Understand how differing points of view affect spoken messages.
Recognize differences between spoken and written language.
Learn how to adapt spoken language for informal occasions.
Expand their speaking and listening vocabularies.
Students discuss folk tales from various countries and then read aloud and discuss descriptions of the geography and cultural characteristics of each country.
The teacher guides students to discuss some features that folk tales of various countries have in common as well as some of the unique features of each culture's folk tales.
Students read aloud "folk tales" they have written themselves and then review folk tales from various countries and decide which culture's folk tales most closely resemble their own.
The teacher helps each student select a folk tale, present it to the class, and answer any questions that other students in the class may have about the folk tale's plot or characters.
Encouraging the student to begin by describing the beginning and the end of the story
Asking the student to identify the most important episode in the story
Providing the student with visual aids to use in explaining what happened in the story
Asking the student to explain the consequences of the characters' actions
Level of reading fluency.
Use of word identification strategies.
Ability to apply phonics skills.
Knowledge of comprehension strategies.
Helping them identify text structures.
Promoting development of their evaluative comprehension skills.
Helping them identify story elements.
Promoting development of their inferential comprehension skills.
Each student pretends to read a picture book by telling a story while turning the pages.
The teacher displays a big book and points to each word as she reads the book aloud.
Each student points to each word in a written sentence, and then the teacher reads aloud the sentence.
The teacher models for students how to move manipulatives to count the words in a spoken sentence.
Strengthening students' phonemic awareness skills
Having the students engage in repeated readings of familiar texts at their independent reading levels
Reinforcing students' knowledge of letter-sound correspondence
Helping the students identify each word by dividing it into separate syllables or clusters of letters
Both partners are capable of reading aloud with no more than 5 word recognition errors per 100 words of text.
The students have previewed and selected themselves.
Both partners are capable of reading aloud with no more than 25 word recognition errors per 100 words of text.
The students have been reading in connection with content-area study.
Urging Alicia to take detailed notes as she reads to reinforce her understanding of the historical context depicted in the text
Providing Alicia with opportunities to talk about how her own experience of moving to the United States compares with the pioneers' experiences described in the assigned readings
Drawing Alicia's attention to facts and concepts that feature prominently in more than one of the assigned selections to help her recognize which ideas are most important
Encouraging Alicia to write her first draft of the assigned report in Spanish and then translate it into English
Have the students concentrate on transitional words to keep track of the relationship among ideas.
Encourage the students to focus on the last sentence of each paragraph to extract summary information.
Have the students read each assignment slowly, looking up definitions of unfamiliar terms.
Encourage the students to preview the text to anticipate its content and recall related knowledge.
Students read two different texts that address the same topic and then meet in small discussion groups to compare/contrast the two texts.
The teacher models for students how to write a complex sentence that compares/contrasts two different items or ideas.
Each student outlines the main ideas and significant details in two comparison/contrast texts on a given subject.
The teacher helps students create a Venn diagram to summarize a comparison/contrast text.
Working with partners, students convert passive sentences to the active voice; then the teacher guides students to discuss how these changes affect tone and meaning.
Students write a paragraph on an assigned topic and then identify whether each sentence in the paragraph is in the active or the passive voice.
Working in small groups, students use active and passive sentences provided by the teacher as models to develop their own sets of active and passive sentences.
Students keep ongoing lists of memorable sentences they encounter over several days and decide whether each sentence is in the active or passive voice.
Is in the transitional stage of spelling development and would benefit from instruction on vowel digraphs.
Lacks an understanding of lettersound correspondence and would benefit from basic phonics instruction.
Is in the phonetic stage of spelling development and would benefit from phonemic awareness instruction.
Lacks the ability to distinguish vowel sounds and would benefit from varied oral language activities.
Alice, who often needs the teacher's help in choosing a topic to write about
Bernardo, who repeatedly confuses words that have the same pronunciation but are spelled differently
Delia, who has difficulty making logical transitions between paragraphs
Neil, who is often discouraged by the time-consuming process of revision
Asking students to think about what parts of their story are most important and whether they have described these parts clearly and effectively
Encouraging each student to place an appropriate limit on the length of his or her story based on the number of characters and events the student intends to include
Having students brainstorm words related to the subject of the stories they are writing and decide which words might be incorporated in their work
Suggesting that students begin each writing period by drawing an illustration that depicts the main story idea they wish to convey in their writing for that day
Comment briefly on the content, form, and mechanics of your partner's writing.
Concentrate on helping your partner develop clear and concise topic sentences for every paragraph.
Suggest improvements in the mechanics of writing, but avoid criticizing your partner's ideas.
Respond to your partner's planning so far, and suggest ideas that he or she may not have considered.
Students work in small groups to prepare their own exhibits by using photographs from newspapers and magazines to tell a story.
Each student researches one photojournalist featured at the exhibit and presents a brief report on his or her work in the field.
Students write an essay about the photojournalism exhibit at the museum, analyzing particular photographs they liked.
Each student writes a simulated magazine article and creates a drawing or illustration to accompany the article.
Focusing students' attention on differences between visual messages and oral communication
Helping students identify common film cliches by focusing attention on key images in short film segments
Focusing students' attention on the relationship between visual imagery and narration in film
Helping students interpret and evaluate visual images in film by focusing attention on visual details
Students take detailed notes while reading texts written at their instructional reading levels and then answer comprehension questions.
The teacher models the process of applying word identification strategies while reading aloud a grade-appropriate text.
Students read an age-appropriate story and then create a story map to describe the plot, characters, and setting of the story.
The teacher displays a passage, reads it aloud, and models a thinkaloud approach by pausing to question herself about the meaning of what she is reading.
Distinguish fact from opinion.
Compare the effectiveness of different courses of action.
Evaluate motives behind actions.
Distinguish alternative solutions to problems.
Critical analysis of literature
Understanding of historical trends in literary forms
Analysis of the effects of word choice on readers' responses
Understanding of literary devices such as caricature and foreshadowing
Encourage students to ask themselves questions similar to those in the story tree when reading or writing stories independently.
Have students check to make sure that the book reports they write reflect the format outlined in the story tree.
Advise students to copy the story tree into their reading journal so they can refer to it when reading independently.
Help students create concept webs to analyze stories, and then guide the students to compare the webs with the story tree.
Should the branches of a story tree for historical fiction contain more questions than the branches of a story tree for fantasy?
How would you rearrange the questions in the fantasy story tree to make a story tree for historical fiction?
Do you think it will be easier or more difficult to construct a story tree for historical fiction than it was to make a fantasy story tree?
Which branch or branches of the fantasy story tree contain questions that could also be applied to a story tree for historical fiction?
Locate graphic information about a specific topic in an encyclopedia or other reference book.
Create their own tables and charts summarizing the results of a peer survey on an age-appropriate topic.
Collaborate with a partner to make an outline summarizing the features of different graphic formats.
Make accurate copies of tables, charts, maps, and other graphic information provided by the teacher.
Stopping after he had read the title and setting a purpose for reading the selection
Asking himself if he understood what was meant by the last sentence in the selection
Going back and rereading any sentence that contained an unfamiliar word to see if he could determine the word's meaning
Reminding himself to read more slowly when he came to portions of the text he found difficult to understand
Dividing the chart into numbered rows to clarify the organization of information related to the assigned text
Adding a fourth column labeled "What We Still Want To Learn About This Topic"
Dividing the chart into rows that are prelabeled by the teacher with key words reflecting important concepts in the assigned text
Relabeling the first column to read "What We Learned About This Text By Previewing It"
Reorganizing the paper to make the sequence of ideas more logical
Adding specific details in support of the main idea of the paper
Enriching the paper with an extended description of the setting
Establishing a clear audience and purpose for the paper
Individual students read an ageappropriate biography of a famous person before beginning to write.
The teacher provides students with a checklist of guidelines for organizing their personal essay.
Individual students describe their experiences to a partner before beginning to write.
The teacher prepares students for the essay by providing a mini-lesson on the use of written language conventions.
Presenting textual information in several visual formats makes the information more accessible to students by accommodating diverse learning styles.
Diagramming textual information improves students' writing skills by promoting their use of effective text structures and accurate writing conventions.
Organizing reading material in new ways highlights connections among ideas and enhances students' shortterm and long-term recall of the material.
Arranging textual information in graphic formats encourages students to use context cues to clarify the meaning of content-specific vocabulary in the text.
Document your main ideas by pausing periodically to describe the sources you consulted when preparing your oral presentation.
Vary the sentence structure of your oral presentation by incorporating complex sentences whenever possible.
Summarize information from relevant literary texts rather than including any direct quotations in your oral presentation.
Provide strong supporting examples to clarify and illustrate the main ideas of your oral presentation.
Avoid visual distractions by limiting visual aids to the opening and closing sections of your oral presentation.
Minimize the use of text in visual aids and use concrete, precise wording to facilitate readability.
Maintain visual continuity by using no more than two different colors in the visual aids.
Make sure to introduce a different visual aid for each new idea in your oral presentation.
Analyze the relationship between news and politics in television newscasts.
Consider how visual images can be used to highlight ideas and influence viewers' perceptions.
Identify design elements and analyze their function in television newscasts.
Understand the importance of ensuring that background images are visually appealing.
Two independent clauses joined by a coordinate conjunction.
Two or more phrases that appear in a series.
A dependent phrase from an independent clause that follows it.
Nonrestrictive phrases from the rest of the sentence.
Helping the student spell words containing vowel digraphs
Teaching the student to recognize and spell words that are pronounced the same but spelled differently
Helping the student spell words containing consonant blends
Teaching the student to recognize and spell words containing common affixes
Prompting students to recognize and describe the difference between main ideas and supporting details.
Guiding students to identify and describe the logical structure of an informational text.
Helping students understand the difference between recording and analyzing information.
Providing students with a method for double checking the accuracy of their notes.