Anatomy And Physiology Questions - Muscle Tissue

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 Anatomy And Physiology Questions - Muscle Tissue
Questions about muscle tissue. Some of the questions are related to the mega case unit "Childhood" (muscle contraction, neuromuscular junction) and some of the questions are related to the "Maturity 1" case unit (differences between cardiac, skeletal and smooth muscles).

  
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  • 1. 
    How much of the total body weight of an average adult is muscle tissue?
    • A. 

      20-30%

    • B. 

      30-40%

    • C. 

      40-50%

    • D. 

      50-60%

    • E. 

      60-70%


  • 2. 
    The three different types of muscle tissue differ from each other by:
    • A. 

      Microscopic anatomy

    • B. 

      Location

    • C. 

      Type of control

    • D. 

      A and B

    • E. 

      A, B and C


  • 3. 
    Which of the following is NOT a major function of muscle tissue?
    • A. 

      Moving blood throughout the body

    • B. 

      Generating heat through contractions

    • C. 

      Stopping the movement of joints

    • D. 

      Promoting movement of body structures

    • E. 

      Storing energy


  • 4. 
    This is the property of muscle that gives it the ability to stretch without damage.
    • A. 

      Electrical excitability

    • B. 

      Contractility

    • C. 

      Extensibility

    • D. 

      Elasticity

    • E. 

      Thermogenesis


  • 5. 
    In an isometric contraction the muscle develops tension but does not
    • A. 

      Lengthen

    • B. 

      Widen

    • C. 

      Shorten

    • D. 

      Conduct electrical current

    • E. 

      Exhibit elasticity


  • 6. 
    This is a band of connective tissue that surrounds muscles.
    • A. 

      Tendon

    • B. 

      Ligament

    • C. 

      Endomysium

    • D. 

      Epimysium

    • E. 

      Perimysium


  • 7. 
    When connective tissue extends as a broad flat layer, the tendon is referred to as
    • A. 

      Perimysium

    • B. 

      Deep fascia

    • C. 

      Fascicle

    • D. 

      Aponeurosis

    • E. 

      Endomysium


  • 8. 
    For every nerve that penetrates a skeletal muscle there are generally how many arteries and veins?
    • A. 

      One artery and one or two veins

    • B. 

      Two arteries and two veins

    • C. 

      Three arteries and two veins

    • D. 

      One artery and three veins

    • E. 

      One artery and a varied amount of veins


  • 9. 
    Axon terminal clusters at the ends of neuromuscular junctions are referred to as:
    • A. 

      Myelin bulbs

    • B. 

      Neuromuscular bulbs

    • C. 

      Synaptic end bulbs

    • D. 

      Axon collateral bulb

    • E. 

      Tubule bulb


  • 10. 
    After the fusion fo myoblasts, the muscle fibre loses its ability to do what?
    • A. 

      Grow

    • B. 

      Lengthen

    • C. 

      Contract

    • D. 

      Go through mitosis

    • E. 

      All of the above


  • 11. 
    The sequence that muscle action potentials must go through to excite a muscle cell is
    • A. 

      Sarcolemma, axon of neuron, T tubules

    • B. 

      T tubules, sarcolemma, myofilament

    • C. 

      Muscle fibre, axon of neuron, myofibrils

    • D. 

      Axon of neuron, sarcolemma, T tubles

    • E. 

      Myofibrils, myofilaments, mitochondria


  • 12. 
    The mitochondria in muscle fibre are arranged
    • A. 

      Randomly

    • B. 

      In circles

    • C. 

      Around the nuclei

    • D. 

      In rows

    • E. 

      Closest to the sarcolemma


  • 13. 
    These are the contractile organelles of the muscle fibre.
    • A. 

      Myofibrils

    • B. 

      Myoglobin

    • C. 

      Mitochondria

    • D. 

      Z disc

    • E. 

      M line


  • 14. 
    This part of the skeletal muscle cell releases calcium when stimulated by the T tubules.
    • A. 

      Myofibrils

    • B. 

      Sarcoplasm

    • C. 

      Terminal cisterns of sarcoplasmic reticulum

    • D. 

      Sarcomeres

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 15. 
    The sarcoplasmic reticulum is used for storing
    • A. 

      Oxygen

    • B. 

      ATP

    • C. 

      Phosphate ions

    • D. 

      Sodium ions

    • E. 

      Calcium ions


  • 16. 
    Which of the following contains thin filaments?
    • A. 

      I band

    • B. 

      A band

    • C. 

      H zone

    • D. 

      A and B

    • E. 

      A, B and C


  • 17. 
    Which of the following contain thick filament?
    • A. 

      Zone of overlap

    • B. 

      A band

    • C. 

      H zone

    • D. 

      B and C

    • E. 

      A, B and C


  • 18. 
    Myofibrils contain
    • A. 

      Contractile proteins

    • B. 

      Regulatory proteins

    • C. 

      Structural proteins

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 19. 
    Which of the following functions as a motor protein in all three types of muscle tissue?
    • A. 

      Actin

    • B. 

      Myosin

    • C. 

      Troponin

    • D. 

      Titin

    • E. 

      Tropomyosin


  • 20. 
    What regulatory proteins can be found on an actin molecule?
    • A. 

      Troponin and titin

    • B. 

      Tropomyosin and troponin

    • C. 

      Myosin and titin

    • D. 

      Titin and tropomyosin

    • E. 

      Titin and actin


  • 21. 
    Titin is found in a sarcomere
    • A. 

      In the A band only

    • B. 

      In the H zone only

    • C. 

      From Z disc to Z disc

    • D. 

      From M line to Z disc

    • E. 

      In the I band only


  • 22. 
    Which of the following is used to reinforce the sarcolemma?
    • A. 

      Troponin

    • B. 

      Tropomyosin

    • C. 

      Myosin

    • D. 

      Actin

    • E. 

      Dystrophin


  • 23. 
    In the sliding filament mechanism, the thin filament is being pulled towards the
    • A. 

      Z disc

    • B. 

      Sarcolemma

    • C. 

      M line

    • D. 

      A band

    • E. 

      I band


  • 24. 
    The sarcoplasmic reticulum releases calcium ions into the cytosol
    • A. 

      At the beginning of a contraction

    • B. 

      Throughout the entire contraction

    • C. 

      During the midpoint only of the contraction

    • D. 

      After the contraction ends

    • E. 

      Not during the contraction


  • 25. 
    What energizes the myosin head?
    • A. 

      The actin filaments

    • B. 

      Calcium ions

    • C. 

      Potassium ions

    • D. 

      ATP hydrolysis reaction

    • E. 

      ADP synthesis


  • 26. 
    What is needed for the contraction cycle to continue?
    • A. 

      Calcium ion

    • B. 

      ATP

    • C. 

      ACh

    • D. 

      All of the above


  • 27. 
    This results from a muscle action potential propagating along the sarcolemma and into the T tubules.
    • A. 

      Summation

    • B. 

      Relaxation

    • C. 

      Excitation

    • D. 

      Release channel

    • E. 

      ATP hydrolysis


  • 28. 
    The signal to excite a muscle cell must cross the neuromuscular junction by the diffusion of acetylcholine across the
    • A. 

      Motor neuron axon

    • B. 

      Synaptic cleft

    • C. 

      Sarcolemma

    • D. 

      Synaptic vesicles

    • E. 

      Myofibril


  • 29. 
    How many molecules of acetylcholine need to bind to open the ion channel of the ACh receptor?
    • A. 

      100

    • B. 

      More than 1000

    • C. 

      10

    • D. 

      50

    • E. 

      An unknown amount


  • 30. 
    How do muscles produce ATP?
    • A. 

      Creatine phosphate

    • B. 

      Anaerobic cellular respiration

    • C. 

      Aerobic cellular respiration

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 31. 
    Creatine phosphate and ATP together create enough energy for a muscle to contract for
    • A. 

      15 seconds

    • B. 

      15 minutes

    • C. 

      1.5 minutes

    • D. 

      Less than 5 seconds

    • E. 

      1 minute


  • 32. 
    What is NOT a factor that can lead to muscle fatigue?
    • A. 

      Build up of lactic acid

    • B. 

      Inadequate levels of creatine phosphate

    • C. 

      Inadequate levels of oxygen

    • D. 

      Inadequate levels of calcium

    • E. 

      Inadequate levels of vitamin B


  • 33. 
    This consists of a somatic motor neuron plus all the skeletal muscle fibres it stimulates.
    • A. 

      Sarcomere

    • B. 

      Motor unit

    • C. 

      Neuromuscular junction

    • D. 

      Somatic motor neuron

    • E. 

      Muscle fibre


  • 34. 
    This is a brief contraction of all muscle fibres in a motor unit in response to a single action potential.
    • A. 

      Recovery oxygen uptake

    • B. 

      Motor unit movement

    • C. 

      Muscle fatigue

    • D. 

      Refractory period

    • E. 

      Twitch contraction


  • 35. 
    This is also referred to as the period of lost excitability.
    • A. 

      Refractory period

    • B. 

      Contraction period

    • C. 

      Latent period

    • D. 

      Relaxation period

    • E. 

      Wave summation


  • 36. 
    A sustained contraction is
    • A. 

      Myogram

    • B. 

      Muscle tone

    • C. 

      Flaccid

    • D. 

      Tetanus

    • E. 

      Twitch


  • 37. 
    Increasing the number of active motor units is called
    • A. 

      Wave summation

    • B. 

      Fused tetanus

    • C. 

      Motor unit recruitment

    • D. 

      Muscle tone

    • E. 

      Flaccid


  • 38. 
    This is the least powerful type of muscle fibre.
    • A. 

      Slow oxidative fibre

    • B. 

      Fast oxidative fibre

    • C. 

      Fast glycolytic fibre

    • D. 

      Slow glycolytic fibre

    • E. 

      Slow Krebs fibre


  • 39. 
    Which of the below structures is found in cardiac muscle tissue but not skeletal muscle tissue?
    • A. 

      Myosin

    • B. 

      Tropomyosin

    • C. 

      Sarcomeres

    • D. 

      Intercalated discs

    • E. 

      Striations


  • 40. 
    Which of the following exhibits autorhythmicity?
    • A. 

      Cardiac muscle fibres

    • B. 

      Actin fibres

    • C. 

      Multi-unit smooth muscle fibres

    • D. 

      Intermediate fibres

    • E. 

      All of the above


  • 41. 
    Smooth muscle tone is due to the prolonged presence of what in the cytosol?
    • A. 

      ATP

    • B. 

      Calcium ions

    • C. 

      Phosphate ions

    • D. 

      Myoglobin

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 42. 
    Hyperplasia is
    • A. 

      An increase in the size of muscle fibres

    • B. 

      A decrease in the size of muscle fibres

    • C. 

      An increase in the number of muscle fibres

    • D. 

      A decrease in the number of the muscle fibres

    • E. 

      A sustained size of muscle fibres


  • 43. 

    On the diagram, where is the deep fascia?
    • A. 

      A

    • B. 

      B

    • C. 

      C

    • D. 

      D

    • E. 

      E


  • 44. 

    In the diagram, what all comes together as one broad sheet of connective tissue to make the tendon?
    • A. 

      C

    • B. 

      D

    • C. 

      H

    • D. 

      C and D

    • E. 

      C, D and H


  • 45. 

    In the diagram, what is made from dense irregular connective tissue?
    • A. 

      F

    • B. 

      G

    • C. 

      I

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 46. 

    In the diagram, where is the muscle fibre located?
    • A. 

      E

    • B. 

      F

    • C. 

      G

    • D. 

      H

    • E. 

      I


  • 47. 

    In the diagram, what is made from dense regular connective tissue?
    • A. 

      A

    • B. 

      B

    • C. 

      C

    • D. 

      D

    • E. 

      All of the above


  • 48. 

    In the diagram, where is the epimysium located?
    • A. 

      A

    • B. 

      B

    • C. 

      D

    • D. 

      B and D

    • E. 

      H


  • 49. 

    In the diagram, which parts make up the neuromuscular junction?
    • A. 

      A, B, E

    • B. 

      C, A, B, E

    • C. 

      B, E

    • D. 

      A, B, C, D, E

    • E. 

      C, E


  • 50. 

    In the diagram, where is the axon collateral?
    • A. 

      A

    • B. 

      B

    • C. 

      C

    • D. 

      D

    • E. 

      E


  • 51. 

    In the diagram, where is the axon terminal?
    • A. 

      A

    • B. 

      B

    • C. 

      C

    • D. 

      D

    • E. 

      E


  • 52. 

    In the diagram, where would you find stored calcium ions?
    • A. 

      B

    • B. 

      D

    • C. 

      E

    • D. 

      F

    • E. 

      K


  • 53. 

    In the diagram, where would you find the largest amount of glycogen?
    • A. 

      A

    • B. 

      D

    • C. 

      F

    • D. 

      M

    • E. 

      B


  • 54. 

    In the diagram, what structure is filled with mostly interstitial fluid?
    • A. 

      G

    • B. 

      E

    • C. 

      D

    • D. 

      F

    • E. 

      B


  • 55. 

    In the diagram, where is the mitochondrion?
    • A. 

      A

    • B. 

      B

    • C. 

      C

    • D. 

      D

    • E. 

      E


  • 56. 

    In the diagram, where is the endomysium?
    • A. 

      K

    • B. 

      J

    • C. 

      L

    • D. 

      M

    • E. 

      A


  • 57. 

    In the diagram, where is the thick filament?
    • A. 

      G

    • B. 

      H

    • C. 

      I

    • D. 

      J

    • E. 

      A


  • 58. 

    In the diagram, what is the basic functional unit of a myofibril?
    • A. 

      B

    • B. 

      C

    • C. 

      F

    • D. 

      B and C

    • E. 

      B, C and F


  • 59. 

    In the diagram, which is only a structural protein?
    • A. 

      B

    • B. 

      C

    • C. 

      E

    • D. 

      B and C

    • E. 

      B, C and E


  • 60. 

    In the diagram, which are regulatory proteins?
    • A. 

      B

    • B. 

      C

    • C. 

      E

    • D. 

      B, C and E

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 61. 

    In the diagram, which are motor proteins?
    • A. 

      C

    • B. 

      A

    • C. 

      E

    • D. 

      D

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 62. 

    In the diagram, where is the A band?
    • A. 

      G

    • B. 

      H

    • C. 

      I

    • D. 

      J

    • E. 

      D


  • 63. 

    In the diagram, where is the I band?
    • A. 

      G

    • B. 

      H

    • C. 

      I

    • D. 

      J

    • E. 

      D


  • 64. 

    In the diagram, where is the M line?
    • A. 

      A

    • B. 

      D

    • C. 

      H

    • D. 

      J

    • E. 

      I


  • 65. 

    In the diagram, which parts move to the centre of the sarcomere (closer together) when the fibre contracts?
    • A. 

      A

    • B. 

      D

    • C. 

      J

    • D. 

      C

    • E. 

      F


  • 66. 

    In the diagram, where is the zone of overlap?
    • A. 

      E

    • B. 

      F

    • C. 

      G

    • D. 

      H

    • E. 

      I


  • 67. 

    In the diagram, where is thin filament found?
    • A. 

      B

    • B. 

      C

    • C. 

      E

    • D. 

      B and C

    • E. 

      C and E


  • 68. 

    In the diagram, where is thick filament found?
    • A. 

      C

    • B. 

      E

    • C. 

      A

    • D. 

      B

    • E. 

      All of the above


  • 69. 

    In the diagram, where are actin proteins found?
    • A. 

      A

    • B. 

      B

    • C. 

      D

    • D. 

      E

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 70. 

    In the diagram, where is the H zone?
    • A. 

      C

    • B. 

      E

    • C. 

      D

    • D. 

      A

    • E. 

      B


  • 71. 
    What are the four steps of the muscle contraction cycle in order?
    • A. 

      ATP hydrolysis - attachment of myosin to actin forming crossbridges - the powerstroke - detachment of myosin from actin

    • B. 

      Attachment of myosin to actin forming crossbridges - ATP hydrolysis - the powerstroke - detachment of myosin from actin

    • C. 

      Detachment of myosin from actin - ATP hydrolysis - the powerstroke - attachment of myosin to actin forming crossbridges

    • D. 

      ATP hydrolysis - detachment of myosin from actin - the powerstroke - attachment of myosin to actin forming crossbridges

    • E. 

      The powerstroke - attachment of myosin to actin forming crossbridges - ATP hydrolysis - detachment of myosin from actin


  • 72. 
    How many types of smooth muscle tissues are there?
    • A. 

      One

    • B. 

      Two

    • C. 

      Three

    • D. 

      Four

    • E. 

      Five


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