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A consortium of nations to govern China
International acknowledgement of China’s right to exclude the trade of any nation
Recognition of Chinese territorial gains in Manchuria
Reduction of foreign tariffs on Chinese goods
equal commercial access by all nations to the existing spheres of influence in China
An aristocracy posed no danger to the Republic
The National Republicans alone knew what was right for the people
Political participation by the common man should be increased
Political rights should be granted to women
Franchise restrictions should be racially neutral
Respond positively to the recent Latin American revolutions
Rule out United States involvement in South America
Provide a rationale for United States intervention in the Isthmus of Panama
Warn European nations against further colonial ventures in the Western Hemisphere
Encourage Britain to help the fledgling Latin America states
Turnpikes and canals
Railroads and steamships
Turnpikes and railroads
Clipper ships and turnpikes
Canals and railroads
Each was given 40 acres of land and a mule by the Union government.
All were immediately granted political equality by the Emancipation Proclamation.
The majority entered sharecropping arrangements with former masters or other nearby planters.
They were required to pass a literacy test before being granted United States citizenship.
They supported the passage of Black Codes to ensure their economic and political rights.
The restoration of the power of the federal judiciary
The legality of the national banking system
The political and legal status of the former Confederate states
The relationship between the United States and Britain
The proposed annexation of Columbia
Denounced business combinations in restraint of trade
Sanctioned separate but equal public facilities for African Americans
Declared that the Fourteenth Amendment applied principally to the protection of corporations
Defined the Constitution as color blind
Empowered Congress to cancel treaties with American Indian tribes unilaterally
City mobs raided flour supplies in Philadelphia
Debt-ridden farmers attacked courts in western Massachusetts
Indians raided frontier settlements in Virginia
Squatters terrorized proprietors in New York
Vigilantes in South Carolina patrolled the frontier
Improvement in the manners of the lower classes
Faith in human capacity to achieve a better life on earth through conscious acts of will
The rewards of church membership and regular attendance at Sunday services
Allegiance to the political tenets of Jacksonian Democracy
Belief in the inevitability of economic progress
Freedom of the seas
Freedom of speech
The institution of slavery
Presidential power in foreign affairs
They were willing to accept slavery where it existed but opposed further expansion to the territories.
They were active supporters of complete abolition.
They favored continued importation of slaves from Africa.
They advocated expansion of the slave system to provide cheap labor for northern factories.
They advocated complete social and political equality for all races in the United States.
It established that Congress had the sole right to formulate national legislation
It supported Thomas Jefferson in his claim to have “executive review.”
It backed William Marbury in his request for a bank carrier.
It affirmed the principle of judicial review.
It determined the Senate’s right to “advise and consent.”
Women would be responsible for raising their children, especially their sons, to be virtuous citizens of the young republic
Voting would soon become a privilege granted to educated and/or married women
The first duty of mothers was to serve the needs of the government
Wives and mothers would be welcome in the emerging political parties
Women’s virtues had been the inspiration for the ideals of the Revolution
It opened the Mississippi River permanently to western farmers.
It ended the threat of American Indian raids on western settlements.
It was made possible by the failure of Napoleon’s forces to suppress a slave revolt in Haiti.
It showed Jefferson’s considerable flexibility in dealing with foreign policy.
It violated Jefferson’s own views concerning the strict construction of the Constitution.
Acknowledged the legitimacy of the Mexican government’s claim to Texas
Feared that debate over the admission of Texas would ignite controversy about slavery
Was ideologically opposed to territorial expansion
Could find no support within his own party for admitting Texas
Believed that admitting Texas would violate international law
Opposition to the further extension of slavery into the territories
Immediate emancipation of the slaves
Repeal of Whig economic policies
Restriction of immigration
Acknowledgement of popular sovereignty as the basis for organizing federal territories
Fundamentalist religious beliefs
Neutral stance toward the belligerents of the First World War
Advocacy of free and unlimited coinage of silver
Opposition to teaching the theory of evolution in public schools
Excessively cold winters
Federal recognition of American Indian land claims
A drop in cattle prices at stockyards
Production of crops for distant markets
labor organizer and Socialist Party activist
Leader of the People’s Party
Reformer who encouraged new immigrants to homestead
Playwright whose dramas celebrated the assimilation of immigrants into American society
Journalist and photographer who publicized the wretched conditions in which many immigrants lived
The acquisition of Puerto Rico for colonization by emancipated slaves
A movement of free African Americans to Haiti
The passage of a federal law increasing the severity of punishments for slave rebellions
An increased fear of slave revolts in the South
A military expedition of southern slaveholders to restore French rule in Haiti
They were primarily engaged in military campaigns west of the Mississippi.
They were limited to combat duty.
They were barred from receiving awards for valor in combat.
For most of the war, they were paid less than white soldiers of equal rank.
For most of the war, they were led by African American officers.
Seek state regulation of railways
Limit production of crops
Organize cooperative marketing societies
Form a third political party
Advocate inflation of the currency
Request troops from states
Amend the Articles
Use troops without congressional approval
Balance the federal budget
Advocate an antilynching bill
Pursue an imperialistic foreign policy
Arbitrate a labor dispute
Freed African Americans from the South
It was built as a series of compromises.
It provided exact specifications covering all aspects of government.
It was a revised version of the English Constitution.
It included a Bill of Rights.
It allowed all male citizens over the age of twenty-one to vote.
Abolishing the bank of the United States
Reducing the scope of activities of the federal government
Discontinuing the funding of state debts
Increasing the size of the United States military
Adopting the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions at the national level
The prohibition of slavery in Louisiana Purchase territory
The primacy of federal law over state-legislated Black Codes
The abolition of the international slave trade
The prohibition of slavery in lands acquired from Mexico in the Mexican War
Federal return of fugitive slaves
European farms and villages
The administration’s desire to benefit from European colonial inroads in the region
The President’s goal of founding an effective Pan-American organization to deal with hemispheric issues
Congress’ determination to ameliorate the hostility engendered by Theodore Roosevelt’s Big Stick policy
Concern for the development of democracy and the protection of civil rights in the region
Concern for United States economic and strategic interests in the region
Immediate American aid to the Allied powers
Acknowledgment of American neutral rights on the high seas
American trade with Europe on a cash-and-carry basis only
A strict embargo on trade with all warring nations
Strict prohibition of American travel on the ships of belligerents
Strengthen the legislative branch against the executive branch
Strengthen the executive branch against the legislative branch
Ensure the independence of the judiciary
Protect the sovereignty of the states
Insulate the presidency from the popular will
Promote business enterprise
Restrict federal powers of taxation
Restrict corporate development
Expand state control of economic activity
Reduce federal control of the economy
close links with the antislavery and temperance movements
Conventions in the Northeast and the Midwest, but not the South
Involvement of middle class women
A broad-based platform of legal and educational rights
Demands for equal compensation for equal work
Fugitive Slave Act
Eleventh Amendment to the Constitution
Strengthened the position of big business.
Strengthened the regulatory powers of the federal government.
Strengthened the position of organized labor.
Protected the civil and political rights of African Americans.
Protected the civil and political rights of women.
More than 100 slaves
50 to 100 slaves
10 to 50 slaves
5 to 10 slaves
Prohibited slavery in all the territory of the Louisiana Purchase.
Provided for admission to the Union of all future states in pairs of one free, one slave.
Allowed Maine to enter the Union as a free state.
Finally settled the question of congressional power over slavery in the territories
Provided for the annexation of Texas.
American Federation of Labor
People’s Party (Populists)
Upheld segregated railroad facilities.
Declared civil rights legislation unconstitutional.
Upheld literacy testing as a condition of voting in federal elections.
Outlawed segregation in public schools.
Restricted the right to purchase or sell land.
Payment of a $20 million indemnity to Spain
Humanitarian efforts on behalf of concentration camp victims
Acquisition of the Philippine Islands
Liberation of Cuba from Spanish control
Increases in the size of the army and navy
Encouraging immigration from Ireland and Germany
Encouraging Chinese contract laborers to emigrate to the United States
Settling White Americans on western lands
Settling American Indians on reservations
Transporting African Americans to Africa
Its policy of organizing only skilled craftsmen
Its organization of all workers within a single industry into one union
Its policy of racial inclusiveness
Its campaign for a minimum wage
Its active recruitment of immigrant workers
Strengthen traditional tribal authority
Relocate all American Indians to the Oklahoma territory
Encourage American Indian emigration to Canada
Encourage American Indians to preserve their languages and religions
Break up tribal landholdings
Advocacy of territorial expansion
Handling of the Barbary Coast pirates
Reduction of the size of the military
Reduction of the national debt
Adherence to neutrality in dealing with England and France
Congress could abolish slavery at will.
National legislation could not limit the spread of slavery in the territories.
The rights of all people are protected by the Constitution.
Slaves residing in a free state automatically became free.
Through squatter sovereignty, a territory had the sole right to determine the status of slavery within its territorial limits.
African American voting rights
An end to racial segregation
Support for African American self-help
Educational equality for African Americans
Racial integration of religious organizations
Dismissal of union workers
Introduction of scrip in part payment of wages
Retraction of its promise to provide an employee insurance and retirement plan
Employment of immigrant labor at less than a living wage
Cutting of wages without proportionate cuts in company housing rents
The gradual emancipation laws of individual states
Manumission granted for Revolutionary War service
Manumission granted by slaveholders’ wills
Natural increase among free African Americans
Federal constitutional provisions for emancipation
Attack on the Tariff of Abominations
Defense of the principle of national union
Assertion of the idea of State’s rights
Apology for New England’s disloyalty in the War of 1812
Praise for President Andrew Jackson
Divided Native American tribal lands into individual holdings.
Promoted the preservation of Native American cultural identity.
Granted immediate citizenship to Native Americans.
Set up the reservation system.
Forbade the use of Native American languages in public schools.
John Humphrey Noyes
Southern Protestant farmers
Roman Catholic immigrants
Unskilled wage earners
Confederate war veterans
Admitted Texas to the Union as a slave state
Admitted California to the Union under the principles of popular sovereignty
Prohibited slavery in the District of Columbia
Enacted a stringent fugitive slave law
Adjusted the Texas-Mexico boundary
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Carrie Chapman Catt
Represented the Union’s deepest thrust into southern territory
Forestalled the possibility of European intervention
Resulted in the border states joining the Confederacy
Marked the first use of Black troops by the Union army
Confirmed George McClellan’s status as the leading Union general
Protecting the powers of the southern state governments established under Andrew Johnson
Protecting legislation guaranteeing civil rights to former slaves
Guaranteeing all citizens the right to vote
Establishing the Freedom’s Bureau
A republican form of government could succeed only in small countries
Limitations on the popular will lead to tyranny
A weak central government was the only guarantee of individual rights
A large republic offered the best protection of minority rights
Political parties were crucial to the success of the new government
Allowed the United States to sue the port of New Orleans
Ceded Florida to the United States
Invited Americans to settle in Texas
Opened Spanish Caribbean ports to American trade
Withdrew Spain’s military forces from the Caribbean
Jim Crow segregation and its effect on African Americans
The plight of Great Plains farmers in the 1890’s
Immigrant urban poverty and despair in the 1890’s
The corruption in city political machines in the 1890’s
The rise of industrial capitalists in the late nineteenth century
Return freed slaves to Africa
Recruit immigrant labor for American factories
Assimilate recent immigrants into American society
Extend United States influence to overseas colonies
Promote western expansion by funding internal improvements
A decline in the number of tenant farmers
A decline in foreclosures on Midwestern
An increase in wholesale prices for farm products
An increase in acres under cultivation
A decline in the number of farm cooperatives
The creation of the “independent treasury”
An expansion of credit and speculation
The failure of state banks
The establishment of modern banking regulations
The creation of a federal deficit