • C. 

      Ascending aorta


  • 201. 
    This heart structure(s) carries deoxygenated blood.
    • A. 

      Right atrium and Right ventricle

    • B. 

      Right ventricle only

    • C. 

      Left atrium and Left ventricle


  • 202. 
    Cardiac muscle fibers electrically connect to neighboring fibers by
    • A. 

      Desmosomes

    • B. 

      Gap junctions

    • C. 

      Intermediate discs


  • 203. 
    In this disorder the aortic valve is narrowed.
    • A. 

      Aortic stenosis

    • B. 

      Aortic insufficiency

    • C. 

      Mitral valve prolapse


  • 204. 
    What types of tissue comprise the valves of the heart?
    • A. 

      Dense irregular connective tissue

    • B. 

      Dense regular connective tissue

    • C. 

      Areolar connective tissue


  • 205. 
    From the left ventricle, through what structure does blood pass?
    • A. 

      Pulmonary trunk

    • B. 

      Aortic semilunar valve

    • C. 

      Bicuspid valve


  • 206. 
    In a fetus, this structure temporarily shunts blood from the pulmonary trunk into the aorta.
    • A. 

      Fossa ovalis

    • B. 

      Ductus arteriosus

    • C. 

      Foramen ovale


  • 207. 
    This electrical event represents repolarization of the ventricle.
    • A. 

      T wave

    • B. 

      S wave

    • C. 

      P wave


  • 208. 
    This electrical event triggers contraction of the atria.
    • A. 

      T wave

    • B. 

      S wave

    • C. 

      P wave


  • 209. 
    The second heart sound represents which of the below events?
    • A. 

      Semilunar valves closing

    • B. 

      Atrioventricular valves opening

    • C. 

      Semilunar valves opening


  • 210. 
    Stimulation of this nerve reduces heart rate.
    • A. 

      Phrenic nerve

    • B. 

      Vagus nerve

    • C. 

      Hypoglossal nerve


  • 211. 
    Which of the below is the most important capillary exchange method?
    • A. 

      Diffusion

    • B. 

      Active transport

    • C. 

      Primary transport


  • 212. 
    What do these chemicals have in common: potassium, hydrogen ions, lactic acid, nitric oxide, and adenosine?
    • A. 

      They are all potent vasoconstrictors

    • B. 

      They are all potent vasodilators

    • C. 

      The negatively affect systole


  • 213. 
    Where can pulse not be felt?
    • A. 

      Arterioles

    • B. 

      Capillaries

    • C. 

      Venules


  • 214. 
    Which of the following hormones would NOT cause an increase in blood pressure?
    • A. 

      ANP

    • B. 

      Angiotensin

    • C. 

      ADH


  • 215. 
    All the veins of the systemic circulation drain into the 
    • A. 

      Superior and inferior vena cava

    • B. 

      Coronary sinus

    • C. 

      All of the above


  • 216. 
    The skeletal muscle and respiratory pumps are used in
    • A. 

      Lymphatic and Immune system

    • B. 

      Cardiovascular system

    • C. 

      All of the above


  • 217. 
    These control the flow of blood through a capillary bed.
    • A. 

      Venules

    • B. 

      Thoroughfare channel

    • C. 

      Precapillary sphinter


  • 218. 
    Which of the following is NOT considered an organ of the immune system?
    • A. 

      Thymus

    • B. 

      Spleen

    • C. 

      Pancreas


  • 219. 
    The pulmonary trunk divides into
    • A. 

      Right pulmonary vein and artery

    • B. 

      Right and left pulmonary arteries

    • C. 

      Pulmonary veins


  • 220. 
    Lack of immune resistance is also known as:
    • A. 

      Innate

    • B. 

      Specific

    • C. 

      Susceptibility


  • 221. 
    Which of these provides a non-specific cellular disease resistance mechanism?
    • A. 

      Macrophages

    • B. 

      B lymphocytes

    • C. 

      T lymphocytes


  • 222. 
    Which of the following is NOT a sign of inflammation?
    • A. 

      Redness

    • B. 

      Swelling

    • C. 

      Mucus production


  • 223. 
    This class of antibodies is mainly found in sweat, tears, breast milk, and GI secretions
    • A. 

      IgG

    • B. 

      IgA

    • C. 

      IgM


  • 224. 
    This action makes microbes more susceptible to phagocytosis.
    • A. 

      Cytolysis

    • B. 

      Opsonization

    • C. 

      Complement


  • 225. 
    These display CD 4 in their membrane and are associated with MHC class II molecules.
    • A. 

      Cytotoxic T Cells

    • B. 

      Helper T Cells

    • C. 

      Memory T Cells


  • 226. 
    This will lead to inflammation, enhancement of phagocytosis and bursting of microbes.
    • A. 

      Apoptosis

    • B. 

      Hapten Activation

    • C. 

      Classical and Alternative complement systems


  • 227. 
    This is characterized by the inability of the immune system to protect the body from a pathogen.
    • A. 

      Immunodeficiency diseases

    • B. 

      Autoimmune disease

    • C. 

      Allergy


  • 228. 
    This class of cells includes macrophages, B cells, and dendritic cells. 
    • A. 

      Antigen presenting cells

    • B. 

      Primary lymphocytes

    • C. 

      Epitope cells


  • 229. 
    Which of the following is responsible for diversity in the immune system?
    • A. 

      MHC

    • B. 

      Hapten

    • C. 

      MHC and antigen presenting cells


  • 230. 
    Which of the following do NOT induce vasodilation and permeability (increased fluid flow) to an infection site.
    • A. 

      Histamines

    • B. 

      Leukotrienes

    • C. 

      Perforin


  • 231. 
    A natural exposure to an infectious agent leads to:
    • A. 

      Passive immunity

    • B. 

      Active immunity

    • C. 

      All of the above


  • 232. 
    This class of antibodies is produced after an initial exposure to antigens.
    • A. 

      IgA

    • B. 

      IgM

    • C. 

      IgD


  • 233. 
    Lymphocytes can recognize
    • A. 

      Self cells

    • B. 

      Foreign Cells

    • C. 

      Natural killer cells


  • 234. 
    Of the following which is considered the body's second major defense.
    • A. 

      Germ cells

    • B. 

      Lymphocytes

    • C. 

      Natural killer cells


  • 235. 
    Which of the following is NOT part of the upper respiratory system?
    • A. 

      Pharynx

    • B. 

      Trachea

    • C. 

      Oral cavity


  • 236. 
    The opening to the pharynx from the mouth is called
    • A. 

      Meatuses

    • B. 

      Fauces

    • C. 

      Vestibule


  • 237. 
    Which of the below tissues maintains open airways in the lower respiratory system?
    • A. 

      Hyaline cartilage

    • B. 

      Stratified squamous epithelium

    • C. 

      Mucus membrane


  • 238. 
    Which of the following is NOT a factor that the rate of pulmonary and systemic gas exchange depends on
    • A. 

      Force of contraction of diaphragm

    • B. 

      Diffusion distance

    • C. 

      Surface area for gas exchange


  • 239. 
    This is the direction of diffusion of gases at the alveoli of the lungs.
    • A. 

      Oxygen into blood, Carbon dioxide into blood

    • B. 

      Oxygen into blood, carbon dioxide out of blood

    • C. 

      Oxygen out of blood, carbon dioxide into blood


  • 240. 
    This means the lungs and the chest wall expand easily
    • A. 

      Low compliance

    • B. 

      High compliance

    • C. 

      High surface tension


  • 241. 
    Which is the dominant method of carbon dioxide transport?
    • A. 

      Bound to hemoglobin

    • B. 

      Dissolved in plasma as bicarbonate ion

    • C. 

      Bound to oxygen


  • 242. 
    Which is a factor that does NOT affect hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen?
    • A. 

      PH of blood

    • B. 

      Temperature

    • C. 

      Respiratory rate


  • 243. 
    When blood pH drops the the amount of oxyhemoglobin___________ and oxygen delivery to the tissue cells ____________.
    • A. 

      Increases, decreases

    • B. 

      Decreases, increases

    • C. 

      Increases, increases


  • 244. 
    This is the direction of diffusion of gases at capillaries near systemic cells.
    • A. 

      Oxygen out of blood, carbon dioxide into blood

    • B. 

      Oxygen into blood, carbon dioxide out of blood

    • C. 

      Oxygen out of blood, carbon dioxide out of blood


  • 245. 
    Exhalation begins when
    • A. 

      Inspiratory muscles relax

    • B. 

      Diaphragm contracts

    • C. 

      Blood circulation is the lowest


  • 246. 
    Which of the following processes is the primary function of the villi of the small intestine?
    • A. 

      Secretion

    • B. 

      Mixing and propulsion

    • C. 

      Absorption


  • 247. 
    The hard palate
    • A. 

      Is the anterior portion of the roof of the mouth

    • B. 

      Is formed by the maxillae and palatine bones

    • C. 

      Is covered by a mucous membrane

    • D. 

      All of the above


  • 248. 
    How many stages of deglutition are there?
    • A. 

      2

    • B. 

      3

    • C. 

      4


  • 249. 
    This layer of the GI tract is composed of areolar connective tissue that binds the mucosa to the muscularis. 
    • A. 

      Submucosa

    • B. 

      Serosa

    • C. 

      Lamina propria


  • 250. 
    This layer functions by secreting a lubricating fluid.
    • A. 

      Mucosa

    • B. 

      Serosa

    • C. 

      Submucosa


  • 251. 
    Which structure of the nephron reabsorbs the most substances?
    • A. 

      Loop of Henle

    • B. 

      PCT

    • C. 

      Collecting duct


  • 252. 
    This portion of the peritoneum drapes over the transverse colon and coils the small intestine.
    • A. 

      Mesentary

    • B. 

      Lesser omentum

    • C. 

      Greater omentum


  • 253. 
    This is the structure of a nephron that filters blood.
    • A. 

      Glomerulus

    • B. 

      PCT

    • C. 

      DCT


  • 254. 
    Deciduous molars are replaced by
    • A. 

      Bicuspids (secondary premolars)

    • B. 

      Molars

    • C. 

      Canines


  • 255. 
    Which of the following secrete gastric acid?
    • A. 

      Chief cells

    • B. 

      Parietal cells

    • C. 

      Mucous cells


  • 256. 
    Why do emotions such as anger or fear slow digestion?
    • A. 

      Because they stimulate the parasympathetic nerves supplying the GI tract

    • B. 

      Because they stimulate the sympathetic nerves that supply the GI tract

    • C. 

      They do not affect digestion


  • 257. 
    How long can food stay in the fundus before being mixed with gastric juices?
    • A. 

      30 minues

    • B. 

      45 minutes

    • C. 

      1 hour


  • 258. 
    Which of the following pancreatic enzymes acts to produce monosaccarides?
    • A. 

      Amylase

    • B. 

      Trypsin

    • C. 

      Nucleosidase


  • 259. 
    Which of the following gastric enzymes digests proteins?
    • A. 

      Trypsin

    • B. 

      Pepsin

    • C. 

      Lipase


  • 260. 
    This layer of the GI tract is composed of areolar connective tissue containing blood and lymph vessels.
    • A. 

      Mucosa

    • B. 

      Lamina propria

    • C. 

      Muscularis


  • 261. 
    Which of the following is a waste product normally excreted by the kidneys?
    • A. 

      Glucose

    • B. 

      Urea

    • C. 

      Cholesterol


  • 262. 
    The capability of the GI tract to move material along its length is called
    • A. 

      Propulsion

    • B. 

      Defacation

    • C. 

      Motility


  • 263. 
    Which of the following accessory organs produces a fluid that functions to emulsify dietary fats?
    • A. 

      Salivary glands

    • B. 

      Liver

    • C. 

      Gall bladder


  • 264. 
    This structure regulates the flow of material into the colon
    • A. 

      Pyloric sphincter

    • B. 

      Ileocecal sphincter

    • C. 

      Appendix


  • 265. 
    Which of the following pancreatic enzymes acts to produce smaller peptides from proteins?
    • A. 

      Pepsin

    • B. 

      Chymotrypsin

    • C. 

      Amylase


  • 266. 
    Which of the following is the primary function of the large intestines?
    • A. 

      Absorption

    • B. 

      Feces formation

    • C. 

      Chemical digestion


  • 267. 
    This hormone functions to counteract the effect of gastric acid in the small intestines.
    • A. 

      Pepsin

    • B. 

      Secretin

    • C. 

      Cholecystokinin


  • 268. 
    Which of the following is the blood vessel that distributes blood at each organ?
    • A. 

      Arteries

    • B. 

      Capillaries

    • C. 

      Veins


  • 269. 
    In extracellular fluid the most abundant cation is
    • A. 

      Cl-

    • B. 

      K+

    • C. 

      Na+


  • 270. 
    In extracellular fluid the most abundant anion is:
    • A. 

      K+

    • B. 

      Cl-

    • C. 

      Na+


  • 271. 
    In intracellular fluid the most abundant cation is:
    • A. 

      Cl-

    • B. 

      K+

    • C. 

      Na+


  • 272. 
    These function to secrete surfactant
    • A. 

      Type II alveolar cells

    • B. 

      Dust cells

    • C. 

      Type I alveolar cells


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